JOINT MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT
1. In the framework of general cooperation mentioned in Article 9 of this
Convention, or specific arrangements, the Riparian Parties shall
establish and implement joint programmes for monitoring the conditions of
transboundary waters, including floods and ice drifts, as well as
2. The Riparian Parties shall agree upon pollution parameters and
pollutants whose discharges and concentration in transboundary waters
shall be regularly monitored.
3. The Riparian Parties shall, at regular intervals, carry out joint or
coordinated assessments of the conditions of transboundary waters and the
effectiveness of measures taken for the prevention, control and reduction
of transboundary impact. The results of these assessments shall be made
available to the public in accordance with the provisions set out in
Article 16 of this Convention.
4. For these purposes, the Riparian Parties shall harmonize rules for the
setting up and operation of monitoring programmes, measurement systems,
devices, analytical techniques, data processing and evaluation
procedures, and methods for the registration of pollutants discharged.
COMMON RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
In the framework of general cooperation mentioned in Article 9 of this
Convention, or specific arrangements, the Riparian Parties shall
undertake specific research and development activities in support of
achieving and maintaining the water-quality objectives and criteria which
they have agreed to set and adopt.
EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION BETWEEN RIPARIAN PARTIES
1. The Riparian Parties shall, within the framework of relevant
agreements or other arrangements according to Article 9 of this
Convention, exchange reasonably available data, inter alia, on:
(a) Environmental conditions of transboundary waters;
(b) Experience gained in the application and operation of best
available technology and results of research and development;
(c) Emission and monitoring data;
(d) Measures taken and planned to be taken to prevent, control and
reduce transboundary impact;
(e) Permits or regulations for waste-water discharges issued by the
competent authority or appropriate body.
2. In order to harmonize emission limits, the Riparian Parties shall
undertake the exchange of information on their national regulations.
3. If a Riparian Party is requested by another Riparian Party to provide
data or information that is not available, the former shall endeavour to
comply with the request but may condition its compliance upon the
payment, by the requesting Party, of reasonable charges for collecting
and, where appropriate, processing such data or information.
4. For the purposes of the implementation of this Convention, the
Riparian Parties shall facilitate the exchange of best available
technology, particularly through the promotion of: the commercial
exchange of available technology; direct industrial contacts and
cooperation, including joint ventures; the exchange of information and
experience; and the provision of technical assistance. The Riparian
Parties shall also undertake joint training programmes and the
organization of relevant seminars and meetings.
WARNING AND ALARM SYSTEMS
The Riparian Parties shall without delay inform each other about any
critical situation that may have transboundary impact. The Riparian
Parties shall set up, where appropriate, and operate coordinated or joint
communication, warning and alarm systems with the aim of obtaining and
transmitting information. These systems shall operate on the basis of
compatible data transmission and treatment procedures and facilities to
be agreed upon by the Riparian Parties. The Riparian Parties shall inform
each other about competent authorities or points of contact designated
for this purpose.
1. If a critical situation should arise, the Riparian Parties shall
provide mutual assistance upon request, following procedures to be
established in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article.
2. The Riparian Parties shall elaborate and agree upon procedures for
mutual assistance addressing, inter alia, the following issues:
(a) The direction, control, coordination and supervision of
(b) Local facilities and services to be rendered by the Party
requesting assistance, including, where necessary, the facilitation of
(c) Arrangements for holding harmless, indemnifying and/or
compensating the assisting Party and/or its personnel, as well as for
transit through territories of third Parties, where necessary;
(d) Methods of reimbursing assistance services.
1. The Riparian Parties shall ensure that information on the conditions
of transboundary waters, measures taken or planned to be taken to
prevent, control and reduce transboundary impact, and the effectiveness
of those measures, is made available to the public. For this purpose, the
Riparian Parties shall ensure that the following information is made
available to the public:
(a) Water-quality objectives;
(b) Permits issued and the conditions required to be met;
(c) Results of water and effluent sampling carried out for the
purposes of monitoring and assessment, as well as results of checking
compliance with the water-quality objectives or the permit conditions.
2. The Riparian Parties shall ensure that this information shall be
available to the public at all reasonable times for inspection free of
charge, and shall provide members of the public with reasonable
facilities for obtaining from the Riparian Parties, on payment of
reasonable charges, copies of such information.
INSTITUTIONAL AND FINAL PROVISIONS
MEETING OF PARTIES
1. The first meeting of the Parties shall be convened no later than one
year after the date of the entry into force of this Convention.
Thereafter, ordinary meetings shall be held every three years, or at
shorter intervals as laid down in the rules of procedure. The Parties
shall hold an extraordinary meeting if they so decide in the course of an
ordinary meeting or at the written request of any Party, provided that,
within six months of it being communicated to all Parties, the said
request is supported by at least one third of the Parties.
2. At their meetings, the Parties shall keep under continuous review the
implementation of this Convention, and, with this purpose in mind, shall:
(a) Review the policies for and methodological approaches to the
protection and use of transboundary waters of the Parties with a view to
further improving the protection and use of transboundary waters;
(b) Exchange information regarding experience gained in concluding
and implementing bilateral and multilateral agreements or other
arrangements regarding the protection and use of transboundary waters to
which one or more of the Parties are party;
(c) Seek, where appropriate, the services of relevant ECE bodies as
well as other competent international bodies and specific committees in
all aspects pertinent to the achievement of the purposes of this
(d) At their first meeting, consider and by consensus adopt rules of
procedure for their meetings;
(e) Consider and adopt proposals for amendments to this Convention;
(f) Consider and undertake any additional action that may be required
for the achievement of the purposes of this Convention.
References and Further Reading
About the Author/s and Reviewer/s