European Convention on Human Rights

Introduction The European Convention on Human Rights was a reaction against the horrific abuses of human rights that took place before and during the Second World War, followed by further abuses occurring within the newly formed Communist block. These led, in 1949, due in part to the […]


Official claims to sectors of the ice-covered continent of Antarctica were made by seven States – Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway and the United Kingdom. A sector was also claimed by Admiral Byrd on behalf of the United States, but the United States never officially […]

Settlement of Disputes

  PART XV SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS Article 279 Obligation to settle disputes by peaceful means States Parties shall settle any dispute between them concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention by peaceful means in accordance with Article 2, […]

European Energy Charter

  PART I DEFINITIONS AND PURPOSE ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS As used in this Treaty: (1) "Charter"means the European Energy Charter adopted in the Concluding Document of the Hague Conference on the European Energy Charter signed at The Hague on 17 December 1991; signature of the […]

United Kingdom

Legal Materials For purposes of this section, the United Kingdom includes England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The following is a compilation of some information concerning any of these jurisdictions into the topics discussed below. For more information, see the U.K. legal […]



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Continental Shelf

  PART VI CONTINENTAL SHELF Article 76 Definition of the continental shelf 1. The continental shelf of a coastal State comprises the sea-bed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer […]

Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe

  Article I 1. Each State Party shall carry out the obligations set forth in this Treaty in accordance with its provisions, including those obligations relating to the following five categories of conventional armed forces: battle tanks, armoured combat vehicles, artillery, combat […]


Globally Harmonized System Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) defines and classifies the hazards of chemical products, and communicates health and safety information on labels and safety data sheets). The two major elements of GHS are: […]

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

United Nations High Commissioner for (UNHCR) Note: see Refugees. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees The mandate of UNHCR, based on its Statute, is to provide international protection to refugees who fall within the scope of the Statute and seek durable solutions for the […]

Vienna Convention on Consular Relations

  Article 12 THE EXEQUATUR 1. The head of a consular post is admitted to the exercise of his functions by an authorization from the receiving State termed an exequatur, whatever the form of this authorization. 2. A State which refuses to grant an exequatur is not obliged to give to the […]


The concept of tradition draws on John Henry Merryman's classic development of a multi-disciplinary, historical approach to the study of law. As he wrote in 1969: A legal tradition . . . is a set of deeply rooted, historically conditioned attitudes about the nature of law, about the role of […]

International Organizations


An International Organization can be defined, following the International Law Commission, as an "organization established by a treaty or other instrument governed by international law and possessing its own international legal […]

Intellectual Property Law

Intellectual property law deals with the rules for securing and enforcing legal rights to inventions, designs, and artistic works. For example, a book may be considered an intellectual property, and its author may have the rightful ownership over it. In a nutshell, intellectual property law […]

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

  Article 1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 2 Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without […]

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) GATT was a series of multi-lateral treaties — and an organization of the same name — designed to regulate trade between the member nations. Definition of General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, […]

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights   PART I Article 1. 1. All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development. 2. All peoples […]

American Indian Law Review The American Indian Law Review serves as a nationwide scholarly forum for the presentation and analysis of developments in the law concerning indigenous people and Indian affairs. Adhering to the traditional law review format, the American Indian Law Review offers […]

Treaty on Open Skies

  Article I GENERAL PROVISIONS 1. This Treaty establishes the regime, to be known as the Open Skies regime, for the conduct of observation flights by States Parties over the territories of other States Parties, and sets forth the rights and obligations of the States Parties relating […]

Permanent Court of Arbitration

Introduction to Permanent Court of Arbitration Permanent Court of Arbitration, panel of arbitrators established by the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, signed by 24 nations at the first international peace conference at The Hague, the Netherlands, in 1899. The […]

Imp. of W. Hastings

Imp. of W. Hastings “Much industry and art have been used, among the illiterate and unexperienced, to throw imputations on this prosecution, and its conduct, because so great a proportion of the evidence offered on the trial (especially on the latter charges) has been circumstantial. […]

Promissory Estoppel

Difference between First Restatement 90 and Second Restatement 90: deleted requirement that reliance be of definite and substantial character. Requirement was initially included to allow promissory estoppel into First Restatement (despite no case law on the subject). By Second Restatement, […]

United Nations System Part 5

United Nations System Part 5   30 Collapse and Reconstruction of a Judicial System: The United Nations Missions in Kosovo … Read more

United Nations System Part 4


United Nations System Part 3

United Nations System Part 3   17 Paper Charter: Self-Defense and the Failure of the United Nations Collective Security System … Read more

United Nations System Part 2

United Nations System Part 2   8 Guidance Note on Refugee Claims relating to Female Genital Mutilation, May 2009. • … Read more

United Nations System Part 1

United Nations System Part 1   1 Promoting Space Ventures by Creating an International Space IPR Framework DAVID IRIMIES European … Read more