Public Finance

Other Popular Tax Definitions in the World Legal Encyclopedia Adjusted Gross Income (sometimes, including Public Finance) Ad Valorem Tax (sometimes, including Public Finance) Alternative Minimum Tax (sometimes, including Public Finance) Big Four (audit firms) (sometimes, including Public […]

Public Service

Literature Review on Public Service In the Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, [1] Richard A. Loverd offers the following summary about the topic of Public Service: Public service can be analyzed as a place of employment or an attitude. While the challenges are great, […]

Withdrawal Price

A floor price at which European Economic Community producers of certain food products may withhold their goods from the market. The withdrawal price is generally below the base price (i.e., the target price set for a given commodity) and the purchase price at which EEC governments will intervene in …

International Trade

International Political Economy Trends: International Trade Introduction to International Trade In the 21st century, international trade has grown to 20 percent of the world's total production of goods and services-around $6.5 trillion per year. This volume of trade is almost seven times […]

Export Monitoring

Hierarchical Display of Export monitoring Trade > Trade policy > Export policy
International Relations > International security > International security > Non-proliferation of arms
International Relations > Defence > Arms policy > Arms trade
Social Questions > Culture and religion > […]

Market Access

Summary of Market Access The degree of participation in the domestic market that a nation allows to foreign suppliers. Tariffs, quotas, and similar protective devices are devices imposed to limit market access. (Main Author: William J. Miller) Market Access and National Treatment in the […]

Judicial Review

Introduction The U.S. case Marbury v. Madison (1803) held that the power of a court to decide what is the meaning of the American Constitution was implicit in an independent judiciary. This power of judicial review in the U.S. was a unique feature of the U.S. constitutionalism well into the […]

Dispute Settlement Body

Hierarchical Display of Dispute Settlement Body International Organisations > World organisations > World organisation > World Trade Organisation
Trade > International trade > Trade relations > Trade dispute
Trade > Trade policy > Commercial law > Commercial arbitration
Trade > […]

Market Protection

Hierarchical Display of Market protection Trade > Trade policy > Trade policy > Market intervention
Business And Competition > Competition > Restrictive trade practice > Horizontal agreement
Economics > Economic policy > Economic policy > Protectionism Market protection Concept of Market […]


For information about the Swiss law and legal research materials, see: The summary of Swiss law is published in the Martindale-Hubbell Law Digest for Switzerland; The Swiss Legal System and Research by Gregory M. Bovey; Introduction to the Swiss Legal System: A Guide for Foreign […]

Foreign Market

Hierarchical Display of Foreign market Trade > Trade policy > Market
Trade > Trade policy > Trade policy > Foreign trade Foreign market Concept of Foreign market See the dictionary definition of Foreign market. Characteristics of Foreign market [rtbs name=”xxx-xxx”] Resources Translation of […]

Common Agricultural Policy

Common agricultural policy (CAP) and the Treaties of the European Union Description of Common agricultural policy (CAP) provided by the European Union Commission: The common agricultural policy is a matter reserved exclusively for the Community. Under Article 33 of the Treaty establishing the […]

Economic Planning

Resources See Also Economy Economic System Legal System Capitalism


Dumping in International Trade Meaning of Dumping, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The practice of selling a product in a foreign market at an unfairly low price (a price that is lower than the cost in the home market, or which is lower than the cost of […]


Central and East European Countries (CEECs) and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Central and East European Countries (CEECs): Includes Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, […]

State Aid

Resources See Also Social Security Financing Social Insurance Social Security System

Brand Name

Hierarchical Display of Brand name Production, Technology And Research > Research and intellectual property > Intellectual property > Industrial property > Trademark
Trade > Trade policy > Trade policy > Trade regulations > Trade licence Brand name Concept of Brand name See the dictionary […]

Services Contract

Hierarchical Display of Services contract Trade > Trade policy > Public contract
Services contract Concept of Services contract See the dictionary definition of Services contract. Characteristics of Services contract [rtbs name=”xxx-xxx”] Resources Translation of Services contract […]

Export Subsidy

Summary of Export Subsidy

A direct payment, tax relief, or other incentive provided by a government to encourage export sales. The use of such devices is apt to be regarded as undesirable by the importing nation and may result in the imposition of Countervailing Duties (read this legal term […]

Right of Establishment

Spanish Translation of right of establishmentThis is the legal translation of English to Spanish in relation to right of establishment and / or a definition of this topic: Régimen de Derechos de Establecimiento (in Spanish, without translation of the dictionary entry).

Drug Traffic

Hierarchical Display of Drug traffic Law > Criminal law > Offence
Social Questions > Social affairs > Social problem > Drug addiction
Trade > Trade policy > Trade policy > Trade regulations > Illicit trade
Finance > Free movement of capital > Free movement of capital > Capital […]

Non-tariff Barrier

Hierarchical Display of Non-tariff barrier Trade > International trade > Trade restriction
Economics > Economic policy > Economic support > State aid
Trade > Trade policy > Public contract
European Union > European Union law > EU legal system > EU law – national law > Mutual […]

Quantitative Restriction

A limitation on the quantity of a given commodity that may be imported into a country during a specified period of time. A quantitative restriction is manifested as a Quota ("">read this and related legal terms for further […]

Liberalisation of the Market

Hierarchical Display of Liberalisation of the market Trade > Trade policy > Trade policy
Economics > Economic policy > Economic policy > Deregulation
Transport > Air and space transport > Air transport > Airline > Low cost airline
Trade > International trade > International trade > […]

Import Credit

Hierarchical Display of Import credit Trade > Trade policy > Import policy
Import credit Concept of Import credit See the dictionary definition of Import credit. Characteristics of Import credit [rtbs name=”xxx-xxx”] Resources Translation of Import credit Spanish: Crédito a la importación […]

Price Stability

Hierarchical Display of Price stability Finance > Prices > Prices policy
Trade > International trade > Trade relations > Commodity agreement
Economics > Economic policy > Economic policy > Economic convergence > Convergence criteria
Trade > Trade policy > Trade policy > Market […]

Financial Transaction

Hierarchical Display of Financial transaction Finance > Free movement of capital > Financial market
Trade > Trade policy > Trade policy > Regulation of transactions
Business And Competition > Accounting > Management accounting > Payment
Finance > Monetary economics > Intra-EU payment […]

East- West Trade

A general reference to trade between the industrial nations of the West, particularly those nations that are members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development ("">read this and related legal terms for […]

Single Market

Summary of Single Market

A component feature of the Common Agricultural policy (read this and related legal terms for further details) of the European Economic Community.

(Main Author: William J. Miller)

Single Market and Europe There is an entry on single market in the European […]

Common Commercial Policy

Common commercial policy and the Treaties of the European Union Description of Common commercial policy provided by the European Union Commission: The Community has exclusive responsibility for the common commercial policy (Article 133 of the EC Treaty, formerly Article 113). Under the policy […]