Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques

International Legal Research

Information about Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques in free legal resources:

Treaties & Agreements

  • Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques in US treaties.
  • Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques in UN treaties.
  • Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques in UN Treaty Series website.
  • Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques in OAS treaties and agreements.
  • Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques in EU treaties.
  • Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques in EU international agreements.
  • Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques in UK's treaty obligations.

International Organizations

Jurisprudence $ Commentary

European Union

  • Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques in EU legal acts.
  • Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques in EU consolidated texts.

IP Law

  • Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques in IP national laws.
  • Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques in IP treaties.

Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques

 

ARTICLE I

1. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to engage in military
or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having
widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction,
damage or injury to any other State Party.

2. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to assist, encourage
or induce any State, group of States or international organization to
engage in activities contrary to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this
article.

ARTICLE II

As used in article 1, the term “environmental modification techniques”
refers to any technique for changing – through the deliberate manipulation
of natural processes–the dynamics, composition or structure of the Earth,
including its biota, lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere, or of outer
space.

ARTICLE III

1. The provisions of this Convention shall not hinder the use of
environmental modification techniques for peaceful purposes and shall be
without prejudice to the generally recognized principles and applicable
rules of international law concerning such use.

2. The States Parties to this Convention undertake to facilitate, and have
the right to participate in, the fullest possible exchange of scientific
and technological information on the use of environmental modification
techniques for peaceful purposes. States Parties in a position to do so
shall contribute, alone or together with other States or international
organizations, to international economic and scientific co-operation in the
preservation, improvement and peaceful utilization of the environment, with
due consideration for the needs of the developing areas of the world.

ARTICLE IV

Each State Party to this Convention undertakes to take any measures it
considers necessary in accordance with its constitutional processes to
prohibit and prevent any activity in violation of the provisions of the
Convention anywhere under its jurisdiction or control.

ARTICLE V

1. The States Parties to this Convention undertake to consult one another
and to co-operate in solving any problems which may arise in relation to
the objectives of, or in the application of the provisions of, the
Convention. Consultation and co-operation pursuant to this article may also
be undertaken through appropriate international procedures within the
framework of the United Nations and in accordance with its Charter. These
international procedures may include the services of appropriate
International Organizations , as well as of a Consultative Committee of
Experts as provided for in paragraph 2 of this article.

2. For the purposes set forth in paragraph 1 of this article, the
Depositary shall within one month of the receipt of a request from any
State Party to this Convention, convene a Consultative Committee of
Experts. Any State Party may appoint an expert to the Committee whose
functions and rules of procedure are set out in the annex which constitutes
an integral part of this Convention. The Committee shall transmit to the
Depositary a summary of its findings of fact, incorporating all views and
information presented to the Committee during its proceedings. The
Depositary shall distribute the summary to all States Parties.

3. Any State Party to this Convention which has reason to believe that any
other State Party is acting in breach of obligations deriving from the
provisions of the Convention may lodge a complaint with the Security
Council of the United Nations. Such a complaint should include all relevant
information as well as all possible evidence supporting ItS validity.

4. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes to cooperate in carrying
out any investigation which the Security Council may initiate, in
accordance with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations , on the
basis of the complaint received by the Council. The Security Council shall
inform the States Parties of the results of the investigation.

5. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes to provide or support
assistance, in accordance with the provisions of the Charter of the United
Nations, to any State Party which so requests, if the Security Council
decides that such Party has been harmed or is likely to be harmed as a
result of violation of the Convention.

ARTICLE VI

1. Any State Party to this Convention may propose amendments to the
Convention. The text of any proposed amendment shall be submitted to the
Depositary, who shall promptly circulate it to all States Parties.

2. An amendment shall enter into force for all States Parties to this
Convention which have accepted it, upon the deposit with the Depositary of
instruments of acceptance by a majority of States Parties. Thereafter it
shall enter into force for any remaining State Party on the date of deposit
of its instrument of acceptance.

ARTICLE VII

This Convention shall be of unlimited duration.

ARTICLE VIII

1. Five years after the entry into force of this Convention, a conference
of the States Parties to the Convention shall be convened by the Depositary
at Geneva, Switzerland. The conference shall review the operation of the
Convention with a view to ensuring that its purposes and provisions are
being realized, and shall in particular examine the effectiveness of the
provisions of paragraph 1 of article I in eliminating the dangers of
military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques.

2. At intervals of not less than five years thereafter, a majority of the
States Parties to this Convention may obtain, by submitting a proposal to
this effect to the Depositary, the convening of a conference with the same
objectives.

3. If no conference has been convened pursuant to paragraph 2 of this
article within ten years following the conclusion of a previous conference,
the Depositary shall solicit the views of all States Parties to this
Convention concerning the convening of such a conference. If one third or
ten of the States Parties, whichever number is less, respond affirmatively,
the Depositary shall take immediate steps to convene the conference.

ARTICLE IX

1. This Convention shall be open to all States for signature. Any State
which does not sign the Convention before its entry into force in
accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede to it at any time.

2. This Convention shall be subject to ratification by signatory States.
Instruments of ratification or accession shall be deposited with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations.

3. This Convention shall enter into force upon the deposit of instruments
of ratification by twenty Governments in accordance with paragraph 2 of
this article.

4. For those States whose instruments of ratification or accession are
deposited after the entry into force of this Convention, it shall enter
into force on the date of the deposit of their instruments of ratification
or accession.

5. The Depositary shall promptly inform all signatory and acceding States
of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of each instrument of
ratification or accession and the date of the entry into force of this
Convention and of any amendments thereto, as well as of the receipt of
other notices.

6. This Convention shall be registered by the Depositary in accordance with
Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations .

ARTICLE X

This Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and
Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall send duly certified
copies thereof to the Governments of the signatory and acceding States.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto, have
signed this Convention

Done at Geneva, on the 18 day of May 1977.

(Here follows signatures)

Conclusion

Notes

See Also

References and Further Reading

About the Author/s and Reviewer/s

Author: international

Mentioned in these Entries

Charter of the United Nations, Conventions: Chronological Index 1971-1990, International Organizations, International humanitarian law, Other Environmental conventions, Rules of Warfare, Arms Control conventions.

Leave a Comment