Universal Suffrage

Universal Suffrage in Election Law A fundamental principle in democratic elections, by which every citizen has the right to vote in periodic and regular elections and referenda. This right must be established by law. Restrictions may apply (minimum age, mental capacity), but the right to vote […]

Directly-elected Chamber

Hierarchical Display of Directly-elected chamber Politics > Parliament > Composition of parliament > Parliamentary chamber > Bicameral system
Politics > Parliament > Composition of parliament > Electoral system > Universal suffrage Directly-elected chamber Concept of Directly-elected […]

Constitutional Law

Introduction to Constitutional Law Constitutional Law, system of fundamental principles on the organization of a country's government and the limitations of its powers. In the United States, constitutional law refers to legal rights that are directly addressed in the Constitution of the […]

Electoral Reform

Introduction Electoral Reform, elimination of undemocratic, dishonest, and corrupt practices in the conduct of public elections. Reform is usually effected by statutory enactments that contain provisions for accomplishing one or more of the following ends: a change in the qualification […]

European Election

Hierarchical Display of European election Politics > Electoral procedure and voting > Election
Politics > Electoral procedure and voting > Electoral system > European electoral system
European Union > EU institutions and European civil service > EU institution > European Parliament […]

Self Determination

Self-Determination Right of Self-Determination Further Reading A concise encyclopedia of the United Nations (including Self-Determination, H Volger, KA Annan -2010) The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (TG Weiss – 2007) International Law: A Dictionary (including Self-Determination, […]

Direct Democracy

Direct Democracy Instrument in Election Law Method by which citizens can participate directly in the political decision making process. It may take one of three forms: 1. Citizens voting on a public policy proposal originating from somewhere outside the legislature (referendum); 2. Citizens […]

European Parliament

Spanish Translation of European Parliament This is the legal translation of English to Spanish in relation to European Parliament and / or a definition of this topic: Parlamento Europeo (in Spanish, without translation of the dictionary entry). European Parliament and the Treaties of the […]


Plebiscite Definition Plebiscite, a vote by the electorate of a nation, region, or locality on a specific question. Historical Introduction In modern times, plebiscites have been held to determine the wishes of the inhabitants of a country or area as to their choice of sovereignty and […]


Introduction to Referendum Referendum, practice of submitting an issue to the popular vote. The proposal or issue can itself be called a referendum. In government, the "petition referendum" originates with the voters and provides that a proposed law be put to a popular vote before it […]