Judicial Review

Introduction The U.S. case Marbury v. Madison (1803) held that the power of a court to decide what is the meaning of the American Constitution was implicit in an independent judiciary. This power of judicial review in the U.S. was a unique feature of the U.S. constitutionalism well into the […]


Collectivism Definition Collectivism is a term used to denote a political or economic system in which the means of production and the distribution of goods and services are controlled by the people as a group. Generally this refers to the state. Opposite of Free Enterprise Collectivism […]


Globalisation and Law Globalisation and Europe There is an entry on globalisation in the European legal encyclopedia. Resources See Also Further Reading Entry "Globalisation" in the work "A Concise Encyclopedia of the European Union from Aachen to Zollverein", by Rodney […]

Canon Law

Orthodox ChurchesFor more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. Protestant ChurchesFor more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. The […]


Violence Definition Violence may be defined as a physical attack of another person. Activities that may legally involve violence include hunting, law enforcement, sports, and war. Crime includes many illegal forms of violence. The first point that has to be clarified is the meaning of the […]

Economic Discrimination

Economic Discrimination Definition Economic Discrimination, refusal to do business on equal terms with members of a disfavored group. Information For information on: * legality of economic discrimination, see Discrimination * motives for economic discrimination, see Prejudice; […]

Trade Dispute

Legal Definition of Trade Dispute The term "labor dispute"is a broad one and can refer to, at least, two different groups of conflicts. The first one includes any controversy concerning terms or conditions of employment, or concerning the association or representation of persons in […]

Natural Law

A typical definition of natural law which overstressed the universality of the concept was provided by Olivecrona (1971: 8): In contradistinction to positive law, 'natural law' generally means a law that has not been posited. Even if it is ascribed to the will of God, it is supposed to […]


Introduction to Sociology Sociology may be defined as the scientific study of human social relations or group life. See more definitions of Sociology in the Legal Dictionary. Other disciplines within the social sciences-including economics, political science, anthropology, and […]

Adversarial System

Adversarial System The term adversary system sometimes characterizes an entire legal process, and sometimes it refers only to criminal procedure. In the latter instance it is often used interchangeably with "accusatorial procedure,"and is juxtaposed to the […]


Statute as a Written Law "Statute, formal, written law enacted by a legislature, which may take the form of either an act or a resolution, as opposed to unwritten, or common, law, which is usually determined by custom or court decisions. In the U.S., federal and state statutes must […]