Rule of Law

Rule of law Definition Rule of law means that any act of the government must be done through laws, that no one is above the law. However this principle has many controversial aspects, the core of it requires that fair laws should apply to all persons in a given jurisdiction. It also means […]

International Commercial Arbitration

See also International business arbitration in this international legal encyclopedia.

International Commercial Arbitration Resources
Treaties and Conventions on Arbitration

See also Treaties in this legal […]

Administrative Law

Introduction Administrative law deals with the exercise of public power and the control of government decisions. Topics in administrative law include the role of the State, the governmental structures that influence the administrative law system, the principles of good administration, the […]

Common Law

Introduction to Common Law "Common Law, term used to refer to the main body of English unwritten law that evolved from the 12th century onward. The name comes from the idea that English medieval law, as administered by the courts of the realm, reflected the "common"customs of […]

Piracy

See Transnational crime . The first precise attempt to codify piracy was in 1958 when the Convention on the High Seas was adopted in order to clarify the legal status of pirates and the competence to arrest pirates. These articles in the Convention on the High Seas have been incorporated into […]

Thesaurus

A Thesaurus is an online database or a book of synonyms and near-synonyms in a written language, usually arranged conceptually, although dictionary arrangement is not uncommon. The first thesaurus of the English language, published in 1852, was compiled by Peter Mark Roget. For an online […]

Private International Law

Branches of Private International Law

Intellectual Property International commercial arbitration International Commercial Law International Contracts International Family Law International Law of Procedure See also: Hague Conference on Private […]

Commercial law

Commercial law Introduction to Commercial Law Commercial Law, body of law that relates to commerce and business transactions. Commercial law includes the laws that pertain to sales; negotiable instruments, such as checks and promissory notes; carriage by land and sea; insurance; brokerage; […]

International Criminal Law

International Criminal Law

International Criminal Law Authority

Main source: Duff, Antony, "Theories of Criminal Law", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = . We have focused so […]

International Law Resources

International Law Resources Research guides Guide to International trade law Sources on the Internet. A helpful overall guide to international agreements, International Organizations , United States government sources, country and regional business guides, and statistics. The site is […]

Legal Rights

Main source: Campbell, Kenneth, "Legal Rights", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = . Legal rights are, clearly, rights which exist under the rules of legal systems. They raise a number of different philosophical issues. (1) […]

1958 Convention: Interpretation

1958 Convention: Interpretation

    The New York Convention is an international treaty. As such, it is part of public international law. Consequently, the courts called upon to apply the Convention must interpret it in accordance with the […]

Advocacy

"Advocacy is the art of persuasion" Advocacy may be a promotion of a cause or point of view. It is also a general term related to a legal professional (advocate) who represents a client's interests in the courtroom; this term has no particular standing in English law, but is used in […]

CERCLA

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) The US Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) addresses the problem of abandoned hazardous waste […]

Treaties

Treaties Table of Content The Basics Introduction Treaties defining Subjects of International Law: International Organizations , European Union and other Subjets of International law Treaty-Making and NGOs Treaty Formation Making the Treaty Treaty Signature Provisional Application of […]

Transnational Crime

Transnational crime From a criminological perspective, the concept of 'transnational crime' originates from the mid-1970s when the United Nations used the term in order to identify certain criminal activities which transcend national jurisdictions. In 1995, the United Nations identified […]

Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum

In Kiobel, et al., v Royal Dutch Petroleum, et al., lawyers for 12 individuals seeking to hold major oil companies legally responsible for human rights abuses in Nigeria in the 1990s have asked the Supreme Court to overturn a federal appeals court's ruling that corporations are immune to such […]

UN Convention against Corruption

UN Convention against Corruption

Title

United Nations Convention Against Corruption

About the Convention

The purposes of the Convention are to promote and strengthen measures to prevent and combat corruption […]

Patents

Introduction This part of the Encyclopedia of Law provides an overview of the basic attributes of patents, along with the patentability requirements, practice in the USPTO, primarily the steps involved in obtaining a patent, some post-issuance considerations such as the patent term, and the […]

American Digest System

Case digests for American law, comprised of three different series: the Centennial Digest (cases up to 1896); the Decennial Digest (a number of sets covering either 10 or 5 years of cases, commencing in 1896); and the General Digest (volumes covering the period since the most recent Decennial […]

Duress

• Why is duress a problem? We want to know people actually agreed to contract of their own free will. (either under subjective or objective theory). Also violates pareto superior economic model, where at least one of the parties is better off and the other is at least not worse off. […]

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties

See also: vienna convention on diplomatic relations vienna convention on the law of treaties citation statute of the international court of justice international covenant on civil and political rights vienna convention on consular relations vienna convention on the law of treaties summary un […]

Human Trafficking

See International Criminal Law – Transnational crime In late 2000, the United Nations for the first time in international law defined human trafficking in the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (the Trafficking Protocol also called […]

Promissory Estoppel

Difference between First Restatement 90 and Second Restatement 90: deleted requirement that reliance be of definite and substantial character. Requirement was initially included to allow promissory estoppel into First Restatement (despite no case law on the subject). By Second Restatement, […]

Labor law

Labor law Early Labor Law In England, Parliament was averse to legislating on subjects relating to workers because of the prevailing policy of laissez-faire. The earliest factory law (1802) dealt with the health, safety, and morals of children employed in textile mills, and subsequent laws […]

Attorney General

Introduction to Attorney General Attorney General, in the United States and the United Kingdom, the chief law officer of the government. The duties of the attorney general are to advise and represent the government in important legal matters and to initiate and supervise legal proceedings […]

International Refugee Law

International Refugee Law International law: the refugee See International law and refugee conventions: States parties 1. International Instruments Basic instruments 1946 Constitution of the International Refugee Organization Extracts 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Extracts 1950 Statute of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of … Read more

History of International Law

Ancient History The need for some principles and rules of conduct between independent states arises whenever such states enter into mutual relations. Rules governing the treatment of foreign traders, travelers, and ambassadors, as well as the conclusion and observance of treaties, […]

Foreign Laws

Foreign Laws Secondary Sources: The subscription-based Foreign Law Guide: Current Sources of Codes and Basic Legislation in Jurisdictions of the World by Reynolds and Flores explains the legal bibliographies of most foreign countries, including subject-specific treatises in English [formerly published by F. B. Rothman as a looseleaf under the title Foreign Laws]. The blue pages … Read more

Legal topics

Academic Legal topics Law in general Comparative and uniform law Jurisprudence Legal Periodicals Bibliography Legal Monographic series Encyclopedias of Law Dictionaries of Law Words and phrases Legal Maxims Legal Quotations Legal Yearbooks Legal Directories Legal Research Legal composition and draftsmanship Legal Education Law societies International bar associations The legal profession Legal aid Legal assistance to … Read more

Legal Encyclopedias

Legal encyclopedias provide (generally) a brief, integrated statement of the law. They pull together an enormous body of legal literature, definitions, rules, and practice points derived mainly from case law. Indexes and cross-references are provided. Sections may be written by experts or by […]

Law library

Law library or Law Libraries A law library is a type of special library with a collection consisting primarily of materials for Legal Research and study, including case law, federal and state statutes, international legal agreements, treatises, reference works, legal periodicals, and […]

Law Librarianship

Law Librarianship Note: for related information, see the entries Law library and Legal Research in this legal Encyclopedia. Legal Materials To find articles on law librarianship, check out: The Legal Information Management Index, which I believe is the only index to cover the field exclusively and extensively. Legal Indexes — the Current Law Index (a/k/a … Read more

Substantive Law

Substantive Law Legal definition of Substantive Law Substantive law defines the rights and remedies of particular laws within a case. The part of the law that creates, defines, and regulates rights, including, for example, the law of contracts, torts, wills, and real property. In the definition of Substantive Law by the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, it is … Read more

United Nations Secretariat

United Nations Secretariat See: ? Charter of the United Nations ? UN: Purposes, principles and membership ? United Nations organs ? UN Pacific settlement of disputes ? UN: International cooperation and the ESC ? UN International Trusteeship system ? UN International Court of Justice ? United Nations Secretariat ? Other provisions Charter CHAPTER XV THE … Read more

Natural obligation

Natural obligation A natural obligation arises from circumstances in which the law implies a particular moral duty to render a performance. It may not be enforced by judicial action; however, whatever has been freely performed in compliance with a natural obligation may not be reclaimed, and a contract made for the performance of a natural … Read more