Environmental Protection

Communities of all sizes, from townships to the national government, establish laws that govern how individuals acting within the community are to conduct themselves. The environment is arguably one of the newest considerations to be decided by and incorporated into the body of the law. The […]

Natural Resources

Minerals Environment and Natural Resources Includes Acid Rain, Air Quality, Coal, Conservation, Energy, Fisheries, Forests, Hazardous Waste, Land Use, Resources, Oceanography, Oil Spills, Parks, Pesticides, Petroleum, Pollution, Recreation, Rivers, Solar Energy, Toxic Substances, Trails, […]

Marine Pollution

Embracing mainstream international law, this section on marine pollution explores the context, history and effect of the area of the law covered here. Resources See Also Transport Transportation Means Transport Law Transport Contract Resources Further Reading The entry "marine […]

Soil Resources

Resources See Also International Environmental Law Environmental Law Violations Pollution Environmental Law Environmental Policy

Damage

Product Damage in the Convention on Law Applicable to Products Liability Article 1 This is the basic article concerned with the scope, or field of application, of the Convention. It provides that, subject to one exception, the Convention shall determine 'the law applicable to the liability […]

Exclusive Economic Zone

Background By Tatjana Rosen Historical Background The expressions “patrimonial sea”, “economic zone” or “exclusive economic zone” were first used in the early 1970s in regional meetings and organizations in Latin America, the Caribbean, Asia and […]

Law of the Sea

Law Of The Sea The United States Congress has kept the United NationsÂ’s Law of the Sea Treaty bottled up in committee for 30 years. In 2011, a rush by nations to claim oil rights under the Arctic Sea was quickening debate on treaty accession. United States Senator Lee, cofounder of […]

Pollution Control

Cap-and-trade (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Cap-and-trade means: emissions trading is a market-based approach used to control pollution by providing economic incentives for achieving reductions in the emissions of pollutants. A central authority (usually a governmental body) […]

Natural Disaster

Resources See Also International Environmental Law Environmental Law Violations Pollution Environmental Law Environmental Policy Disaster

UN Environment Programme

UN Environment Programme in 2013 United States views on international law [1] in relation to UN Environment Programme: In December 2012, the UN General Assembly adopted resolution 67/213, establishing universal membership in the UN Environment Programme (“UNEP”) Governing Council […]

Sea

High Seas The high seas are governed by several fundamental principles. First, no State may purport to assert sovereignty over any part of the high seas. Second, all States have the right to exercise the freedoms of the seas, including freedoms of navigation, freedom of overflight, freedom to […]

Precautionary Principle

Precautionary Principle and the Treaties of the European Union Description of Precautionary Principle provided by the European Union Commission: The concept of the precautionary principle was first set out in a Commission communication adopted in February 2000 on recourse to the precautionary […]

Climate Change

Climate Change in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): For discussion of issues relating to climate change generally, see information on Nationality, Citizenship and Immigration in this legal […]

Global Warming

Global Warming as an U.S. State Statute Topic This term is one of the topics in some U.S. State Statutes. Other topics of the World Encyclopedia of Law which are topics of some State Statures are: Licensed Public Accountants (State statute topic) Guardians Ad Litem (State statute topic) […]

Environmental Law

The Legal History of Environmental Law This section provides an overview of Environmental Law Contents of Environmental Law Contents of this subject matter include: The Nature of Environmental Law What is environmental law? Growth of environmental law The social and legal context […]

Pollution

Legislation in the United States In 1969, a major fire erupted (in the United States). This time, with the help of news and magazine coverage, the fire prompted the nation to take immediate action against water pollution. The public response to this event helped create the Federal Water […]

Desertification

Desertification (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Desertification means: transformation of arid and semiarid land into desert, generally due to overgrazing, deforestation, poor irrigation and tilling practices, climate change, or a combination of these factors. Embracing […]

Climate

Climate Related Fields Related topics include: International Environmental Law Find this subject in this World legal encyclopedia. Environmental Law Violations Find this subject in this World legal encyclopedia. Pollution Find this subject in this World legal encyclopedia. Environmental Law […]

International Court of Environmental Arbitration and Conciliation

International Court of Environmental Arbitration and Conciliation (ICEAC) Note: it seems that this Court is difunct. The International Court of Environmental Arbitration and Conciliation (“the Court”) was established in Mexico D.F. on November 1994, by 28 lawyers from 22 different countries, as a form of Institutionalised Arbitration. The Court facilitates through conciliation and arbitration the … Read more

International Plant Protection Committee

International Plant Protection Committee Adopted at Rome on 6 December 1951 PREAMBLE The contracting Governments, recognizing the usefulness of international co-operation in controlling pests and diseases of plants and plant products and in preventing their introduction and spread across national boundaries, and desiring to ensure close co-ordination of measures directed to these ends, have agreed … Read more

ASCOBANS

Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic and North Seas (ASCOBANS) (1991) The Parties, Recalling the general principles of conservation and sustainable use of natural resources, as reflected in the World Conservation Strategy of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, the United Nations Environment Programme, and the World … Read more

Eurobats

Agreement on the Conservation of Bats in Europe (Eurobats) (1991) Agreement on the Conservation of Population of European Bats The Agreement entered into force on 16 January 1994. As of January 2015, 36 of 63 Range States are Parties to the Agreement. The Bat Agreement The Agreement on the Conservation of Populations of European Bats … Read more

Wildlife Treaties

Wildlife Treaties and Soft Law Agreements Animal Welfare European Convention for the Protection of Animals for Slaughter (1979) European Convention for the Protection of Pet Animals (1987) European Convention for the Protection of Animals During International Transport (1968) European Convention for the Protection Vertebrate Animals Use for Experimental and Other Scientific Purposes (1986) Biological Diversity … Read more

International Environmental Treaties

International Environmental Treaties The case of Australia D. Anton, J. Kohout and N. Pain, in “Nationalizing Environmental Protection in Australia: The International Dimensions” (1993), wrote: “A national approach to environmental protection is the most effective way for Australia to protect its own environment and to contribute to the common cause of global environmental protection.[1] (…) … Read more

International Environmental Law

Further Reading A concise encyclopedia of the United Nations (including International Environmental Law, H Volger, KA Annan -2010) The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (TG Weiss – 2007) International Law: A Dictionary (including International Environmental Law, Boczek, Boleslaw Adam […]