International Trade

International Political Economy Trends: International Trade Introduction to International Trade In the 21st century, international trade has grown to 20 percent of the world's total production of goods and services-around $6.5 trillion per year. This volume of trade is almost seven times […]

Market Access

Summary of Market Access The degree of participation in the domestic market that a nation allows to foreign suppliers. Tariffs, quotas, and similar protective devices are devices imposed to limit market access. (Main Author: William J. Miller) Market Access and National Treatment in the […]

Environmental Protection

Communities of all sizes, from townships to the national government, establish laws that govern how individuals acting within the community are to conduct themselves. The environment is arguably one of the newest considerations to be decided by and incorporated into the body of the law. The […]

Public International Law

Summary of Public International Law The body of international law that governs the conduct of a nation as a sovereign entity in its relations with other nations. It does not deal with the international activities of private individuals or firms. (Main Author: William J. Miller) […]

International Monetary Fund

International Monetary Fund Outline The UN Monetary and Financial Conference met in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, from 1 to 20 July 1944. The Bretton Woods Agreement announced the establishment of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for […]

Tax Law

Other Popular Tax Definitions in the World Legal Encyclopedia Adjusted Gross Income (sometimes, including Tax Law) Ad Valorem Tax (sometimes, including Tax Law) Alternative Minimum Tax (sometimes, including Tax Law) Big Four (audit firms) (sometimes, including Tax Law) Black Market […]

Financial Regulation

Financial Regulation in International Economic Law In international economic law, financial regulation includes the following legal areas, with coverage in this world legal encyclopedia: li> International Standards Banking Core Principles Insurance Core Principles Standards for Market Actors

Investment Protection

Investment Protection in International Economic Law In international economic law, investment protection includes the following legal areas, with coverage in this world legal encyclopedia: li> Coverage in Investment Protection Right to Use and Direct Expropriation Indirect Expropriation

Corruption

Corruption Definition Corruption, wrongdoing by those in a special position of trust. The term is commonly applied to self-benefiting conduct by public officials and others dedicated to public service. (1) Corruption is not a technical term; it is not considered a criminal offence in most […]

Public Health

Introduction to Public Health Public Health, protection and improvement of the health of entire populations through community-wide action, primarily by governmental agencies. The goals of public health are to prevent human disease, injury, and disability; protect people from environmental […]

Customs Union

Summary of Customs Union

An arrangement among participating countries whereby tariffs are eliminated or virtually eliminated on products moving between members, and a common external tariff (read this and related legal terms for further details) is adopted to provide uniform treatment to […]

Financial Services

Financial Services and the World Trade Organization Financial Services in relation to the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers several issues. European Passport and Europe There is an entry on european passport in the European legal encyclopedia. This section provides an overview of financial […]

Public Goods

Global Public Good(s) (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Global Public Good(s) means: a global public good is a good that has the three following properties : 1. It is non-rivalrous. Consumption of this good by anyone does not reduce the quantity available to other agents; 2. It […]

Renewable Energy

Renewable Source (of Energy) (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Renewable Source (of Energy) means: natural resources, which stocks or recovered more quickly than is used or not depends on whether or not they are used as hydro, solar, wind, geothermal, hydraulic energy, the […]

Technology Transfer

Technology Transfer and International Trade Economy In relation to international trade economy, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following definition of Technology Transfer: The diffusion of practical knowledge from one enterprise, institution or country to another. Technology may be […]

Culture

Culture and the Treaties of the European Union Description of Culture provided by the European Union Commission: Whilst the will to conduct cultural activities at European level was apparent as early as the 1970s, it was not until 1991 that culture was officially given a place in European […]

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency

Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency in relation with International Trade In the context of trade organizations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following definition of Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency: An independent agency of the World Bank group established in 1988 to […]

Energy Law

Most Popular Entries related to Energy Law Energy Law (in the World) Energy Law Schools (in the World) Energy Lawyer Salary (in the World) Oil Law (in the World) Gas Law (in the World) See Also Federal Energy Regulation Commission (United States) New Disciplines on Energy Law This […]

Multi-Level Governance

Globalization and Multi-Level Governance This section provides an overview of globalization and multi-level governance within the legal context of Historical Perspective in international economic law. Resources Further Reading Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann, "Globalization and Multi-Level […]

Law of the Sea

Law Of The Sea The United States Congress has kept the United NationsÂ’s Law of the Sea Treaty bottled up in committee for 30 years. In 2011, a rush by nations to claim oil rights under the Arctic Sea was quickening debate on treaty accession. United States Senator Lee, cofounder of […]

Microfinance

Microfinance (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Microfinance means: the complex of financial products for low-income part of population aimed at facilitating their involvement into economic activity. This section provides an overview of microfinance within the legal context of […]

Regional Integration

Regional Integration and Preferential Trade This section provides an overview of regional integration and preferential trade within the legal context of Most-Favoured Nation Treatment (MFN) in international economic law, with coverage of Non-Discrimination in Trade of Goods and Services […]

Competition Policy

Competition Policy and International Trade Economy In relation to international trade economy, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following definition of Competition Policy: A broad category encompassing antitrust and other policies to remedy the imperfectly competitive nature of key […]

Competition Law

Anti-Dumping and Competition Law and the World Trade Organization Anti-Dumping and Competition Law in relation to the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers several issues. Competition Law in a Global Context Contents of Competition Law in a Global Context Contents of this subject matter […]

Tax Evasion

Tax evasion is when someone has deliberately misled us about their activities to reduce their tax liability, or have not paid tax that is due. tax evasion is escaping payment by illegal means. This is obviously unlawful and is usually a criminal offence Tax evasion is when a person or a […]

Counterfeiting

Introduction to Counterfeiting Counterfeiting, criminal offense of making an imitation of an article with intent to defraud others into accepting it as the genuine item. The term counterfeit is used most frequently to denote imitations of coined money or of the paper currency of a government […]

Trade

In the United States For information about Trade in the context of international trade, click here Trade and the Laws of International Trade Prohibited actions Export Administration System Trade and the Laws of International Trade Intent Export Administration System American Coasting Trade: […]

Customs Valuation

For importers, the process of estimating the value of a product at customs presents problems that can be just as serious as the actual duty rate charged. The WTO agreement on customs valuation aims for a fair, uniform and neutral system for the valuation of goods for customs purposes — a system that conforms to commercial realities, and which outlaws the use of arbitrary or fictitious customs values. The Committee on Customs Valuation of the Council for Trade in Goods (CGT) carries out work in the WTO on customs valuation.

Financial Stability

This section provides an overview of financial stability within the legal context of Recognised Policies Protecting Domestic Policy Space in international economic law, with coverage of Protecting Domestic Policy Space (Principles). Resources Further Reading Nina Reiser, "Financial […]

Private International Law

Branches of Private International Law

Intellectual Property International commercial arbitration International Commercial Law International Contracts International Family Law International Law of Procedure See also: Hague Conference on Private […]

Human Rights

Introduction to Human Rights "Since World War II international law has become increasingly concerned with the protection of human rights. It has provided improved procedures for that purpose within the UN. This new emphasis has also been manifested in the adoption by the UN of the […]

International Trade Law

Outline Following an introductory overview of the principles and structure of international trade law, this entry concentrates on the substantive obligations in the agreements that form part of the World Trade Organization Agreement, including tariff and customs?related matters, […]

Private Sector

Private Sector in International Economic Law In international economic law, private sector includes the following legal areas, with coverage in this world legal encyclopedia: li> Corporations' Responsibility in International Law Corporate Codes of Conduct Role of Lobbies and Associations […]

International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes

International Centre For Settlement Of Investment Disputes Summary of International Centre For Settlement Of Investment Disputes

An international agency affiliated with the World Bank and serving as a forum for the resolution of international investment disputes. The center was established […]

Commercial law

Commercial law Introduction to Commercial Law Commercial Law, body of law that relates to commerce and business transactions. Commercial law includes the laws that pertain to sales; negotiable instruments, such as checks and promissory notes; carriage by land and sea; insurance; brokerage; […]

Economic Sanctions

UN Sanctions against Iran Note: for more information, click here. United Nations Sanctions against Iran by Title, Description and Date: UN Security Council Resolution 1696: Resolution expressing the Security Council's concern about the direction of Iran's nuclear program. (July 31, […]

International Energy Agency

Summary of International Energy Agency

An autonomous group within the organization for Economic Cooperation And Development (read this and related legal terms for further details) established in 1974 to coordinate the responses of the developed, oil-importing countries to the 1973 oil […]

Climate Change

Climate Change in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): For discussion of issues relating to climate change generally, see information on Nationality, Citizenship and Immigration in this legal […]

International Court Of Justice

Introduction to International Court of Justice International Court of Justice, also known as World Court, principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN). It was created in 1945 under the UN Charter as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice under the League of […]

Commercial Arbitration

In the U.S., commercial arbitration is used most often in the construction, garment, and textile industries; in cases involving insurance and negligence; in maritime disputes; and in controversies involving members of stock and commodity exchanges. All but six states have adopted modern […]

Sustainable Development

Definition and Origins Sustainability and sustainable development were initially defined and promulgated in a report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, "Our Common Future" (1987). This report said (page 43) that sustainable development "is development that […]

International Intellectual Property Protection

The Impact of Preferential Trade Agreements on IPR Protection This section provides an overview of the impact of preferential trade agreements on ipr protection within the legal context of Intellectual Property Protection in international economic law, with coverage of The Protection of […]

Domestic Policy Space

Recognised Policies Protecting Domestic Policy Space in International Economic Law In international economic law, recognised policies protecting domestic policy space includes the following legal areas, with coverage in this world legal encyclopedia: li> Public Morals Environmental Protection […]

Cooperation Agreements

Readmission and Cooperation Agreements This section provides an overview of readmission and cooperation agreements within the legal context of Mode 4 Commitments in international economic law, with coverage of Labour Mobility (Main Regulatory Areas). Resources Further Reading Rosa Maria […]

International Enforcement Procedures

Adjudication and Enforcement Procedural Aspects in International Economic Law In international economic law, adjudication and enforcement procedural aspects includes the following legal areas, with coverage in this world legal encyclopedia: li>Jurisdiction in International Arbitration […]

Implementation in International Arbitration

Implementation and Enforcement in International Arbitration This section provides an overview of implementation and enforcement in international arbitration within the legal context of Procedural Aspects in international economic law, with coverage of Adjudication and Enforcement (Principles). […]

Government Procurement Agreement Procedures

Procedures under the GPA This section provides an overview of procedures under the gpa within the legal context of The Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) in international economic law, with coverage of Government Procurement (Main Regulatory Areas). Resources Further Reading Robert D […]