- The Legal History of Eritrea
- Eritrea in 2011
- Hierarchical Display of Eritrea
- Concept of Eritrea
- Characteristics of Eritrea
The Legal History of Eritrea
This section provides an overview of Eritrea
Eritrea in 2011
United States views on international law (based on the document “Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law”): On December 5, 2011, acting pursuant to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the Security Council adopted Resolution 2023 imposing additional sanctions on Eritrea. U.N. Doc. S/RES/2023. The Council noted with concern the findings of the Somalia/Eritrea Monitoring Group report in 2011 that Eritrea continued to provide support to terrorist groups, including Al-Shabaab, and that a terrorist attack had been planned to disrupt the African Union summit in Addis Ababa in 2011. In remarks to the press following adoption of the new resolution, excerpted below, Ambassador Rice welcomed the action. Ambassador Rice’s remarks are available at (internet link) usun.state.gov/briefing/statements/2011/178292.htm.
The United States is pleased with the adoption today of Resolution 2023, imposing additional sanctions on Eritrea for its failure to comply with its obligations under previous Security Council resolutions, including 1907, passed two years ago this month.** This resolution underscores the international community’s condemnation of Eritrea’s destabilizing behavior in the Horn and its support for terrorism. It strengthens the provisions of 1907 and imposes additional obligations on Eritrea and limits its ability to continue to use the mining sector and the diaspora tax to fund its illicit activities.
Ambassador Rice provided further background on the new resolution in her explanation of the United States’ vote on Resolution 2023, excerpted below and available at (internet link) usun.state.gov/briefing/statements/2011/178287.htm.
The United States welcomes the Council’s decision to impose new sanctions on Eritrea. Today we have sent a clear message to the Government of Eritrea that it must cease all illegal actions threatening international peace and stability in the Horn of Africa.
As we adopt this resolution, we should recall the events that led us to this decision. Exactly two years ago this month, the Council adopted Resolution 1907 in response to a disturbing pattern of behavior: Eritrea was not engaging constructively in resolving its border dispute with Djibouti, and, most alarmingly, it was providing political, financial and logistical support to armed groups seeking to undermine peace in Somalia. The Council imposed targeted sanctions on Eritrea to demonstrate that Eritrea’s actions were unacceptable and would have negative consequences.
Mr. President, that was two years ago. What has happened since? As we heard again this morning, we have continually received evidence of Eritrean support for extremist groups in the region. Eritrea still has not resolved its border dispute with Djibouti. The UN’s Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group has documented Eritrea’s support for terrorism, including an appalling, planned attack on the January 2011 African Union Summit in Addis Ababa. According to the monitoring group, Eritrea is financing all of these activities through illicit means, including threats and the extortion of a “diaspora tax” from people of Eritrean descent living overseas.
In direct response, this Council has today imposed tougher sanctions. the U.S. goal is to show Eritrea that it will pay an ever higher price for its actions. Building on Resolution 1907, this resolution imposes new obligations on Eritrea, including to cease illicit practices to extort funds from its diaspora.
We particularly welcome the Council’s expression of concern over the potential use of mining revenues to fund violations of Security Council resolutions. The United States will work with Somalia, the Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group, and the Somalia and Eritrea Sanctions Committee to develop voluntary guidelines for companies from the United States and other Member States. Such guidelines can provide useful advice, best practices and information to help companies protect themselves from inadvertently contributing to Eritrea’s violations. We intend to draw on this work in advising the U.S. own companies.
In addition to the obligations set forth in this and previous United Nations resolutions, today’s resolution, 2023, provides further opportunities for Eritrea to show its good faith, including through releasing information on the status of Djiboutian combatants missing in action since June 2008. Eritrea must cease all direct and indirect efforts to destabilize States, particularly through support for armed opposition and terrorist groups, and it should cooperate fully with the Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group.
Mr. President, we hope this tightening of sanctions will finally convince the Government of Eritrea to reorder its priorities. The United States believes that the international community’s concerns can and should be resolved through political engagement and dialogue. But Eritrea must clearly and affirmatively prove-not through its words but through its actionsthat it is ready to reemerge as a law-abiding state. Until that time, the Council and United Nations Member States are committed to enforcing robustly the sanctions we have applied. We hope that Eritrea does not squander this second chance to change course.
In relation to the international law practice and Eritrea in this world legal Encyclopedia, please see the following section:
Sanctions, Export Controls, International Restrictions
About this subject:
Imposition, Implementation, and Modification of Sanctions and Certain Other Restrictions
Under this topic, in the Encyclopedia, find out information on Armed Conflict: Restoration of Peace and Security. Note: there is detailed information and resources, in relation with these topics during the year 2011, covered by the entry, in this law Encyclopedia, about Eritrea
- Export Controls
- International Restrictions
- Imposition Of Sanctions
- Implementation Of Sanctions
- Modification Of Sanctions
- Armed Conflict
- World Security
- Legal System
Notes and References
- ** Editor’s note: For discussion of Resolution 1907, United Nations Doc. S/RES/1907, see this world legal encyclopedia in relation to the year 2009 at 613-15.
- Legal Biography
- Legal Traditions
- Historical Laws
- History of Law
- Eritrea in the Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History (Oxford University Press)
- The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History (Oxford University Press)
- Eritrea in the Dictionary of Concepts in History, by Harry Ritter
- A Short History of Western Legal Theory, by John Kelly
Hierarchical Display of Eritrea
Concept of Eritrea
See the dictionary definition of Eritrea.
Characteristics of Eritrea
Translation of Eritrea
- Spanish: Eritrea
- French: Érythrée
- German: Eritrea
- Italian: Eritrea
- Portuguese: Eritreia
- Polish: Erytrea
Thesaurus of Eritrea
- Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon
- United States
- Transatlantic relations
- US Virgin Islands
- Mariana Islands
- Northern Mariana Islands
- Puerto Rico
- American Samoa
- Saint Pierre and Miquelon
- Democratic Republic of East Timor
- Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
- Portuguese Timor
- United Republic of Tanzania
- Northern Rhodesia
- Republic of Zambia
- Republic of Niue
- Republic of Guinea-Bissau
- Portuguese Guinea
- Republic of South Africa
- South African Republic
- Republic of Sierra Leone
- Republic of Senegal
- State of Eritrea