European Convention on Human Rights

Introduction The European Convention on Human Rights was a reaction against the horrific abuses of human rights that took place before and during the Second World War, followed by further abuses occurring within the newly formed Communist block. These led, in 1949, due in part to the […]


Official claims to sectors of the ice-covered continent of Antarctica were made by seven States – Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway and the United Kingdom. A sector was also claimed by Admiral Byrd on behalf of the United States, but the United States never officially […]

Settlement of Disputes

  PART XV SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES SECTION 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS Article 279 Obligation to settle disputes by peaceful means States Parties shall settle any dispute between them concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention by peaceful means in accordance with Article 2, […]

European Energy Charter

  PART I DEFINITIONS AND PURPOSE ARTICLE 1 DEFINITIONS As used in this Treaty: (1) "Charter"means the European Energy Charter adopted in the Concluding Document of the Hague Conference on the European Energy Charter signed at The Hague on 17 December 1991; signature of the […]

United Kingdom

Legal Materials For purposes of this section, the United Kingdom includes England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The following is a compilation of some information concerning any of these jurisdictions into the topics discussed below. For more information, see the U.K. legal […]



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Continental Shelf

  PART VI CONTINENTAL SHELF Article 76 Definition of the continental shelf 1. The continental shelf of a coastal State comprises the sea-bed and subsoil of the submarine areas that extend beyond its territorial sea throughout the natural prolongation of its land territory to the outer […]

Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe

  Article I 1. Each State Party shall carry out the obligations set forth in this Treaty in accordance with its provisions, including those obligations relating to the following five categories of conventional armed forces: battle tanks, armoured combat vehicles, artillery, combat […]


Globally Harmonized System Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) defines and classifies the hazards of chemical products, and communicates health and safety information on labels and safety data sheets). The two major elements of GHS are: […]

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

United Nations High Commissioner for (UNHCR) Note: see Refugees. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees The mandate of UNHCR, based on its Statute, is to provide international protection to refugees who fall within the scope of the Statute and seek durable solutions for the […]

Vienna Convention on Consular Relations

  Article 12 THE EXEQUATUR 1. The head of a consular post is admitted to the exercise of his functions by an authorization from the receiving State termed an exequatur, whatever the form of this authorization. 2. A State which refuses to grant an exequatur is not obliged to give to the […]


The concept of tradition draws on John Henry Merryman's classic development of a multi-disciplinary, historical approach to the study of law. As he wrote in 1969: A legal tradition . . . is a set of deeply rooted, historically conditioned attitudes about the nature of law, about the role of […]

International Organizations


An International Organization can be defined, following the International Law Commission, as an "organization established by a treaty or other instrument governed by international law and possessing its own international legal […]

Specific Armed Conflicts

Specific Armed Conflicts In International humanitarian law treaties International humanitarian law (IHL) is based on a number of treaties, in particular the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols, and a series of other instruments. Victims of Armed Conflicts Treaties Hague Convention on Hospital Ships, 1904, 21.12.1904 Hague Convention (XI) on Restrictions of the … Read more

Intellectual Property Law

Intellectual property law deals with the rules for securing and enforcing legal rights to inventions, designs, and artistic works. For example, a book may be considered an intellectual property, and its author may have the rightful ownership over it. In a nutshell, intellectual property law […]

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

  Article 1 All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 2 Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without […]

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) GATT was a series of multi-lateral treaties — and an organization of the same name — designed to regulate trade between the member nations. Definition of General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, […]

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights   PART I Article 1. 1. All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development. 2. All peoples […]

American Indian Law Review The American Indian Law Review serves as a nationwide scholarly forum for the presentation and analysis of developments in the law concerning indigenous people and Indian affairs. Adhering to the traditional law review format, the American Indian Law Review offers […]

Treaty on Open Skies

  Article I GENERAL PROVISIONS 1. This Treaty establishes the regime, to be known as the Open Skies regime, for the conduct of observation flights by States Parties over the territories of other States Parties, and sets forth the rights and obligations of the States Parties relating […]

Permanent Court of Arbitration

Introduction to Permanent Court of Arbitration Permanent Court of Arbitration, panel of arbitrators established by the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, signed by 24 nations at the first international peace conference at The Hague, the Netherlands, in 1899. The […]

Imp. of W. Hastings

Imp. of W. Hastings “Much industry and art have been used, among the illiterate and unexperienced, to throw imputations on this prosecution, and its conduct, because so great a proportion of the evidence offered on the trial (especially on the latter charges) has been circumstantial. […]

Promissory Estoppel

Difference between First Restatement 90 and Second Restatement 90: deleted requirement that reliance be of definite and substantial character. Requirement was initially included to allow promissory estoppel into First Restatement (despite no case law on the subject). By Second Restatement, […]

Legal Words

Legal Words Doubling legal Words (Doublets and Triplets) Doubling legal words that mean the same thing can be confusing. The doubling often involved the pairing of a with another, synonim, word. Good examples of legal word-doubling (and tripling) are found on pages 346 to 366 of “The Language of the Law” by David Mellinkoff (Boston, … Read more

Natural Law Theories

Natural Law Theories In General This entry considers natural law theories only as theories of law. That is not to say that legal theory can be adequately identified and pursued independently of moral and political theory. Nor is it to deny that there are worthwhile natural law theories much more concerned with foundational issues in … Read more

Social partners in the European Union

Social partners in the European Union This is jargon for the two sides of industry i.e. employers and workers. At EU level they are represented by three main organisations: The European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), representing workers; The Union of Industries of the European Community (UNICE), representing private sector employers; The European Centre for Public … Read more

Federalism in the European Union

Federalism in the European Union Broadly speaking, this means any system of government where several states form a unity and yet remain independent in their internal affairs. People who are in favour of this system are often called ‘federalists’. A number of countries around the world e.g. Australia, Canada, Germany, Switzerland and the United States … Read more

WIPO Copyright Treaty Part 2

WIPO Copyright Treaty Part 2   6 Technological Protection Measures in the United States, the European Union and Germany: How Much Fair Use Do We Need in the “Digital World” ? Wencke Basler Virginia Journal of Law & Technology Volume 8, Issue 3, Fall 2003 LAW JOURNAL / LAW REVIEW As digital technological advances have … Read more

WIPO Copyright Treaty Part 1

WIPO Copyright Treaty Part 1   1 A Model Copyright Exemption to Serve the Visually Impaired: An Alternative to the Treaty Proposals Before WIPO Patrick Hely Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law Volume 43, Number 5, November 2010 p.1369 LAW JOURNAL / LAW REVIEW 2 Effective Technological measures in Jordanian Copyright Protection Law Ramzi Madi Entertainment … Read more

United Nations System Part 5

United Nations System Part 5   30 Collapse and Reconstruction of a Judicial System: The United Nations Missions in Kosovo and East Timor Hansjürg Strohmeyer American Journal of International Law Volume 95, Number 1, January 2001 p.46 LAW JOURNAL / LAW REVIEW 31 RACIAL RELEASES, INVOLUNTARY SEPARATIONS, AND EMPLOYMENT AT-WILL Donna E. Young Loyola of … Read more

United Nations System Part 4


United Nations System Part 3

United Nations System Part 3   17 Paper Charter: Self-Defense and the Failure of the United Nations Collective Security System Robert J. Delahunty Catholic University Law Review Volume 56, Number 3, Spring 2007 p.871 LAW JOURNAL / LAW REVIEW 18 Non-proliferation Law and the United Nations System : Resolution 1540 and the Limits of the … Read more

United Nations System Part 2

United Nations System Part 2   8 Guidance Note on Refugee Claims relating to Female Genital Mutilation, May 2009. • UNHCR Eligibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of Asylum-Seekers from Eritrea, April 2009. • The 2009 Report of the Secretary-General on the efforts of the United Nations System to prevent genocide and the … Read more

United Nations System Part 1

United Nations System Part 1   1 Promoting Space Ventures by Creating an International Space IPR Framework DAVID IRIMIES European Intellectual Property Review Volume 33, Issue 1, 2011 p.35 LAW JOURNAL / LAW REVIEW The notion of promoting investments in innovation made and used in outer space-and respecting their associated Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs)-will continue … Read more

Refugees Part 18

Refugees Part 18   271 The State of the World’s Refugees : Fifty Years of Humanitarian Action Arthur C. Helton International Journal of Refugee Law Volume 13, Number 1 & 2, January 2001 p.269-274 LAW JOURNAL / LAW REVIEW 272 Managing Displacement: Refugees and the Politics of Humanitarianism. Jennifer Hyndman Ralph Wilde International Journal of … Read more

Refugees Part 17

Refugees Part 17   253 Europe and Refugees – Towards an EU Asylum Policy Hélène Lambert International Journal of Refugee Law Volume 14, Number 1, January 2002 p.174-176 LAW JOURNAL / LAW REVIEW 254 RUSHING TO JUDGMENT: THE UNINTENDED CONSEQUENCES OF THE USA PATRIOT ACT FOR BONA FIDE REFUGEES Regina Germain Georgetown Immigration Law Journal … Read more

Refugees Part 16

Refugees Part 16   239 Trends in Refugee Status Determination January-September 2002: Applications, Refugee Status Determination and Pending Cases in 84 Asylum Countries. 26 December 2002, Population Data Unit, Population and Geographic Data Section, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees , Geneva International Journal of Refugee Law Volume 14, Number 4, October 2002 p.617-631 LAW … Read more

Refugees Part 15

Refugees Part 15   224 THE JEWISH Refugees FROM ARAB COUNTRIES: AN EXAMINATION OF Legal Rights -A CASE STUDY OF THE HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATIONS OF IRAQI JEWS Carole Basri Fordham International Law Journal Volume 26, Number 3, March 2003 p.656 LAW JOURNAL / LAW REVIEW 225 The Impact of Terrorism on the Principle of ‘Non-Refoulement’ … Read more