Advertising

PPC Advertising in Electronic Commerce PPC Advertising in the Online Business Law Resources See Also Further Reading Information related to advertising in the Max Planck Encyclopedia of International Law(MPEPIL), Germany, United Kingdom Resources See Also Internet Discovery Internet […]

International Trade

International Political Economy Trends: International Trade Introduction to International Trade In the 21st century, international trade has grown to 20 percent of the world's total production of goods and services-around $6.5 trillion per year. This volume of trade is almost seven times […]

Merger Control

Hierarchical Display of Merger control Business And Competition > Competition > Competition law
Business And Competition > Business organisation > Economic concentration
Business And Competition > Legal form of organisations > Organisation > Consortium Merger control Concept of Merger […]

Tied Sales Outlet

Hierarchical Display of Tied sales outlet Business And Competition > Competition > Restrictive trade practice > Vertical agreement
Trade > Marketing > Commercial transaction > Sale Tied sales outlet Concept of Tied sales outlet See the dictionary definition of Tied sales outlet. […]

Market Protection

Hierarchical Display of Market protection Trade > Trade policy > Trade policy > Market intervention
Business And Competition > Competition > Restrictive trade practice > Horizontal agreement
Economics > Economic policy > Economic policy > Protectionism Market protection Concept of Market […]

Anti-subsidy Proceeding

Hierarchical Display of Anti-subsidy proceeding Business And Competition > Competition > Competition law
European Union > European Union law > EU law > Application of EU law > Infringement of EU law > Complaint to the Commission
European Union > European Union law > EU law > Common […]

Dumping

Dumping in International Trade Meaning of Dumping, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The practice of selling a product in a foreign market at an unfairly low price (a price that is lower than the cost in the home market, or which is lower than the cost of […]

Refusal to Sell

Hierarchical Display of Refusal to sell Business And Competition > Competition > Restriction on competition
Trade > Marketing > Commercial transaction > Sale
Business And Competition > Competition > Restrictive trade practice > Vertical agreement > Exclusive distribution […]

Cartel

Summary of Cartel

An alliance among firms in the same line of business aimed at controlling or dominating their field on an international basis.

(Main Author: William J. Miller)

Definition of Cartel In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Cartel : […]

State Aid

Resources See Also Social Security Financing Social Insurance Social Security System

Marketing

Joint Marketing Arrangements with Special Groups and the Electronic Commerce Joint Marketing Arrangements with Special Groups in the Online Business Law Literature Review on Ethics and Marketing In the Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, [1] Ali Besharat, Ryan J. […]

Monopoly of Information

Hierarchical Display of Monopoly of information Education And Communications > Communications > Communications policy > Control of communications
Business And Competition > Business organisation > Economic concentration
Business And Competition > Competition > Restriction on competition […]

Monopoly

Summary of Monopoly The condition in which a given product or service can be obtained only from a single supplier that is free to use its market position to exact excessive prices for the product or service it controls. The Sherman Act of 1890 makes monopolies and attempts to monopolize […]

Joint Venture

Summary of Joint Venture

A business enterprise with more than one equity participant; for example, an agreement between a German firm and a U.S. firm to capitalize jointly a new factory in Venezuela. Many countries impose restrictions on joint ventures; these restrictions may take the form […]

Marketing Restriction

Hierarchical Display of Marketing restriction Business And Competition > Competition > Restrictive trade practice > Vertical agreement
Trade > Marketing > Marketing
Business And Competition > Competition > Restriction on competition > Refusal to sell
Trade > International trade > […]

Common Commercial Policy

Common commercial policy and the Treaties of the European Union Description of Common commercial policy provided by the European Union Commission: The Community has exclusive responsibility for the common commercial policy (Article 133 of the EC Treaty, formerly Article 113). Under the policy […]

Import

Import in International Trade Meaning of Import, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): 1. To receive goods and services from abroad. 2. An imported item. Cultural Property: Import Restrictions In relation to the international law practice and cultural […]

Trade Restriction

Hierarchical Display of Trade restriction Trade > International trade
Business And Competition > Competition > Restriction on competition
Economics > Economic policy > Economic policy > Protectionism
International Relations > International affairs > International affairs > Economic […]

International Economic Law

Legal Issues International economic law is more likely to fall under the rubric of public international law, as it deals with international economic relationships between states. See, for example, Petersmann, 'International Economic Theory and International Economic Law: On the Tasks of a […]

Comparative Analysis

Hierarchical Display of Comparative analysis Production, Technology And Research > Research and intellectual property > Research > Research method
Education And Communications > Education > Education policy > Comparative education
Production, Technology And Research > Technology and […]

Trust

Trust: Main Elements The coverage of Trust includes the following element(s): Trust For detailed information on this issue, please read the corresponding entry. References See Also Business Law (in international or comparative law) Business Organizations (in international or comparative law) […]

Organisation of Production

Hierarchical Display of Organisation of production Agri-Foodstuffs > Production > Production policy
Employment And Working Conditions > Organisation of work and working conditions > Organisation of work > Work study
Business And Competition > Competition > Restrictive trade practice > […]

Competitiveness

Competitiveness and International Trade Economy In relation to international trade economy, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following definition of Competitiveness: The ability of a nation or firm to sell competitive goods or services in international trade. Several aspects of […]

Specialisation Agreement

Hierarchical Display of Specialisation agreement Business And Competition > Competition > Restrictive trade practice > Vertical agreement
Agri-Foodstuffs > Production > Production policy > Organisation of production Specialisation agreement Concept of Specialisation agreement See the […]

Anti-trust Legislation

Hierarchical Display of Anti-trust legislation Business And Competition > Competition > Competition law
Business And Competition > Business organisation > Economic concentration > Conglomerate
Business And Competition > Competition > Restrictive trade practice > Trust Anti-trust […]

Export Price

Hierarchical Display of Export price Finance > Prices > Market prices
Business And Competition > Competition > Restriction on competition > Dumping
Trade > Trade policy > Export policy Export price Concept of Export price See the dictionary definition of Export price. Characteristics of […]

Company Law

The Legal History of Company Law This section provides an overview of Company Law Applied Company Law Contents of Applied Company Law Contents of this subject matter include: Introduction; Alternative Business Structures Characteristics of a Company Company's liability in Crime, Contract […]

Restrictive Trade Practice

Hierarchical Display of Restrictive trade practice Business And Competition > Competition
Finance > Prices > Prices > Discriminatory price
Business And Competition > Business organisation > Economic concentration
Business And Competition > Business organisation > Economic […]

Oligopoly

Summary of Oligopoly

Literally, a market in which there are only a few sellers of a given product or service. Under oligopolistic conditions, no one seller can establish market prices, except in concert with the other suppliers; if such concerted action develops, the suppliers are operating […]

Sale

The Legal History of SaleThis section provides an overview of Sale ResourcesSee AlsoLegal Biography Legal Traditions Historical Laws History of Law Further Reading Sale in the Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History (Oxford University Press) The Oxford Encyclopedia of American […]

EU Competition Policy

Hierarchical Display of EU competition policy Business And Competition > Competition > Competition policy
European Union > European construction > Deepening of the European Union > EU activity > EU policy EU competition policy Concept of EU competition policy See the dictionary definition […]

Industrial Property

Summary of Industrial Property

Intangible property such as patents and trademarks.

(Main Author: William J. Miller)

Spanish Translation of industrial property This is the legal translation of English to Spanish in relation to industrial property and / or a definition of this […]

State Monopoly

Hierarchical Display of State monopoly Business And Competition > Competition > Restriction on competition > Monopoly
Education And Communications > Communications > Communications policy > Control of communications > Monopoly of information
Finance > Taxation > Fiscal policy > Fiscal […]

Restrictive-practice Authorisation

Hierarchical Display of Restrictive-practice authorisation Business And Competition > Competition > Competition law > Control of restrictive practices
Business And Competition > Competition > Restrictive trade practice > Unlawful agreement Restrictive-practice authorisation Concept of […]

Exclusive Distribution Agreement

Hierarchical Display of Exclusive distribution agreement Business And Competition > Competition > Restrictive trade practice > Vertical agreement
Business And Competition > Competition > Restriction on competition > Refusal to sell
Trade > Distributive trades > Distributive trades […]

Competition Policy

Competition Policy and International Trade Economy In relation to international trade economy, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following definition of Competition Policy: A broad category encompassing antitrust and other policies to remedy the imperfectly competitive nature of key […]

Competition

The Legal History of Competition This section provides an overview of Competition Concept of Competition Note: explore also the meaning of this legal term in the American Ecyclopedia of Law. Introduction This entry provides an overview of the legal framework of competition, with a description […]

Universal Service

Hierarchical Display of Universal service Trade > Consumption > Goods and services > Service
Business And Competition > Competition > Restriction on competition > Monopoly
Education And Communications > Communications > Communications systems > Postal and telecommunications services > […]