LC Classification on the Law of the Indigenous Peoples in the Americas

LC Classification on the Law of the Indigenous Peoples in the Americas

In june 2011 started the drafts for a new subclass of the Library of Congress K classification in the works dealing with the Law of the Indigenous Peoples in the Americas.

As Jolande Goldberg notes the following motivations for the development of this classification in the introduction to Class KIA-KIP,

The rising interest and marked increase in studies on contemporary indigenous law, environment, protection of cultural property and language is documented by steadily growing course offerings in U.S. and Canadian universities as well as by inter-institutional collection development
projects that give presence and visibility to the “heritage” of Indigenous peoples. All generated great demands for bibliographic keys to the hard to find materials on a broad and varied number of subjects.

She adds, “Even LC Class KF (Law of the United States), which has a section on American Indian law and law-related materials (KF8220+), does not reflect the sovereign status and autonomy of the Indian nations, nor does it reflect current Indian law making and law developments.

The new classification schedule on Law of the Indigenous Peoples in the Americas (Classes KIA KIK: North America), currently in final draft stage, is a subclass of the Library of Congress Law Classification , Class K. These draft versions are being made available again for discussion at the 2012 Annual Convention of the American Association of Law Libraries and for general review by the user community.


Prospecting a new Class for the American Indigenous peoples. The new classification schedule on Law of the Indigenous Peoples in the Americas (Classes KIA-KIP: North America), currentlyin draft stage, is a subclass of the Library of Congress Classification( LCC), Class K (Law), andwill conclude for the time being the regional/comparative Law Classification schedule for theAmericas, Classes KDZ-KIX.
Emerging project. The various stages of research for subject classification of the initial classesKIA-KIK, and the “sifting” of the Web have revealed that the critical mass of resources, inparticular primary sources produced by the individual Aboriginal or tribal governments, and theoutput of their organizations or inter-operational institutions, together with the secondaryliterature, are mainly to be found on the Web dispersed, unorganized, and for that matter,obscure.
To this date, however, both information seekers and information providers are hard pressed by anuneasy reality: the obvious gap between availability and accessibility of information. Search and research are still confronted with problems, such as
< paucity of (commercial) printing/publishing of current legal materials;
< collections on law and sociology of Indigenous peoples, one of a kind and mostly
little publicized, are held only by a few bona fide and specialist institutions;
< programs with limited access; or
< information on the subject which may be buried in relevant anthropological,
archeological, or ethnological sources, usually in older collections on the History
of the Americas. And, to this point, even
< Class KF (Law of the United States), the only place in the LCC which has a
section on American Indian law and law-related materials (KF8220+), does not
reflect the sovereign status and autonomy of the Indian nations, nor does it reflect
current Indian law making and law developments.
For these reasons, LC took the lead with a new classification schedule for the law of IndigenousPeoples in the Americas in order to provide for
< first, an arrangement of the many Indigenous entities residing in the Americas that
reflects their constitutional/legal status and self-governance;
< second, a subject organization for laws and governmental functions; and
< third, a better structured and broader access to such information.
I. The structure of the regional class for Law of the Americas (KDZ-KIX)
The layout of the draft schedule is based on the geo-political structure of LC Class G(Geography). Regional arrangements in related or overlapping LC Classification fields, inparticular Class F (America. Local history), were evaluated for their structure as well. Since Class E99+ (by old LC policy) includes all subjects relating to Aboriginals and Indians in the Americas,this class and the collections built by it have been scrutinized.
(1) Outline. The complete outline of KDZ-KIX shows all the subclasses for the law of countriesin the Americas, and where the Indigenous law development files in the sequence of those subclasses.
KIC2001-2043.2 KIC2081-KID6031
KIF221-292 KIF301-3251
KIF3301-3375 KIF3378-3445 KIF3501-7460
LAW OF THE AMERICAS America. North America
General (Comparative)
United States
Mexico and Central America
West Indies. Caribbean Area
South America
North America
General (Comparative) History
Arctic and sub-Arctic Regions
Regional Comparative Aboriginal Law
Greenland, see KDZ3001+
Northern Canada General (Comparative) Aboriginal peoples and communities. Inuit
Alaska General (Comparative) Alaska Natives and communities. Other
Regional comparative Aboriginal law
Northern Canada, see KIA111+
Eastern Canada General (Comparative) Aboriginal peoples and communities
Including First Nations and Métis
Western Canada General (Comparative) Aboriginal peoples and communities
Including First Nations and Métis
United States
Regional comparative American Indian law
Northeast Atlantic Including New EnglandGeneral (Comparative) American Indians
South Including the Old Southwest General (Comparative) History. Indian Territory American Indians
United States Continued
North Central
KIG1-112 KIG201-7440
Including the old Northwest Territory General (Comparative) American Indians
Pacific Northwest
KIH1-112 KIH401-7100
Also known as the Old Oregon country General (Comparative) American Indians
New Southwest
KIJ1-92 KIJ101-9530
General (Comparative) American Indians
Mexico and Central America (currently explored) General (Comparative)Countries with Indigenous populations
South America
States in the US or provinces in Canada – in both countries the 1st order subdivisions – are absent from the new development, since the Indigenous peoples are, or will be, on a one-to-one level withthe respective federal governments.
(2) Geographical principle. In concept, the new class (the final component of the current Class KDZ-KHW, as the Outline shows) adheres to the principles of regionalism and jurisdictionalitywhich has pre-determined for all LC law classes under the letters K-KZ the hierarchy:
< first, by regions, here the regions and sub-regions of KIA-KIK, in which Aboriginals and American Indians reside.

The regional comparative law, the introductory chapter of each regional schedule,comprises such comparative components as, for example, inter-tribal organizationsand corporations active on the regional level, as well as international components,for example inter-governmental organizations in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region;
< second, by jurisdictions. The term jurisdiction, as we understand it here, signalizesindependence and self-governance of a corporate organization, which resides in aparticular geographic region as one of the three orders of government, i.e., federal,state/provincial, and Aboriginal/tribal.
(3) Sovereignty and jurisdictionality. The legal/constitutional status of Aboriginal/Tribal government is based in the
(a) United States on the Act of Congress of June 18, 1934, better known as the Indian Reorganization (Wheeler-Howard) Act of 1934. < In the 1930s, by authority of the U.S. Government, about a third of the tribes or tribal
groups on U.S. territory organized themselves as federal corporations by authority ofthe Act, under adopted Constitutions and by-laws, or charters.
< Today, ca. 564 tribal corporate entities have been formally recognized and are“acknowledged to have immunities and privileges by virtue of their government-togovernment relationship with the federal government of the United States, as well as
responsibilities, powers, certain limitations, and obligations.”
< Federally recognized (i.e., sovereign) tribes determine the requirements for tribalmembership and citizenship, which is acquired by formal enrollment; the criteria are usually set forth in their Constitutions , by-laws, articles of incorporation, or codes.Enrollment records, the “rolls,” are maintained by the tribes, although the U.S.Department of the Interior/Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) retains control over thebase rolls. For most tribes, admission as a member is based on the proof of lineage ornative “blood quantum” at the end of the lineal kinship line.
< The list of "acknowledged or recognized” tribes under most current corporate namesis published routinely in the Federal Register by the BIA.
Name authority work plays a very important role for establishing all tribal
jurisdictions/organizations in the LC authority files.
< As a first step at the begin of this project, the LC Policy and Standards Division hasdetermined that the appropriate MARC 21 field in name authority records willhenceforth be the 151 (Geographic name) field for tribes recognized by the USGovernment as autonomous/sovereign entities, instead of the previously used 110(Corporate name) field. This was in keeping with the guidance provided in rule 21.35of the Anglo American Cataloguing Rules 2nd edition (AACR2) to treat suchcorporate entities as sovereign tribal governments.
< For establishing new, or updating existing, name authority records of AmericanIndian jurisdictions, the BIA is to date the principal authority on Indian Entities Recognized and Eligible to Receive Services from the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs.
< The list of tribes, maintained by the Bureau, has been used and is regularly checkedfor updates. LC authority files, i.e., name authorities and subject authorities, havebeen compared for currency against the Bureau's file, as well as against other bonafide resources, such as those of the
< U.S. Department of Justice,
< United States Government's Official Web Portal ( Government
Agencies/Tribal Governments), and < Tribal government and Tribal organization Web sites.
(b) Canada. The development of the jurisdictional, i.e., constitutional and legal status, of Aboriginal corporate entities in Canada took historically a very different path and is stillevolving.
< Prior to the Confederation, the Canadian government signed Treaties with theAboriginal peoples, mostly trading aboriginal landownership for treaty rights andreserve lands. To cement it into law, the Canadian federal government passed theIndian Act in 1876.
< By virtue of this Act, still in 1951, the government decided whom to recognize asIndian: those registered with the federal government and entered into the nationalIndian register, would be recognized, often termed as "Status Indians,” in contrast tothe "non-Status Indians.” Registration under the Act also provided entrance into thecommunity and, in the course of time, resulted in eligibility for certain benefitsprovided by the government.
< After adoption of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms in 1982, and in particular the Constitution Act of 1982, which acknowledged Aboriginal and Treaty rights (Section 35 of the Constitution Act) of the three recognized cultural groups, Indians, Inuit (in the Canadian North), and Métis, made amendments to the Indian Act necessary, since the original registration rules favored the male component of theAboriginal population.
< In particular, the 1985 Amendment (the so called Bill C-31) was to correct thissituation, and had a tremendous impact on registration and band membership.
< The 1995 change in policy by recognizing "Aboriginal inherent right to self-government,” paired with the 1996 Royal Commission Report on AboriginalGovernment, opened the way to new Treaties , but also implementation of non-treatyforms of negotiations for Aboriginal self-government beyond the band-internal by-law powers.
Today – besides a number of successfully completed self-government negotiations – such
negotiations are under way virtually across Canada in a range of different processes, but
involving regularly Aboriginal groups (or their representatives, for example the First
Nations Leadership Councils, or the Assembly of First Nations), the Federal government,
and a Provincial government (local to the negotiating Aboriginal group(s)).
For information on Aboriginal peoples/communities, constitutional/legal status,
and their political organizations in the Canadian regions, the principal resources consulted
< Documentation of the Parliamentary Information and Research Service, Library of
Parliament, Canada;
< the (Department of ) Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada(AANDC);
< the Aboriginal Canada Portal (ACP) launched in 2001 under the auspices of theDepartment of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. The latter offers access through over 7,500 Websites and portals to Aboriginal organizations andcommunities of the Inuit, First Nations, and Métis, and
< Library and Archives Canada (LAC).
(4) The List of jurisdictions. Instead of one alphabetical list of peoples and communities for theentire region of the United States or Canada, they are presented by the region in which these Indianor Aboriginal groups reside. Each group is assigned a unique number or number span withinstruction as to which one of the specifically developed subject tables is to be applied.
II. The content. Rights and law of the Indigenous
(1) Recent legal tradition has cast laws relating to Indigenous peoples in North America into two categories, termed as:
< Federal Indian law. This category refers to federal laws and regulationsimpacting on Indigenous peoples rights and affairs. In the Library of CongressClassification, this law is classed currently with the national legal systems,e.g., Law of the United States, Class KF8201-8210, and Law of Canada, ClassKE7701-7722.
< Indigenous, Aboriginal, or Tribal law. This category refers to the law as itwas developed by a particular Indigenous group (band or tribe), and practicedwithin the group's territorial boundaries, i.e., applied by, and to, the membersof the group residing on a reservation, township, village, ranch, or other suchgeographic entity. Included are the constitutions and by-laws that wereadopted pursuant to either the Indian Reorgnization Act (US), or pursuant totreaties, negotiations, etc., by Aboriginal groups with federal or provincialauthorities (Canada).
This set of sub-classes, KIA-KIK (Arctic and sub-Arctic, Canada, and the United States), are onlyconcerned with the latter category for the time being. This does not preclude that, at an appropriatetime, the "Federal Indian law” may be optionally classed in the KIA-KIK schedules, if so desired,rather than in KF8200+ and KE7701+ .
Comparative Aboriginal and American Indian law. Both schedule groups commence with a broad classification of generalia and subjects addressing general developments, discussions, orconcerns in the region at large. These schedules are KIB (Canada) and KIE (US), comparable to thefederal law arrangements in schedules KF and KE, respectively.
Uniform subject tables. The Aboriginal or tribal law proper is presented in a set of uniform subjecttables to be applied to the jurisdictions as instructed: KIA-KIX1 (30 No.); KIA-KIX2 (100 No.); KIAKIX3 (Cutter No.), and KIA-KIX4 (1 No. Form Division Table for general works).
Subject patterns. For patterning of the subject arrangements of the new schedule, the Classes K(Law in General), KF (Law of the United States), and KE/KEO (Law of Canada and Ontario) werecomparatively evaluated (including all bibliographic records in the data base, classed in the numberranges for Indigenous peoples of these schedules).
For the subjects proper, a wide variety of Web resources were investigated. In particular for theCanadian subject tables, public documentation dealing with the scope of Negotiation of Inherent Aboriginal Self-Government with a definitive range of subjects slated for Aboriginal jurisdiction wereconsulted; those subjects are extending "to matters that are internal to the group, integral to its distinctAboriginal culture, and essential to its operation as a government or institution.”
III. The language of the schedules. Indigenous peoples
The language of the schedule with often only fine differences in the overall terminology, takes localusage in account. This is easily discerned by a parallel study of the schedules for the Arctic, Canada, andthe United States. Differences in terms for the same subject are not editorial oversights, but reflect ingeneral the language taken primarily from local or regional legal sources in order to provide better accesswith accurate terms. Sources and resources were searched in particular for the proper noun ordenomination distinguishing the different groups of ethnic peoples in North America to be introduced inthe classification.
International law in general does not provide an exact legal definition of "Indigenous peoples,” althoughparticular international instruments established "some criteria.” In both forums domestic andinternational, however, the category "Indigenous peoples” distinguishes the group and its members fromcollectivities, such as "minorities” and other (ethnic) components of society. A critical element in thedetermination of the attribute Indigenous or Tribal for a group is "historical continuity and ancestralrelationship” with societies in a territory that pre-dates conquest and colonization. Thus, followingcommon practice, the term Indigenous peoples has been adopted for this classification as the overarchingterm, while for the sub-Regions Arctic/sub-Arctic, Canada, and the United States, local usage wasobserved.
For Canada, the term Aboriginals is used as the preferred general and official designation for the three distinct groups: Indians, Inuit, and Métis (Canadian Constitution Act of 1982, section 25 and 35).
Since the 1970s, First Nations seems to have slowly replaced Indians (sometimes perceivedas pejorative), and the term "band” as part of the name of a community. Therefore, the term First Nations is used in this classification where appropriate.
The Resolution 2010-01 of the Inuit Circumpolar Council (chartered in 1980 as a multinational NGO for protection and advancement of Inuit rights and a Permanent Participant on the Arctic Council), denounced the exonym Eskimo used to designate Arctic peoples. As laid down in the Charter, "Inuit means Indigenous members of the Inuit homeland,“ including the Inupiat, Yupik (ofAlaska), Inuvialuit, Inuit (of Canada), Kalaallit (of Greenland) and Yupik (of Russia/Siberia). Today,Inuit is the term commonly used for Arctic peoples of Canada regardless of fine ethnic/linguisticdistinctions. It is therefore consistently applied in this classification.
(c) The third group of peoples residing in all of the Canadian regions are the Métis people,
commonly defined as "people of both Aboriginal and European descent, and speaking either French,English, or an Aboriginal language.” The term Métis is used in this classification.
All Indigenous peoples of Alaska are currently represented collectively by the term Alaska Natives. Included in this "collective” are the principal 5 groups: Aleuts, Athabascans, Inupiat and Yupik (both considered Inuit), and the Southeast Coastal Tlingit and Haida (Indians). IndividualIndigenous jurisdictions (peoples and communities) of Alaska are entered in this classification underthe name as recognized by the U.S. Department of the Interior/BIA.
In the United States, the term given preference at this time seems to be American Indians, although Indian Tribes and the adjective form Tribal as well as Native (e.g., Alaska Natives, or the National Native American Bar Association) are still in use. For this classification, the term American Indians has been adopted.
IV. Web resources and the role of online classification
The development took full advantage of the existing linking and correlation functionality of Library ofCongress online classification. Multi-lateral links to areas in related disciplines in the LCClassification system provide rich information on anthropology, ethno-geography, local history, socialand political sciences, law, etc., thus expanding the scope of the new class in the interest of a broaderaudience or special user community.
For the jurisdictional, organizational, and subject structure, the development relies heavily on Websources. For example, the general bibliography, a very important component of the regional schedules,provides the listing for the major governmental, organizational, or bibliographic institution Web sites. Because Web sites, in many instances, offer subject information otherwise difficult to obtain, anAppendix to the schedules was developed with the list of the URLs in the order of the classification. Alittle icon (star) in this draft classification indicates the presence of an electronic resource, thus relatingthe entry in the classification to the Appendix. At this point, the list of Web resources is not complete and is expected to grow.
At a later stage of the development, through an envisioned Portal for Indigenous peoples' information,these will be actual links either to authoritative government Web sites (tribal governments included) orto other electronic resources, in particular of those institutions which provide either full-text digitalcollections, or serve as conduits (indexes) to other Web resources on modern style constitutional andorganizational developments of a people, association, or federation, etc.
V. Maps and other cartographic sources as visual enhancement of the classification
This classification pioneers also the use of cartographic materials as visual aids for the user in accessinginformation, i.e., guiding by diagrams/maps, that overlay the current geopolitical arrangement of NorthAmerica, into the geographic regions of the schedule. For examples, click on the links below: (Principal regions of North America for this classification) (US regions KIF-KIK).
In addition, cartographic reviews and references to cartographic materials are used to visualize thehistorical territorial evolution of Indian country , such as
< land tenure changes by major events, such as removal and relocation, or
< land cessions (either by treaty or deed), or
< changes as a consequence of allotment legislation (regional as well as local),and impact thereof on Indian culture areas, environment, and resources. This information is introducedeither as reference to Class G, or with links to digital images of maps as further illustration of thesubject.
Jolande E. GoldbergPolicy and Standards OfficeAccessions and Bibliographic Access DirectorateThe Library of Congress Washington DC 20540
VI. Appendices
Appendix KIA: Electronic Resources In Order of Classification
KIA General North America (General)Arctic/SubarcticNorthern Canada Alaska
EarthRights International
American Indian Law Review
Indigenous Law Journal
KIA12.3 Tribal law journal KIA15.5 Non-Governmental organizations (NGOs)
Cultural survival
Indian Law Resource Center
International Indian Treaty Council (IITC) KIA15.7 Institutes. Research Centers. Academies Center for the World Indigenous Studies
Native American & Indigenous Studies Association
KIA17 Colonialism and establishment of political boundaries. Maps
Distribution of Indian tribes, ca.1600 -1800
Regions 1694
Early political division, 1764
Colonial powers ca.1775
Colonial powers ca.1783
Regions ca.1805
KIA General Continued
KIA111 KIA112 ArcticStat
Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC)

Inuit Issittormiut Siunnersoqatigiiffiat

Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami
Aleut International Association (AIA)
Arctic Athabaskan Council (AAC)
Arctic Council (AC)
Arctic Council Indigenous Peoples' Secretariat (IPS)
Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC)

Inuit Issittormiut Siunnersoqatigiiffiat

Political organizations
Gwich'in Council International (GCI)
Polar Law Institute. University of Akureyri/Iceland
Academies, etc.
Arctic Institute of North America (AINA)
University of the Arctic (Thematic Network on Arctic Law)
History. General
Arctic Institute of North America
Arctic Health
Northern Canada
Nunavik Bibliography
Law gateways (Portals). Web directories
Aboriginal Connections Directory
Aboriginal Mall
First Nation Information Project
KIA Northern Canada Continued
KIA120 KIA120.
KIA230.2 KIA240 KIA255.4 KIA269.2
KIA1741.5 KIA1746
Political organizationsInuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK)
Kitikmeot Inuit Association
Kivalliq Inuit Association
Qikiqtani Inuit Association
Deh Cho First Nations
Gwich’in Tribal Council
Associations & corporations Rat River Development Corporation
Health Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami
Nunavut Wellness
Sovereignty in the Arctic
Public property. Inuit regional associationsInuvialuit Regional Corporation (IRC)
Makivik Corporation (Quebec)
Nunatsiavut (Labrador)


Nunavut Land Claims agreement
Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated (NTI)

About NTI

Law gateways (Portals). Web directories Justice Center. University of Alaska, Anchorage
Political organizations
Alaska Federation of Natives (AFN)
Alaska Inter-Tribal Council (AITC)
Alaska Native Justice Center


Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association
First Alaskans Institute
KIA Alaska Continued
KIA1792 Native associations and corporations links
KIA1794 By nameAHTNA, Incorporated
Aleut Corporation


Arctic Slope Regional corporation
Bering Straits Native Corporation


Bristel Bay Native Corporation


Calista Corporation


Chugach Alaska Corporation
Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI)
Doyon, Limited

Front Page

Koniag Incorporated
NANA Regional Corporation, Inc.

Home Page

Sealaska Corporation
Village corporationsAfognak Native Corporation
KIA1810.5 Native cultural and intellectual property rights
KIA1819.2 Native Health Organization
KIA1821.3 Alcoholism in Alaska
KIA1824 Native/traditional ecology ,
KIA1828 Alaska Native Knowledge Network
KIA1831 Native medicine Health organizationsAlaska Native Tribal Health Consortium
Indian Health Service
KIA Alaska Continued
KIA1858 Constitutional law. IRA era constitutions and by-laws
KIA1859 Alaska Reorganization Act, 1936
Public property
KIA1918 Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council
Native land claims KIA 1920 Bibliography. Law gateways (Portals)Alaska Natives Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA portal)
ANCSA Resource Center
Alaska Natives Claims Settlement Act 1971 Regional associations
KIA1921 Bristol Bay Native Association River Native Assoc. Chiefs Conference, Inc. (TCC)
KIA1922 Association of Village Council Presidents
Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments (CATG) KIA1944 Native courts and procedure. Court Development
Appendix KIB-KID: Canada. Electronic Resources In Order of Classification
KIB Regional comparative
KIB3 Law gateways. Web directories (Portals)Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC)
Aboriginal Canada Portal
Aboriginal Connections. Directory (First Nations)
Athabasca University Digital Content Repository
Department of Justice Canada and Archives Canada (LAC)
Métis Nation Gateway
Political organizations
KIB12 Assembly of First Nations (AFN)
KIB12.2 Congress of Aboriginal Peoples (CAP)


KIB12.5 Métis National Council (MNC)
KIB19 Treaties
Aboriginal Canada Portal
KIB22 Library and Archives Canada/Aboriginal Documentary Heritage
KIB23 Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC)
KIB37 Legal researchFirst Nations Information Project (FNIP)
Indigenous Studies Portal University of Saskatchewan
Libraries and Archives Canada. Aboriginal Resources
Library of Parliament. Parliamentary Information and ResearchService. Documents and publications
KIB39 Legal Education . Native Law Center of Canada. University of Saskatchewan
KIB42 Indigenous Bar Association
KIB47 Institutes. Center for World Indigenous Knowledge and Research Athabasca University
KIB Regional comparative Continued
KIB50 Maps/Territorial evolution/Atlas of Canada
KIB32 Directories. Canada First Nations and organizations directories
KIB406 Mining. First Nations Oil and Gas Management. FNOGMM Act
KIB568 Environment Indigenous Environmental NetworkHttp://www.ienearth.orgNational Environmental Coalition of Native Americans
KIB582 Health National Aboriginal Health Organization (NAHO)Http://
KIB587 Race, health care and the law
KIB Constitutional law
KIB 699.3 Royal Proclamation of 1763
KIB720 First Peoples National Party of Canada (FPNP)
KIB Eastern Canada
KIB 1112 Advocacy and development corporations and organizationsAnishinabek Nation, see 1112.U+ of Iroquois and Allied Indians Policy Congress of First Nation Chiefs (APCFNC)
Chiefs of Ontario (Confederacy of Nations)


Confederacy of Mainland Micmacs
Confederation of Nova Scotia Métis
Federation of Newfoundland Indians
Independent First Nation Alliance (IFNA)
Innu Nation
KIB Eastern Canada
KIB 1112 Advocacy and development corporations and organizations Continued Labrador Inuit Association Metis Nation
Metis Nation of Ontario
Mikmaq Confederacy of Prince Edwards Islandhttps://www.mcpei.caNishnabwe-Aski Nation https://www.nan.on.caSix Nations of the Grand River Territory (Confederacy)
The Union of New Brunswick Indians
The Union of Ontario Indians (Anishinabek Nation)


KIB1120 Councils for provincial/territorial representation Council of Conne River Micmacs


Grand Council of the Crees (Quebec)
Grand Council of Treaty #3 (GCT3)
KIB1120.5 Other councils for provincial/territorial or regional representation, A-ZMawiw Council
Mohawk Council of Kanawá:ke
Native Council of Prince Edward Island
Toronto Métis Council
We’Kopekwitk Métis council
KIC Western Canada
KIC2001 KIC2002
KIC2009 KIC2012
Bibliography Pannekoek, Frits. A selected Western Canada Historical Resources Bibliography
Law gateways. Web directories (Portals)British Columbia. Ministry of Aboriginal Relations/Reconciliations Nations (British Columbia) treaties Http://
Advocacy organizationsAssembly of Manitoba Chiefs (AMC) of Treaty No.6 First Nationhttps://www.treaty6.caFederation of Saskatchewan Indian Nations (FSIN) Métis Federation Union of B.C. Indian Chiefs Treaty No.7 Management Corporeation
Treaty 8 Tribal Association Councils for provincial/territorial representationAthabasca Tribal Council (ATC)
B.C. Assembly of First Nations (BCAFN)
Council of Yukon First Nations
Dakota Ojibway Tribal Council (DOTC)
First Nations Summit (FNS)
Grand Council Treaty No.8

Homepage – Treaty 8 First Nations

Ktunaxa Kinbasket Treaty Council
Métis Provincial Council of British Columbia (MNBC)
Métis Settlements General Council (MSGC)
Southern Chiefs Organization (SCO)
Union of BC Indian Chiefs
Manitoba Keewatinook Ininew Okimowin (MKIO)
United Native Nations (UNN)
Vancouver Aboriginal Council
KIC Western Canada Continued
Surveys on legal activities
Cree Portal
Métis Portal
Metis Nation Saskatchewan
Appendix KIE-KIK: Electronic Resources In Order of Classification KIE-KIK United States
Regional/ComparativeNortheast Atlantic South North Central Pacific Northwest New Southwest
Regional comparative
KIE2 Tribal law gateways (Portals). Web directories American Indian Resource Directory
Federal Websites-Native Americans
National Indian Justice Center
National Indian Law library
University of Oklahoma Native American law digitization project
Tribal Court Clearinghouse. Tribal Law and Policy Institute U.S. government’s official Web portal
US Department of the Interior. Indian Affairs. BIA
US Department of Justice. Office of Tribal Justice
US Environmental Protection Agency. Tribal Portal
KIE-KIK United States
KIE12 KIE12.3 KIE12.5KIE 12.8
Regional comparative Continued
Political organization
National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)
Indian Law Resource Center
Tribal Law and Policy Institute
American Indian Development Associates
Collections (Treaties. Statutes)
Charles J. Kappler. Laws and Treaties
Treaties between the US and Native Americans/Yale Law
School/Avalon Project
Tribal Court Clearinghouse/Tribal codes
National Indian Law library /Tribal codes
Native American constitution and law digitization project/University of Oklahoma Law Center/Tribal codes
Indian Casino Directory (by State)
Tribal leaders
Research guides
AILA. Native American Sites
Association for the Study of American Literatures (ASAIL)
University of Arizona/Law Library
University of Georgetown Law Library
Harvard University
National Indian Law Library
University of Oklahoma Law Library
University of Tulsa Law Library

College of Law

University of Washington/Indian Law Research
KIE-KIK United States
Regional comparative Continued
KIE 72 Particular law schools. Tribal Legal Studies Programs
Project Peacemaker
Community legal services. Indian legal aid KIE87 Cornell Law School/Legal Information Institute: Native Law
KIE89 Oklahoma Indian Legal Services
KIE93 Indian law societies. The American Indian bar
National Native American Bar Association KIE97 National American Indian Court Judges Association (NAICJA) KIE106 Tribal Law and Policy Institute:
KIE110 General works. Cohen, Felix S.
KIE115 History
US Gen.Web Archives. US Digital Map Library
KIE118 Linguistics. Semantics
KIE140 Pre-1830 to 1830
Maps KIE150 1830 to 1934
KIE160 1934 to 1945
KIE170 Haas, Theodore H., Ten years of tribal government under IRA
KIE475 American Indian Territoriality. Research Guide
KIE490 Indian Land Tenure Foundation: Curriculum and resources


KIE-KIK United States
KIE Regional comparative Continued
KIE610 Indian Land cessions in the US (1784-1894)
KIE610 Royce, Charles C. (1845-1923). Maps on Indian land cessions
KIE1062 National Indian Gaming Association

Indian Gaming Association

KIE1462 Court Appointed Special Advocates Program for Abused Children (CASA)
KIE1462 Indian Country Child Trauma Center
KIE1462 National Indian Child Welfare Association (NICWA)
Medical legislation
KIE1521 American Indian Health portal
KIE1522 Indian Health Service
KIE1539.5 Indian tobacco. Sacred origin of tobacco
KIE1543 Alcoholic beverages. Liquor Ordinances (Collective)
KIE1613.5 Office of the White House (Executive Order 13021)
KIE1614 Indian education and organizationsAmerican Indian Studies Research Institute (AISRI)
Center for Indian Education (CIE)
National Indian Education Association (NIEA)
Tribal Education Departments National Assembly (TEDNA)
KIE1645 American Indian College Fund


American Indian Higher Education Consortium
Office of Indian Education (U.S. Dept. of Education)
KIE1658 National Advisory Council on Indian Education (U.S. Dept. of Education)
KIE-KIK United States
KIE Regional comparative Continued
KIE1673 Science and the arts. Institutions The American Indian Science & Engineering Society (AISES)
Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA)
KIE1697 National NAGPRA law and regulationshttps://ww
Constitutional law KIE1725 US Dept. of Justice. Indian Sovereignty Policy
KIE1744 Indian Reorganization Act era constitutions and charters
KIE2097 Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968 (ICRA)
KIE2145 Blood quantum
KIE 2362 Indian Land Tenure Foundation
KIE2393 Indian housing. National American Indian Housing Council


Courts Tribal law gateways (Portals).Web directories KIE2806 Tribal Court Clearing House KIE2808 Tribal drug courts
KIE3060 Court Appointed Special Advocates (abused children)
KIF Northeast Atlantic
Tribal law gateways (Portals).Web directories KIF222 Northeast Region US Fish & Wildlife Service
Tribal laws and treaties KIF249 Kappler, Charles J. Indian Treaties, 1778-1883
Maps 1642 1700
Iroquois Confederacy KIF328 The Great Binding Law (Constitution)
KIE-KIK United States
KIF Northeast Atlantic Continued
KIF344 Research guides. ProgramsConnecticut States Library
Mashantucket Pequot Tribe of Connecticut/Council
Connecticut States Library
Mashantucket Pequot Tribe of Connecticut/Tribal Council
KIF South
Tribal law gateways (Portals).Web directories KIF3302 Oklahoma Department of Libraries: US Government. Information on Oklahoma’s Federal Depository Libraries
IGO KIF3309 Oklahoma Indian Affairs Commission
Virginia Council on Indians
KIF3312 Advocacy corporationsNative American Indian Association of Tennessee
South Carolina Indian Affairs Commission
KIF3378 History. GeneralHenry L. Dawes, The Indian Territory
KIF3382 Tribal law gateways (Portals). Web directories, A-ZArchives Library Information Center (American Indians)
KIF3384 History.1830 to 1887 Teaching with documents
Maps1872: 1873: 1887: 1889:
KIE-KIK United States South Continued
KIF3387 History.1887 to 1907
Maps1892: 1894: 1898: 1898: 1899: 1902: 1903: 1903: 1905:
KIG North Central
Political organizations KIG12 Advocacy corporationsMidwest Treaty Network
KIG14 Intertribal councils Great Lakes Inter-Tribal Council


Inter-Tribal Council of Michigan. Inc.
KIG80 Community legal services. Legal aid. A-Z Northern Plains Indian law Center. Tribal Judicial Institute
Wisconsin Judicare Inc.
KIG85 Indian law societies. Indian bar Northwest Indian Bar association
KIH Pacific Northwest
KIH2 Tribal law gateways (Portals).Web directories Washington State Court Directory
KIH12 Advocacy corporationsAffiliated Tribes of Northwest Indians
KIH14 Inter-tribal councils Montana-Wyoming Tribal Leaders Council
KIH90 Indian law societies. Indian bar Northwest Indian Bar Association

KIE-KIK United States Continued
KIJ New Southwest
Tribal law gateways (Portals).Web directories KIJ2 National Indian Justice Center (NIJC)
KIJ72 Law schools. Faculties. ProgramsSouthwest Center for Law and Policy


Indian law societies. Indian bar, A-Z KIJ82 Hopi Foundation



See Also

References and Further Reading

About the Author/s and Reviewer/s

Author: international

Mentioned in these Entries

Advocacy, Constitutions, Education, Law Classification, Law library, Treaties, country.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *