Foreign Policy

COREU (CORespondance EUropéenne) and the Treaties of the European Union Description of COREU (CORespondance EUropéenne) provided by the European Union Commission: Coreu is an EU communication network between the Member States and the Commission for cooperation in the fields of […]

Foreign Aid

Concept of Foreign Aid An introductory definition of Foreign Aid is provided here: Donations of money, goods, or services from one nation to another. Such donations can be made for a humanitarian, altruistic purpose, or to advance the national interests of the giving nation. While in total […]


Protocol and the Treaties of the European Union Description of Protocol provided by the European Union Commission: The term "protocol" is used for agreements less formal than those entitled "treaty" or "convention". The term could be used to cover the following […]

Gold Standard

Summary of Gold Standard

A system under which a nation's currency is freely convertible into gold. The quantity of gold per unit of currency is fixed by law. Most major trading nations, however, abandoned the gold standard because of the constraints it imposes upon liquidity, although […]

Reserve Currency

Summary of Reserve Currency

The currency of a major trading national, widely accepted in international transactions and regarded as stable, that is held by the central banks or monetary authorities of other nations as a form of collateral for their own currency. The use of reserve […]


Concept of Oecd An introductory definition of Oecd is provided here: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, organization of 29 industrialized countries OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, abbreviated as OECD and based in Paris (FR), is an […]


Concept of Biodiversity An introductory definition of Biodiversity is provided here: two kinds: species and genetic diversity, species diversity refers to the differences between species, while genetic diversity refers to differences within species Biodiversity (in the Human Development Area) […]


Spanish Translation of provide information [obligation to] This is the legal translation of English to Spanish in relation to provide information [obligation to] and / or a definition of this topic: Información (in Spanish, without translation of the dictionary entry). […]


Introduction to Immigration Immigration, the movement of people into another nation with the intention of residing there permanently. The contrasting term emigration refers to the movement of people permanently leaving a nation. Immigration is a worldwide phenomenon. From the 17th century to […]


Summary of Devaluation

The official reduction of the value of a nation's money in relation to a standard (usually gold), special drawing rights, or the U.S. dollar. Inasmuch as all currencies are ultimately valued in terms of some standard, devaluation results in the conscious increase […]


Concept of Opec An introductory definition of Opec is provided here: Organization of Petroleum Exporting Companies: cartel of oil producers formed to control the price and supply of oil on world markets Definition of OPEC Within the context of international organizations, the following is a […]

Ethnic Group

Concept of Ethnic Group An introductory definition of Ethnic Group is provided here: a group of people who define themselves as distinct from other groups because of cultural differences Resources See Also Foregin Policy Foreign Affairs Resources See Also Community Collective Right Society […]


The Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act and the Electronic Commerce The Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act in the Online Business Law Concept of Netwar An introductory definition of Netwar is provided here: the primary objective of "netwar" is to use computer […]


Summary of Deflation

A decline in the general level of prices, attributable to excessive savings or other factors that have reduced consumption relative to the supply of goods available. Very often, deflation is reflected during the decline phase of the business cycle. There has been no […]


Introduction to War War, in international law, armed conflict between two or more governments or states. When such conflicts assume global proportions, they are known as world wars. War between different parts or factions of the same nation is called civil war. A rebellion is not legally […]

Natural Law

A typical definition of natural law which overstressed the universality of the concept was provided by Olivecrona (1971: 8): In contradistinction to positive law, 'natural law' generally means a law that has not been posited. Even if it is ascribed to the will of God, it is supposed to […]


In the United States For information about Trade in the context of international trade, click here Trade and the Laws of International Trade Prohibited actions Export Administration System Trade and the Laws of International Trade Intent Export Administration System American Coasting Trade: […]


Legal Issues Customs were the original form of international commercial law. As we have seen in the history of lex mercatoria, the customs existed before any statute of commercial law was made and were often the basis for legislation.(1) Customs in International Trade Meaning of Customs, […]

GATT Accession

GATT Accession Summary of GATT Detais can be found in General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade). Accession Process The process was described by Christopher Mark in 1993: "Joining the GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE is rarely a simple or straightforward matter –especially if the […]

Multinational Force

Concept of Multinational Force An introductory definition of Multinational Force is provided here: A military force comprising members from more than two nations. For instance, when the United Nations sends a peacekeeping force to a troubled area, it often assembles a multinational force. […]

United Nations

Introduction to United Nations United Nations (UN), international organization of countries created to promote world peace and cooperation. The UN was founded after World War II ended in 1945. Its mission is to maintain world peace, develop good relations between countries, promote […]

Exchange Rate

Exchange Rate in International Trade Meaning of Exchange Rate, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The price of one currency expressed in terms of another, i.e., the number of units of one currency that may be exchanged for one unit of another currency. […]


Concept of Inflation An introductory definition of Inflation is provided here: money is losing value relative to goods and services produced in an economy Resources See Also Foregin Policy Foreign Affairs Resources See Also Further Reading Information related to inflation in the Max […]


Protectionism Definition Protectionism may be defined as government policies that favor domestic products over imported goods. The debate between protectionism and free trade has been a continuing issue in United States politics. Meanings For information on: * systematic protectionism […]

Balance of Payments

Balance Of Payments Summary of Balance Of Payments

The sum owed to or by a nation as the result of its international transactions during a given time period, usually one year. The balance of payments is calculated by subtracting the nation's total payments to foreigners from total […]

Sustainable Development

Definition and Origins Sustainability and sustainable development were initially defined and promulgated in a report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, "Our Common Future" (1987). This report said (page 43) that sustainable development "is development that […]

Terms of Trade

Summary of Terms of Trade An export-import price ratio derived by dividing indices of export prices by indices of import prices. For example, when export indices are 105 percent of a base period, and import indices are 98 percent of the same base period, then the terms of trade […]

Nuclear Fusion

Concept of Nuclear Fusion An introductory definition of Nuclear Fusion is provided here: relies on forcing two hydrogen atoms together, and in the process destroying some extra matter that is converted into energy (called H-bomb) Resources See Also Foregin Policy Foreign Affairs


Political Theory: The State Introduction to State The central concern of political theorists throughout history has been the theory of the state. Plato contributed to the founding of this theory in his discourse the Republic, which attempted to reconcile moral theory and political practice by […]


Summary of Treaty

Treaty in International Law A formal, written compact entered into by sovereign nations. Customarily, an agreement provides that the treaty will not come into force until it has been ratified, i.e., approved by each government in accordance with its respective […]


Concept of Ipc An introductory definition of Ipc is provided here: Integrated Programme for Commodities, concerted attempt to control price fluctuations in commodities on which LDC's depended for foreign exchange income (see UNCTAD, GSP) Resources See Also Foregin Policy Foreign Affairs


Concept of Hyv's An introductory definition of Hyv's is provided here: high-yielding varieties of agricultural plants, genetically designed to produce higher quantities of product with the aid of fertilizer, pesticides, and mechanized agricultural methods Resources See Also Foregin […]

Truman Doctrine

Concept of Truman Doctrine An introductory definition of Truman Doctrine is provided here: a promise of US aid to all 'free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside powers" (also see Brezhnev Doctrine) Resources See Also Foregin Policy […]

Free Trade

Introduction Free Trade, interchange of commodities across political frontiers without restrictions such as tariffs, quotas, or foreign exchange controls. This economic policy contrasts with protectionist policies that use such restrictions to protect or stimulate domestic industries. See […]


Concept of D5 An introductory definition of D5 is provided here: denuclearization, demilitarization, dealignment, democratization, and development, five main goals of peace and social movements Resources See Also Foregin Policy Foreign Affairs