African Convention for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

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African Convention for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

 

Article I

The Contracting States hereby establish an African Convention on the
Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

Article II. Fundamental principle

The Contracting States shall undertake to adopt the measures to ensure
conservation, utilization and development of soil, water, flora and
faunal resources in accordance with scientific principles and with due
regard to the best interests of the people.

Article III. Definitions

For purposes of the present Convention, the meaning of the following
expressions shall be as defined below:

1. “Natural Resources”means renewable resources, that is soil, water,
flora and fauna.

2. “Specimen”means an individual example of a species of wild animal or
wild plant or part of a wild plant.
3. “Trophy” means any dead animal specimen or part thereof whether
included in a manufactured or processed object or otherwise dealt with,
unless it has lost its original identity; also nests, eggs and eggshells.

4. “Conservation area”means any protected natural resource area, whether
it be a strict natural reserve, a national park or a special reserve;

a) “strict nature reserve”means an area:

1) under State control and the boundaries of which may not be
altered nor any portion alienated except by the competent
legislative authority,

2) throughout which any form of hunting or fishing, any
undertaking connected with forestry, agriculture or mining,
any grazing, any excavation or prospecting, drilling,
levelling of the ground or construction, any work tending to
alter the configuration of the soil or the character of the
vegetation, any water pollution and, generally, any act
likely to harm or disturb the fauna or flora, including
introduction of zoological or botanical species, whether
indigenous or imported, wild or domesticated, are strictly
forbidden.

3) where it shall be forbidden to reside, enter, traverse or
camp, and where it shall be forbidden to fly over at low
altitude, without a special written permit from the competent
authority, and in which scientific investigations (including
removal of animals and plants in order to maintain an
ecosystem) may only be undertaken by permission of the
competent authority;

b) “national park”means an area:

1) under State control and the boundaries of which may not be
altered or any portion alienated except by the competent
legislative authority,

2) exclusively set aside for the propagation, protection,
conservation and management of vegetation and wild animals as
well as for the protection of sites, land-scapes or
geological formations of particular scientific or aesthetic
value, for the benefit and enjoyment of the general public,
and

3) in which the killing, hunting and capture of animals and the
destruction or collection of plants are prohibited except for
scientific and management purposes and on the condition that
such measures are taken under the direction or control of the
competent authority;

4) covering any aquatic environment to which all of the
provisions of section (b) (1-3) above are applicable.

The activities prohibited in “strict nature reserve”under the provisions
of section (a) (2) of paragraph (4) of this article are equally
prohibited in national parks except in so far as they are necessary to
enable the park authorities to implement the provisions of section (2) of
this paragraph, by applying, for example, appropriate management
practices, and to enable the public to visit these parks; however, sport
fishing may be practised with the authorization and under the control of
the competent authority;

c) “special reserve”means other protected areas such as:

1) “game reserve”which shall denote an area

a) set aside for the conservation, management and propagation of
wild animal life and the protection and management of its
habitat,

b) within which the hunting, killing or capture of fauna shall
be prohibited except by or under the direction or control of the
reserve authorities,

c) where settlement and other human activities shall be
controlled or prohibited;

2) “partial reserve”or “sanctuary” which shall denote an area

a) set aside to protect characteristic wildlife and especially
bird communities, or to protect particularly threatened animal
or plant species and especially those listed in the Annex to
this Convention, together with the biotopes essential for their
survival,

b) in which all other interests and activities shall be
subordinated to this end;

3) “soil”, “water”or “forest”reserve shall denote areas set
aside to protect such resources.

Article IV. Soil

The Contracting States shall take effective measures for conservation and
improvement of the soil and shall in particular combat erosion and misuse
of the soil. To this end:

a) they shall establish land-use plans based on scientific
investigations (ecological, pedological, economic, and
sociological) and, in particular, classification and land-use
capability;

b) they shall, when implementing agricultural practices and
agrarian reforms,

1) improve soil conservation and introduce improved
farming methods, which ensure long-term productivity of
the land,
2) control erosion caused by various forms of land-use
which may lead to loss of vegetation cover.

Article V. Water

1. The Contracting States shall establish policies for conservation,
utilization and development of underground and surface water, and shall
endeavour to guarantee for their populations a sufficient and continuous
supply of suitable water, taking appropriate measures with due regard to:

1) the study of water cycles and the investigation of each
catchment area,

2) the co-ordination and planning of water resources development
projects,

3) the administration and control of all water utilization, and

4) prevention and control of water pollution.

2. Where surface or underground water resources are shared by two or more
of the Contracting States, the latter shall act in consultation, and if
the need arises, set up inter-State Commissions to study and resolve
problems arising from the joint use of these resources, and for the joint
development and conservation thereof.

Article VI. Flora

1. The Contracting States shall take all necessary measures for the
protection of flora and to ensure its best utilization and development.
To this end the Contracting States shall:

a) adopt scientifically-based conservation, utilization and
management plans of forests and’ rangeland, taking into account
the social and economic needs of the States concerned, the
importance of the vegetation cover for the maintenance of the
water balance of an area, the productivity of soils and the
habitat requirements of the fauna;

b) observe section (a) above by paying particular attention to
controlling bush fires, forest exploitation, land clearing for
cultivation, and over-grazing by domestic and wild animals;

c) set aside areas for forest reserves and carry out afforestation
programmes where necessary;

d) limitation of forest grazing to season and intensities that will
not prevent forest regeneration; and

e) establish botanical gardens to perpetuate plant species of
particular interest.

2. The Contracting States also shall undertake the conservation of plant
species or communities, which are threatened and/or of special scientific
or aesthetic value by ensuring that they are included in conservation
areas.

 

Conclusion

Notes

See Also

References and Further Reading

About the Author/s and Reviewer/s

Author: international

Mentioned in these Entries

African Convention for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources 2, African Convention for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources 3, Flora and Fauna – Biodiversity conventions.

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