Economic Growth

Futureless Economic Growth (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Futureless Economic Growth means: Futureless growth that is accompanied by a waste of economic and natural resources needed to sustain life for future generations. Ruthless Economic Growth (in the Human Development […]


Ecosystem (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Ecosystem means: the system of interactions between living organisms and their environment. Resources See Also Economic Development Social development

Urban Population

Urban Population (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Urban Population means: refers to the de facto population living in areas classified as urban according to the criteria used by each area or country. Data refer to 1 July of the year indicated. See Population, total. Resources […]

Natural Resources

Minerals Environment and Natural Resources Includes Acid Rain, Air Quality, Coal, Conservation, Energy, Fisheries, Forests, Hazardous Waste, Land Use, Resources, Oceanography, Oil Spills, Parks, Pesticides, Petroleum, Pollution, Recreation, Rivers, Solar Energy, Toxic Substances, Trails, […]

International Monetary Fund

International Monetary Fund Outline The UN Monetary and Financial Conference met in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, from 1 to 20 July 1944. The Bretton Woods Agreement announced the establishment of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for […]


Unemployment (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Unemployment means: refers to all people above a specified age who are not in paid employment or self-employed, but are available for work and have taken specific steps to seek paid employment or self-employment. Long-term […]


The Legal History of Poverty This section provides an overview of Poverty Human Poverty Index For Selected High-incomeoecd Countries (hpi-2) (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Human Poverty Index For Selected High-incomeoecd Countries (hpi-2) means: _ composite index measuring […]

Health Care

Health Care in the CEDAW Article 12: of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) stipulates, in relation to Health Care, that all countries are required to eliminate discrimination in the field of health care. Women should be ensured equal access […]


Summary of Monopoly The condition in which a given product or service can be obtained only from a single supplier that is free to use its market position to exact excessive prices for the product or service it controls. The Sherman Act of 1890 makes monopolies and attempts to monopolize […]

Basic Needs

Summary of Basic Needs

A code word for official development ASSISTANCE (read this legal term for further details) programs aimed toward the improvement of health care, education, nutrition, and like fundamental services in poorer nations. The basic needs concept has been criticized by some […]


Corruption Definition Corruption, wrongdoing by those in a special position of trust. The term is commonly applied to self-benefiting conduct by public officials and others dedicated to public service. (1) Corruption is not a technical term; it is not considered a criminal offence in most […]

Public Debt

Other Private Flows (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Other Private Flows means: _ category combining non-debtcreating portfolio equity investment flows (the sum of country funds, depository receipts and direct purchases of shares by foreign investors), portfolio debt flows […]


Government Definition Government may be defined as a political organization comprising the individuals and institutions authorized to formulate public policies and conduct affairs of state. Governments are empowered to establish and regulate the interrelationships of the people within their […]

Public Health

Introduction to Public Health Public Health, protection and improvement of the health of entire populations through community-wide action, primarily by governmental agencies. The goals of public health are to prevent human disease, injury, and disability; protect people from environmental […]


Adult Illiteracy Rate (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Adult Illiteracy Rate means: _alculated as 100 minus the adult literacy rate. Mortality Rate, Adult (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Mortality Rate, Adult means: probability per 1,000 that a 15-year-old […]


Maternal Mortality Ratio (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Maternal Mortality Ratio means: the number of female deaths per year due to pregnancy or for reasons connected with childbirth per 100 000 live births. Resources See Also Population Population Planning Population […]

Public Goods

Global Public Good(s) (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Global Public Good(s) means: a global public good is a good that has the three following properties : 1. It is non-rivalrous. Consumption of this good by anyone does not reduce the quantity available to other agents; 2. It […]


The Legal History of Family This section provides an overview of Family Family (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Family means: the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution 44/82 of 8 December 1989, proclaimed 1994 as the International Year of the Family (IYF) with its […]

Economic Development

Economic Development of Society (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Economic Development of Society means: is a multidimensional process, covering economic growth, structural changes in economy, improvement of conditions and quality of life. Legal Issues in the Third World’s […]

Renewable Energy

Renewable Source (of Energy) (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Renewable Source (of Energy) means: natural resources, which stocks or recovered more quickly than is used or not depends on whether or not they are used as hydro, solar, wind, geothermal, hydraulic energy, the […]


Migration Definition Migration may be defined as the movement of people, especially of whole groups, from one place, region, or country to another, particularly with the intention of making permanent settlement in a new location. See more definitions about migration in the law dictionary. […]


Antimalarial Measures, Fevers Treated With Antimalarial Drugs (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Medicine means: the percentage of children under age five who were ill with fever in the two weeks before the survey and received antimalarial drugs. Antimalarial Measures, Use of […]


Concept of Biodiversity An introductory definition of Biodiversity is provided here: two kinds: species and genetic diversity, species diversity refers to the differences between species, while genetic diversity refers to differences within species Biodiversity (in the Human Development Area) […]


Safe Motherhood (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Safe Motherhood means: aims at attaining optimal maternal and newborn health. It implies reduction of maternal mortality and morbidity and enhancement of the health of newborn infants through equitable access to primary health […]


Biomass (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Biomass means: The total mass of all living organisms within a biological community. Resources See Also Energy Utilities Natural Resources Energy Clean Energy

Fiscal Policy

Other Popular Tax Definitions in the World Legal Encyclopedia Adjusted Gross Income (sometimes, including Fiscal Policy) Ad Valorem Tax (sometimes, including Fiscal Policy) Alternative Minimum Tax (sometimes, including Fiscal Policy) Big Four (audit firms) (sometimes, including Fiscal Policy) […]

Gender Equality

Gender Equality and the United Nations The United Nations has the responsibility to ensure that all its actions promote and protect gender equality and women’s empowerment. UN efforts to help establish the rule of law for all on the basis of equality are essential to this end. Advancing […]

Social Policy

Social Policy (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Social Policy means: legislative, institutional, budgetary support to achieve objectives in the field of human welfare, to protect the interests of socially vulnerable layers of such socially important areas as health, education, […]

Family Planning

Family Planning (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Family Planning means: implies the ability of individuals and couples to anticipate and attain their desired number of children and the spacing and timing of their births. FP is achieved through contraception capable of […]

Pollution Control

Cap-and-trade (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Cap-and-trade means: emissions trading is a market-based approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. A central authority (usually a governmental body) […]


Microfinance (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Microfinance means: the complex of financial products for low-income part of population aimed at facilitating their involvement into economic activity. This section provides an overview of microfinance within the legal context of […]


Fao Fao (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Fao means: is a food and agriculture organization, founded in 1945. Covers questions of food resources and agricultural development in order to improve the lives of the peoples of the world. Embracing mainstream international law, this […]

Green Economy

Green Economy (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Green Economy means: as one that results in improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities. A green economy can be thought of as one which is low carbon, […]


Household (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Household means: a small group of people living in the same territory, who join part or all of their income and property, and consume certain types of products and services, notably housing services and food; there are family and […]

Kyoto Protocol

Introduction to Kyoto Protocol Kyoto Protocol, international treaty adopted in 1997 that sets concrete targets for developed countries to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming, also known as climate change. The Ky_to Protocol is a supplementary treaty to the […]


Epidemiology (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Epidemiology means: _pidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of health-states or events in specified populations, and the application of this study to the control of health problems. Social epidemiology has […]

National Accounts

National Accounts (in the Human Development Area) In this context, National Accounts means: is a system table in the form of accounts, which characterize the process of production, distribution and end use of the gross domestic product (GDP), as a rule, for the year. System of National […]

Gross Domestic Product

Summary of Gross Domestic Product

The aggregate value, expressed in monetary terms, of all goods and services produced within a national economy during a given time period, usually one year.

(Main Author: William J. Miller)

Gross Domestic Product (gdp) (in the Human Development […]


Fertility (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Fertility means: a woman's reproductive ability, ie the ability of women to bear children in the physiological period, called the fertile age. In demographic statistics taken from the fertile age 15 to 49 years. Total Fertility […]


Employment Law The Legal History of Employment and Labor Law This section provides an overview of Employment and Labor Law Employment in the CEDAW Article 11 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) stipulates, in relation to Employment, that […]

World Bank

World Bank and the World Bank Group Further Reading A concise encyclopedia of the United Nations (including World Bank , H Volger, KA Annan -2010) The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (TG Weiss – 2007) International Law: A Dictionary (including World Bank , Boczek, Boleslaw Adam -2005) […]


Expected Years of Schooling (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Expected Years of Schooling means: number of years of schooling that a child of school entrance age can expect to receive if prevailing patterns of age — specific enrolment rates were to stay the same throughout […]

Reproductive Health

Reproductive Health (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Reproductive Health means: WHO's definition of health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, reproductive health addresses the reproductive […]