International Trade

International Legal Research

Information about International Trade in free legal resources:

Treaties & Agreements

International Organizations

Jurisprudence $ Commentary

European Union

IP Law

International Trade

International Political Economy Trends: International Trade

Introduction to International Trade

In the 21st century, international trade has grown to 20 percent of the world’s total production of goods and services-around $6.5 trillion per year. This volume of trade is almost seven times larger than the world’s military spending.

New institutions have developed to promote and manage the world’s trade. From 1948 to 1995, nations negotiated a series of treaties through the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which gradually lowered tariffs for most manufactured goods. In the 1990s the GATT transformed itself into the World Trade Organization (WTO), with more powers of enforcement and a broader mandate to promote trade. Overall, most political activity related to trade is concentrated in the industrialized countries of North America, Western Europe, and East Asia. Together, these countries account for about two-thirds of all international trade.

The goal of WTO is “free trade,” the open exchange of goods and services without tariffs. Proponents of free trade argue that increasing trade promotes economic growth, to the benefit of all. Many activists and developing nations have recently spoken out against free trade at WTO meetings, instead arguing that states should be allowed to protect their environment, workers’ rights, and infant industries with tariffs and other trade restrictions.” (1)

Legal Materials

To get acquainted with the major U.S. trade treaties, see Trade Law: An Introduction to Selected International Agreements and U.S. Laws (June 29, 2010) by the Congressional Research Service. To learn more international trade law, see the books referenced in the Georgetown Law Library’s list of International Trade Treatises.

Global Trade Information Services database provides extensive data on international trade, covering over two dozen major countries. However, the reports are pricey, so you may want to consider less expensive alternatives, such as the Web sites listed below in this entry.

U.S. world trade data is available from the St. Louis Fed’s FRED database, the Census Bureau’s USA Trade Online and Foreign Trade sites, the International Trade Administration, International Trade Center and the International Trade Commission’sInternational Tariff and Trade Dataweb.

Lexis has an EXPORT library, which includes the Dun & Bradstreet Export Encyclopedia (DBEXEN) and a list of people and companies denied U.S. import/export licenses (DENIED).

PIERS provides extensive information on U.S. and international shipping trade. PIERS is particularly known for their Trade Profiles provides on significant import/export companies. You can search for and purchase Trade Profiles through Piers.com. Similar information is available through Panjiva (which has historical data back to 2007) andImportGenius.com (which has historical data back to November 2006).

To identify U.S. companies — or companies in a particular U.S. state or region — doing business in a particular foreign country, look in the Directory of American Firms Operating In Foreign Companies, in print or online, from Uniworld. You could also contact the U.S. Embassy in the relevant country and ask if they have a list.

To identify importers or export companies located in a state or region, use Piers.com and/or the D&B Million Dollar Directory (the Advanced Search lets you select “Importer,” “Exporter” or both).

To identify foreign companies doing business in the U.S. or in a particular U.S. state, use the Directory of Foreign Firms Operating in the United States, in print or online, from Uniworld.

Useful online resources for international trade include:

  1. The U.S. Commerce Department’s Market Research Library, which provides reports on U.S. exports by industry and country;
  2. Lex Mercatoria
  3. International Trade Administration
  4. Export-Import Bank of the United States
  5. The United States International Trade Commission, which allows you to search filings through EDIS, the Electronic Document Information System
  6. The U.S. International Trade Commission’s Tariff Information Center, which includes the current Harmonized Tariff Schedule
  7. The U.S. Census Bureau’s Foreign Trade Statistics page
  8. The NTIS Business Collection, where you can buy U.S. government reports and other publications.
  9. The U.S. International Trade Commission posts the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States.
  10. The European Union posts Trade Issues pages discussing EU foreign trade policy. The Bilateral Trade Relations section provides data on EU trade with specific countries.
  11. The U.S. International Trade Library on HeinOnline contains a large collection of International Trade Commission materials and international trade-related legislative histories (by subscription only).
  12. The “International” section of Globalex has guides for researching a number of trade agreements including NAFTA, CAFTA, APEC, Asean, ECOWAS, CEMAC and MERCOSUR.
  13. For more sources, see the Georgetown Law Library’s International Trade Law Research Guide.

Customs: Following are some resources I have found useful for customs law research.

  1. The U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP; formerly the U.S. Customs Service) websites posts U.S. import and export rules, particularly the Legal Decisions/Publications page.
  2. The Customs Rulings Online Search System (CROSS) database provides selected U.S. Customs and Boarder Protection rulings (1989-present).
  3. The CUSTOMS Info database contains more US rulings than CROSS as well as EU rulings and WCO Explanatory Notes (subscription only).
  4. Trade and Customs (from the Getting the Deal Through series) summarizes customs rules of a dozen trade organizations including the WTO, WCO, TPP, NAFTA, Mercosur, the European Union and the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia.
  5. The International Trade Today covers new U.S. “Federal rules and regulations for trade and customs professionals.”

Export Controls: To get a grip on U.S. export controls, check out the current edition ofCoping with U.S. Export Controls, a PLI Course Handbook in the Commercial Law series. See the Practicing Law Institute entry, in the legal Encyclopedia, for options on obtaining PLI content. For more, see the “United States” chapter of the Export Control Law and Regulations Handbook: A Practical Guide to Military and Dual-Use Goods, Trade Restrictions and Compliance (Aspen) and/or Corporate Counsel’s Guide to Economic Sanctions and Embargoes (ThomsonReuters/West).

See also the materials posted by the Commerce Department’s Bureau of Industry and Security (including the Introduction to Commerce Department Export Controls), the State Department’s Directorate of Defense Controls (which is responsible for the International Traffic in Arms Regulations or “ITAR”), the Treasury Department’s Office of Foreign Asset Controls and any other relevant agencies.

Note: The International Traffic in Arms Regulations or “ITAR” are published at 22 C.F.R. Chapter 1, Subchapter M, Parts 120-130. An annotated edition with practice tips by called Bartlett’s Annotated ITAR (“the BITAR”) by James Ellwood Bartlett III is available from Full Circle Compliance.

For other countries, the Export Control Law and Regulations Handbook: A Practical Guide to Military and Dual-Use Goods, Trade Restrictions and Compliance (Aspen) has chapters on China, the European Union, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, Russia, Spain, and the United Kingdom. You may also want to see also information on the Wassenaar Arrangement, an international agreement “on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual Use Goods and Technologies.” The Trade and Customsvolume from the Getting the Deal Through series lists the major sanctions and embargoes put in place by the countries covered.

Economic Principles of International Trade and the World Trade Organization

Economic Principles of International Trade in relation to the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers several issues.See more related entries to International Trade in this legal encyclopedia.

Resources

See Also

  • International Trade
  • Trade Regulation
  • International Economic Law
  • Export License
  • International Trade Law
  • Foreign Trade
  • Safeguard

Resources

See Also

Bureau of Industry and Security
Doing Business in Foreign Countries
Foreign Laws
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
International Law
North American Free Trade Agreement
Treaties – Foreign
Treaties – U.S.
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods
United States Court of International Trade
World Trade Organization

Notes and References

Guide to International Trade

In the United States

For information about International Trade in the context of international trade, click here

International Trade Law

International Trade and the Laws of International Trade

The International Trade Center (ITC) Agency

Resources

See Also

Further Reading

  • Information about International Trade in the Encyclopedia of World Trade: from Ancient Times to the Present (Cynthia Clark Northrup)
  • Aaronson, S.A. (2001) Taking Trade to the Streets: The Lost History of Public Efforts to Shape Globalization. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Acemoglu, D., and Robinson, J.A. (2001) A Theory of Political Transitions. American Economic Review 91 (4), 938–63.
  • Alt, J.E., and Gilligan M.J. (1994) The Political Economy of Trading States: Factor Specificity, Collective Action Problems, and Domestic Political Institutions. Journal of Political Philosophy 2 (2), 165–92.
  • Alt, J.E., Carlsen, F., Heum, P., and Johansen, K. (1999) Asset Specificity and the Political Behavior of Firms: Lobbying for Subsidies in Norway. International Organization 53 (1), 99–116.
  • Alt, J.E., Frieden, J., Gilligan, M.J., Rodrik, D., and Rogowski, R. (1996) The Political Economy of International Trade: Enduring Puzzles and an Agenda for Inquiry. Comparative Political Studies 29 (6), 689–717.
  • Andonova, L., Mansfield, E.D., and Milner, H.V. (2007) International Trade and Environmental Policy in the Postcommunist World. Comparative Political Studies 40 (7), 782–807.
  • Armijo, L.E. (1999) Mixed Blessing: Expectations About Foreign Capital Flows and Democracy in Emerging Markets. In L.E. Armijo (ed.) Financial Globalization and Democracy in Emerging Markets. New York: Palgrave/St. Martin’s Press, pp. 17–50.
  • Bailey, M.A. (2001) Quiet Influence: The Representation of Diffuse Interests on Trade Policy, 1983–1994. Legislative Studies Quarterly 26 (1), 45–80.
  • Bailey, M.A., Goldstein, J., and Weingast, B.R. (1997) The Institutional Roots of American Trade Policy. World Politics 49 (3), 309–38.
  • Baker, A. (2003) Why is Trade Reform so Popular in Latin America? A Consumption-Based Theory of Trade Policy Preferences. World Politics 55 (3), 423–55.
  • Baker, A. (2005) Who Wants to Globalize? Consumer Tastes and Labor Markets in a Theory of Trade Policy Beliefs. American Journal of Political Science 49 (4), 924–38.
  • Baldwin, R.E. (1985) The Political Economy of U.S. Import Policy. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Baldwin, R.E., and Magee, C.S. (2000) Congressional Trade Votes: From NAFTA Approval to Fast-Track Defeat. Policy Analyses in International Economics 59. Washington: Institute of International Economics.
  • Barro, R. (2000) Inequality and Growth in a Panel of Countries. Journal of Economic Growth 5 (1), 5–32.
  • Bartilow, H.A., and Voss, D.S. (2009) Market Rules: The Incidental Relationship between Democratic Compatibility and International Commerce. International Studies Quarterly 53 (1), 103–24.
  • Bayulgen, O. (in press) Foreign Investment and Political Regimes: The Oil Sector in Azerbaijan, Russia, and Norway. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Beaulieu, E. (2002) Factor or Industry Cleavages in Trade Policy: An Empirical Analysis of the Stolper–Samuelson Theorem. Economics and Politics 14 (2), 99–131.
  • Beaulieu, E. (2004) Campaign Contributions and Trade Policy: New Tests of Stolper–Samuelson. Economics and Politics 16 (2), 163–87.
  • Bello, W., and Cunningham, S. (1994) Trade Warfare and Regional Integration in the Pacific: The USA, Japan and the Asian NICs. Third World Quarterly 15 (3), 445–58.
  • Bhagwati, J. (2004) In Defense of Globalization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Birdsall, N., and Londono, J. (1997) Asset Inequality Matters: An Assessment of the World Bank’s Approach to Poverty Reduction. American Economic Review 87 (1), 32–7.
  • Borjas, G.J., Freeman, R.B., and Katz, L.F. (1992) On the Labor Market Effects of Immigration and Trade. In G.J. Borgas and R.B. Freeman (eds.) Immigration and the Work Force: Economic Consequences for the United States and Source Areas: A National Bureau of Economic Research Project Report. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 213–44.
  • Brawley, M.R. (1997) Factor or Sectoral Conflict? Partially Mobile Factors and the Politics of Trade in Imperial Germany. International Studies Quarterly 41 (4), 633–54.
  • Brune, N., and Garrett G. (2005) The Globalization Rorschach Test: International Economic Integration, Inequality, and the Role of Government. Annual Review of Political Science 8 (1), 399–423.
  • Busch, M., and Milner, H.V. (1993) International Firms, Regionalism and Domestic Politics. In R. Stubbs and G. Underhill (eds.) Political Economy and the Changing Global Order. New York: St. Martin’s Press, pp. 259–76.
  • Buthe, T., and Milner, H.V. (2008) The Politics of Foreign Direct Investment into Developing Countries: Increasing FDI through International Trade Agreements. American Journal of Political Science 52 (4), 741–62.
  • Cardoso, F.H., and Faletto, E. (1979) Dependency and Development in Latin America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Chase, K.A. (2008) Protecting Free Trade: The Political Economy of Rules of Origin. International Organization 62 (3), 507–30.
  • Cline, W.R. (1997) Trade and Income Distribution. Washington: Institute of International Economics.
  • Cohen, J.N., and Centeno, M.A. (2006) Neoliberalism and Patterns of Economic Performance, 1980–2000. The ANNALS of American Academy of Political and Social Science 606 (1), 32–67.
  • Cohn, T.H. (2002) Global Political Economy: Theory and Practice, 2nd edn. New York: Ashley Wesley Longman.
  • Coughlin, C.C., Chrystal, K.A., and Wood, G.E. (2000) Protectionist Trade Policies: A Survey of Theory, Evidence, and Rationale. In J.A. Frieden and D.A. Lake (eds.) International Political Economy, 4th edn. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s Press, pp. 303–17.
  • De Soysa, I., and Neumayer, E. (2005) False Prophet, or Genuine Savior? Assessing the Effects of Economic Openness on Sustainable Development, 1980–99. International Organization 59 (3), 731–72.
  • Destler, I.M. (2005) American Trade Politics: System Under Stress, 4th edn. Washington: Institute for International Economics.
  • Destler, I.M., and Balint P.J. (1999) The New Politics of American Trade: Trade, Labor, and the Environment. Washington: Institute for International Economics.
  • Doucouliagos, H., and Ulubasoglu, M.A. (2008) Democracy and Economic Growth: A Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Political Science 52 (1), 61–83.
  • Driesen, D.M. (2006) Environmental Protection, Free Trade, and Democracy. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 603 (1), 252–61.
  • Evans, P. (1979) Dependent Development: The Alliance of Multinational, State, and Local Capital in Brazil. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Feenstra, R., and Hanson, G. (1999) The Impact of Outsourcing and High-Technology Capital on Wages: Estimates for the United States, 1979–1990. Quarterly Journal of Economics 114 (3), 314–29.
  • Frankel, J.A., and Romer, D. (1999) Does Trade Cause Growth? American Economic Review 89 (3), 379–99.
  • Frieden, J.A. (1991) Debt, Development, and Democracy: Modern Political Economy and Latin America, 1965–1985. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Frye, T., and Mansfield, E.D. (2003) Fragmenting Protection: The Political Economy of Trade Policy in the Post-Communist World. British Journal of Political Science 33 (4), 635–57.
  • Galbraith, J.K., and Kum, H. (2002) Inequality and Economic Growth: Data Comparisons and Econometric Tests. Working Paper no. 21, University of Texas Inequality Project.
  • Garrett, G. (1998) Partisan Politics in the Global Economy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Garrett, G. (2004) Globalization’s Missing Middle. Foreign Affairs 84 (6), 84–96.
  • Giles, J.A., and Williams, C. (2000) Export-led Growth: A Survey of the Empirical Literature and Some Non-causality Results. Journal of International Trade and Economic Development 9 (3), 261–37.
  • Gilligan, M.J. (1997) Empowering Exporters: Reciprocity, Delegation, and Collective Action in American Trade Policy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Gilpin, G. (2000) The Global Challenge of Capitalism: The World Economy in the 21st Century. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Goldstein, J. (1993) Ideas, Interests, and American Trade Policy. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Gourevitch, P. (1986) Politics in Hard Times: Comparative Responses to International Economic Crises. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Gowa, J. (1989) Bipolarity, Multipolarity, and Free Trade. American Political Science Review 83 (4), 1245–56.
  • Haggard, S. (1990) Pathways from the Periphery: The Politics of Growth in Newly Industrializing Countries. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Haggard, S., and Kaufman, R.R. (1995) The Political Economy of Democratic Transitions. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Hainmueller, J., and Hiscox, M.J. (2006) Learning to Love Globalization: The Effects of Education on Individual Attitudes Toward International Trade. International Organization 60 (2), 469–98.
  • Hartwick, E., and Peet, R. (2003) Neoliberalism and Nature: The Case of the WTO. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 590 (1), 188–211.
  • Hays, J.C., Ehrlich, S.D., and Peinhardt, C. (2005) Government Spending and Public Support for Trade in the OECD: An Empirical Test of the Embedded Liberalism Thesis. International Organization 59 (2), 473–94.
  • Hertel, S. (2005) What Was All the Shouting About? Strategic Bargaining and Protest at the WTO Third Ministerial (Seattle, WA, USA – 1999). Human Rights Review 6 (3), 102–18.
  • Hirschman, A.O. (1958) The Strategy of Economic Development. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Hiscox, M.J. (1999) The Magic Bullet? The RTAA, Institutional Reform, and Trade Liberalization. International Organization 53 (4), 669–98.
  • Hiscox, M.J. (2002a) International Trade and Political Conflict: Commerce, Coalitions, and Mobility. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Hiscox, M.J. (2002b) Commerce, Coalitions, and Factor Mobility: Evidence from Congressional Votes on Trade Legislation. American Political Science Review 96 (3), 593–608.
  • Hiscox, M.J. (2006) Through A Glass Darkly: Framing Effects and Individuals’ Attitudes Toward Trade. International Organization 60 (3), 755–80.
  • Hoekman, B.M., and Kostecki, M.M. (1995) The Political Economy of the World Trading System: From GATT to WTO. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Irwin, D.A. (2008a) Antebellum Tariff Politics: Regional Coalitions and Shifting Economic Interests. Journal of Law and Economics 51 (4), 715–41.
  • Irwin, D.A. (2008b) The Genesis of GATT. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Irwin, D.A. (2009) Free Trade Under Fire, 3rd edn. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Irwin, D.A., and Kroszner, R.S. (1999) Interests, Institutions, and Ideology in Securing Policy Change: The Republican Conversion to Trade Liberalization after Smoot–Hawley. Journal of Law and Economics 42 (October), 643–673.
  • Jeong G.H. (2009) Constituent Influence on International Trade Policy in the United States, 1987–2006. International Studies Quarterly 53 (2), 519–40.
  • Kaempfer, H.W., and Marks, S.V. (1993) The Expected Effects of Trade Liberalization: Evidence from US Congressional Action on Fast-Track Authority. World Economy 16 (6), 725–41.
  • Kapstein, E.B. (2000) Winners and Losers in the Global Economy. International Organization 54 (2), 359–84.
  • Keech, W.R., and Pak, K. (1995) Partisanship, Institutions, and Change in American Trade Politics. Journal of Politics 57 (4), 1130–42.
  • Keohane, R., and Milner, H.V. (1996) Internationalization and Domestic Politics. In R. Keohane and H.V. Milner (eds.) Internationalization and Domestic Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp 3–24.
  • Krishna, P. (1998) Regionalism and Multilateralism: A Political Economy Approach. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 113 (1), 227–51.
  • Krueger, A. (1995) Free Trade Agreements Versus Customs Unions. National Bureau of Economic Research, NBER Working Paper No. 5084, Cambridge, MA.
  • Krueger, A. (1998) Why Trade Liberalization is Good for Growth. Economic Journal 108 (450), 1513–22.
  • Krugman, P. (1986) Strategic Trade Policy and the New International Economics. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Krugman, P. (1998) Ricardo’s Difficult Idea. In G. Cook (ed.) The Economics and Politics of International Trade, Freedom and Trade: Volume II. New York: Routledge, pp. 22–36.
  • Ladewig, J.W. (2005) Conditional Party Government and the Homogeneity of Constituent Interests. Journal of Politics 67 (4), 1006–29.
  • Ladewig, J.W. (2006) Domestic Influences on International Trade Policy: Factor Mobility in the United States, 1963 to 1992. International Organization 60 (1), 69–103.
  • Lange, P., and Scruggs, L. (2002) Where Have All the Members Gone? Journal of Politics 64 (1), 126–53.
  • Leamer, E.E. (1984) Sources of International Comparative Advantage: Theory and Evidence. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Li, Q., and Reuveny, R. (2003) Economic Globalization and Democracy: An Empirical Analysis. British Journal of Political Science 33 (1), 29–54.
  • Little, D.M. (1982) Economic Development: Theory, Practice, and International Relations. New York: Basic Books.
  • Lohmann, S., and O’Halloran, S. (1994) Divided Government and U.S. Trade Policy: Theory and Evidence. International Organization 48 (4), 595–632.
  • López-Córdova, J.E., and Meissner, C.M. (2008) The Impact of International Trade on Democracy: A Long-Run Perspective. World Politics 60 (4), 539–609.
  • MacIntyre, A. (2001) Institutions and Investors: The Politics of the Economic Crisis in Southeast Asia. International Organization 55 (1), 81–122.
  • Magee, S.P., Brock, W.A., and Young, L. (1989) Black Hole Tariffs and Endogenous Policy Theory: Political Economy in General Equilibrium. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Mansfield, E.D., and Milner, H.V. (1999) The New Wave of Regionalism. International Organization 53 (3), 589–627.
  • Mansfield, E.D., Milner, H.V., and Rosendorff, P.R. (2000) Free to Trade: Democracies, Autocracies, and International Trade. American Political Science Review 91 (1), 94–108.
  • Marks, S.V., and McArthur, J. (1990) Empirical Analyses of the Determinants of Protection: A Survey of Some New Results. In S. Odell and T.D. Willett (eds.) International Trade Policies: Gains from Exchange Between Economics and Political Science. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, pp. 105–39.
  • Maxfield, S. (1998) Understanding the Political Implications of Financial Internationalization in Emerging Market Countries. World Development 26 (7), 1201–19.
  • Mayda, A.M., and Rodrik, D. (2005) Why are Some People (and Countries) More Protectionist Than Others. European Economic Review 49 (6), 1393–430.
  • McArthur, J., and Marks, S.V. (1988) Constituent Interest vs. Legislator’s ideology: The Role of Political Opportunity Costs. Economic Inquiry 26 (3), 461–70.
  • McGillivray, F. (1997) Party Discipline as a Determinant of the Endogenous Formation of Tariffs. American Journal of Political Science 41 (2), 584–607.
  • Merschi, E., and Vivarelli, M. (2009) Trade and Income Inequality in Developing Countries. World Development 37 (2), 287–302.
  • Midford, P. (1993) International Trade and Domestic Politics: Improving on Rogowski’s Model of Political Alignments. International Organization 47 (4), 535–64.
  • Milner, H.V. (1988) Resisting Protectionism: Global Industries and the Politics of International Trade. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Milner, H.V. (1999) The Political Economy of International Trade. Annual Review of Political Science 2 (1), 91–114.
  • Milner, H.V., and Yoffie, D.B. (1989) Between Free Trade and Protectionism: Strategic Trade Policy and a Theory of Corporate Trade Demands. International Organization 43 (2), 239–72.
  • Mosley, L. (2008) Workers’ Rights in Open Economies: Global Production and Domestic Institutions in the Developing World. Comparative Politics Studies 41 (4/5), 674–714.
  • Mosley, L., and Uno, S. (2007) Racing to the Bottom or Climbing to the Top? Economic Globalization and Collective Labor Rights. Comparative Political Studies 40 (8), 923–48.
  • O’Halloran, S. (1994) Politics, Process, and American Trade Policy. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
  • Olson, M. (1965) The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Park, J.H., and Jensen, M. (2007) Electoral Competition and Agricultural Support in OECD Countries. American Journal of Political Science 51 (2), 314–29.
  • Prebisch, R. (1950) The Economic Development of Latin America and Its Principal Problems. New York: United Nations.
  • Przeworski, A., Alvarez, M.E., Cheibub, J.A., and Limongi, F. (2000) Democracy and Development: Political Institutions and Well-Being in the World, 1950–2000. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Przeworski, A., and Limongi, F. (1997) Modernization: Theories and Facts. World Politics 49 (2), 155–83.
  • Rodrik, D. (1997) Has Globalization Gone Too Far? Washington: Institute of International Economics.
  • Rodrik, D. (2007) One Economics, Many Recipes: Globalization, Institutions, and Economic Growth. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Rogowski, R. (1989) Commerce and Coalitions: How Trade Affects Domestic Political Alignments. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Rostow, W.W. (1965) The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rudra, N. (2002) Globalization and the Decline of the Welfare State in Less-Developed Countries. International Organization 56 (2), 411–45.
  • Rudra, N. (2005) Globalization and the Strengthening of Democracy in the Developing World. American Journal of Political Science 49 (4), 704–30.
  • Ruggie, J. (1982) International Regimes, Transactions, and Change: Embedded Liberalism in Postwar Economic Order. International Organization 36 (2), 379–415.
  • Ruggie, J. (1994) Trade, Protectionism and the Future of Welfare Capitalism. Journal of International Affairs 48 (1), 1–11.
  • Sach, J., Warner, A., Aslund, A., and Fischer, S. (1995) Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1995 (1), 1–118.
  • Samuelson, P. (2004) Where Ricardo and Mill Rebut and Confirm Arguments of Mainstream Economists Supporting Globalization. Journal of Economic Perspectives 18 (3), 135–46.
  • Schattschneider, E.E. (1935) Politics, Pressures, and the Tariff. Englewood Cliff: Prentice Hall.
  • Scheve, K.F., and Slaughter M.J. (2001a) Globalization and the Perceptions of American Workers. Washington: Institute for International Economics.
  • Scheve, K.F., and Slaughter M.J. (2001b) What Determines Individual Trade-Policy Preferences? Journal of International Economics 54 (2), 267–92.
  • Scheve, K.F., and Slaughter M.J. (2004) Economic Insecurity and the Globalization of Production. American Journal of Political Science 48 (4), 662–74.
  • Scruggs, L. (2004) Research on Globalization and the Welfare State: Do We Know What We Think We Know? Paper prepared for the Duke University Summer Institute on Globalization and Equity.
  • Slaughter, M.J. (1999) Globalization and Wages: A Tale of Two Perspectives. World Economy 22 (5), 609–29.
  • Slaughter, M.J. (2001a) International Trade and Labor – Demand Elasticities. Journal of International Economics 54 (1), 27–56.
  • Slaughter, M.J. (2001b) Trade Liberalization and Per Capita Income Convergence: A Difference-in-Difference Analysis. Journal of International Economics 55 (1), 203–28.
  • Stallings, B. (ed.) (1995) Global Change, Regional Response: The New International Context of Development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Swank, D. (2002) Global Capital, Political Institutions and Policy Change in Developed Welfare States. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Verdier, D. (1994) Democracy and International Trade: Britain, France, and the United States, 1860–1990. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Wade, R. (1990) Governing the Market: Economic Theory and the Role of Government in East Asian Industrialization. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Wallerstein, M. (1999) Wage-Setting Institutions and Pay Inequality in Advanced Industrial Societies. American Journal of Political Science 43 (3), 649–80.
  • Wibbels, E. (2006) Dependency Revisited: International Markets, Business Cycles, and Social Spending in the Developing World. International Organizations 60 (2), 433–68.
  • WTO (2009) Regionalism: friends or rivals? At www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/bey1_e.htm, accessed June 2009.
  • Zahariadis, N. (2001) Asset Specificity and State Subsidies in Industrialized Countries. International Studies Quarterly 45 (4), 603–16.

Hierarchical Display of International trade

Trade > International trade
Trade > Trade policy > Market > International market
International Relations > International affairs > International affairs > International relations
International Organisations > World organisations > World organisation > World Trade Organisation
Business And Competition > Competition > Competition policy > Competition > International competition
Economics > Economic structure > Economy > World economy
Trade > Trade policy > Commercial law > Commercial arbitration
Law > International law > International economic law > International trade law

International trade

Concept of International trade

See the dictionary definition of International trade.

Characteristics of International trade

Resources

Translation of International trade

Thesaurus of International trade

Trade > International trade > International trade
Trade > Trade policy > Market > International market > International trade
International Relations > International affairs > International affairs > International relations > International trade
International Organisations > World organisations > World organisation > World Trade Organisation > International trade
Business And Competition > Competition > Competition policy > Competition > International competition > International trade
Economics > Economic structure > Economy > World economy > International trade
Trade > Trade policy > Commercial law > Commercial arbitration > International trade
Law > International law > International economic law > International trade law > International trade

See also

  • World trade

Hierarchical Display of International trade

Trade

International trade

Concept of International trade

See the dictionary definition of International trade.

Characteristics of International trade

Resources

Translation of International trade

Thesaurus of International trade

Trade > International trade

See also

  • Economist
  • Economics science researcher
  • Economics analyst
  • Business economist

Leave a Comment