International Legal Research

Information about Discrimination in free legal resources:

Treaties & Agreements

International Organizations

Jurisprudence $ Commentary

European Union

IP Law



Summary of Discrimination

Unequal treatment in the duties, quotas, or administrative controls accorded to the products of one or more nations. Generally speaking, any nation which does not enjoy most FAVORED NATION (read this and related legal terms for further details) status is the subject of trade discrimination. (Main Author: William J. Miller)

Discrimination and the GATT Policy Negotiations

In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Discrimination: Inequality in trade treatment accorded by an importing country to one or more exporting countries. Some forms of discrimination may be sanctioned by GATT, such as preferential tariff rates for imports from LDCs or from partners in a free- trade area. Discrimination may also involve trade restrictions that apply to the exports of certain countries but not to similar goods from other countries (see selectivity and grey area measures). The opposite of discrimination ismost1avored-nation (MFN) treatment.

Discrimination in Election Law

Any measure or attitude intended to give unfair treatment (positive or negative) to individuals or groups of individuals in similar circumstances and offer an advantage or a disadvantage to some over others. Discrimination can be based on gender, race, ethnic origin, religion, socioeconomic status or other factors. In the context of the electoral process, it may involve depriving certain people or groups of their right to vote or run for office.

Discrimination in International Trade

Meaning of Discrimination, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): In international trade, inequality of treatment accorded to imports from different countries, such as preferential tariff rates for imports from particular countries or trade restrictions targeted against particular countries.

In relation to Inter-American Treaties, Conventions and Agreements adopted within the framework of the OAS

The Organization of American States (a list of Members of the Organization of American States is here) adopted the following international instruments regarding Discrimination:

  • Inter-American Convention against Racism, Racial Discrimination and Related Forms of Intolerance
  • Inter-American Convention against All Forms of Discrimination and Intolerance

Employment Discrimination Law

Discrimination, Sexual Behaviour and the Law

The Legal History of Race and Sex Discrimination

This section provides an overview of Race and Sex Discrimination

Discrimination (in the Human Development Area)

In this context, Discrimination means: different treatment of others based solely on their membership in a socially distinct group or category, such as race, ethnicity, sex, religion, age, or disability. Discrimination against women means any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field. Direct discrimination occurs when a person is treated less favourably than another in a comparable situation for a clear (although often unacknowledged) reason, e.g. their sex. Indirect discrimination occurs when one group of people (e.g. women or men) cannot fully enjoy or benefit from an apparently neutral law, policy or other opportunity because of norms, traditions, stereotypes or pervasive social roles that differently position that group of people in relation to the law, policy or opportunity in question.

Discrimination and the Law

Contents of Discrimination and the Law

Contents of this subject matter include:American discrimination laws in national and international context

  • Theories of discrimination
  • Law Reform Project
  • Sex Discrimination laws
  • Disability Discrimination laws
  • Race Discrimination laws
  • Coverage of discrimination laws
  • The future of equality laws



In relation to the international law practice and discrimination in this world legal Encyclopedia, please see the following section:

Human Rights

About this subject:


Note: there is detailed information and resources under these topics during the year 2013, covered by this entry on discrimination in this law Encyclopedia.


Embracing mainstream international law, this section on discrimination explores the context, history and effect of the area of the law covered here.

Discrimination and Europe

There is an entry on discrimination in the European legal encyclopedia.


Discrimination and the European Union



This entry provides an overview of the legal framework of discrimination, with a description of the most significant features of discrimination at international level.

Related Work and Conclusions


See Also

References (Papers)

  • Prisoner’s Rights And The Correctional Scheme: The Legal Controversy And Problems Of Implementation – A Symposium – Introduction, Donald W. Dowd, Jun 2017
  • Gonzalez V. Douglas Trial Transcript Of Proceedings, Day 2, Steven A. Reiss, Luna N. Barrington, David Fitzmaurice, Richard M. Martinez, Robert Chang, James W. Quinn, Jun 2017
  • Contemporary Problems Of Drug Abuse – Iii. Saturday Afternoon, Nicholas Johnson, Mark L. Cohen, Joe Moss, Nicholas N. Kittrie, Jun 2017
  • “Never Had A Choice And No Power To Alter”: Illegitimate Children And The Supreme Court Of Japan, Shigenori Matsui, Jun 2017
  • Reflection: How Multiracial Lives Matter 50 Years After Loving, Lauren Sudeall Lucas, Jun 2017
  • First Amendment Decisions From The October 2006 Term, Erwin Chemerinsky, Marci A. Hamilton, Jun 2017


See Also

  • Women’s rights


See Also

Further Reading


See Also

Further Reading

  • Entry “Discrimination” in the work “A Concise Encyclopedia of the European Union from Aachen to Zollverein”, by Rodney Leach (Profile Books; London)


Further Reading

  • The entry “discrimination” in the Parry and Grant Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (currently, the Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law, 2009), Oxford University Press


See Also

  • Sexual Discrimination
  • Discrimination Policy
  • Employment Discrimination
  • Inequity

Further Reading

  • Race and Sex Discrimination in the Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History (Oxford University Press)
  • Discrimination in the Encyclopedia of Sexual Behavior and the Law
  • The Oxford Encyclopedia of American Political and Legal History (Oxford University Press)
  • Race and Sex Discrimination in the Dictionary of Concepts in History, by Harry Ritter
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  • Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Title I, 42 U.S.C. §§ 12111-12117 (1994).
  • Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Title II, 42 U.S.C. §§ 12131-12165 (1994).
  • Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Title III, 42 U.S.C. §§ 12181-12189 (1994).
  • Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, Definition of Disability, 42 U.S. Code § 12102(2) (1994).
  • Around the world, Liechtenstein women win right to vote. New York Times, July 2, 1984.
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  • King, K. R. (2005). Why is discrimination stressful? The mediating role of cognitive appraisal. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 11, 202-212. doi:10.1037/1099-9809.11.3.202.
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  • Major, B., Quinton, W. J., & Schmader, T. (2003). Attributions to discrimination and self-esteem: Impact of group identification and situational ambiguity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39(3), 220-231. doi:10.1016/S0022-1031(02)00547-4
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