Corruption

Corruption Definition Corruption, wrongdoing by those in a special position of trust. The term is commonly applied to self-benefiting conduct by public officials and others dedicated to public service. (1) Corruption is not a technical term; it is not considered a criminal offence in most […]

Europol

"In full operation since 1999, Europol is associated with the European Union as the result of a decision by the political and legislative bodies of the Union. EuropolÂ’s activities are legally framed and bound to certain areas of investigation. Yet, Europol is nonetheless […]

Criminology

Introduction to Criminology According to Encarta, "Criminology, the scientific study of criminals and criminal behavior. Criminologists attempt to build theories that explain why crimes occur and test those theories by observing behavior. Criminological theories help shape society's […]

Extradition

Introduction to Extradition Extradition, in law, surrender by one sovereign power to another of a fugitive from justice. Between nations, the right of one power to demand of another the extradition of a fugitive accused of crime, and the duty of the country in which the fugitive has found […]

Interpol

International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol) Interpol-Washington "Presently providing cooperation among police agencies of 181 nations, Interpol is in the United States represented by the U.S. National Central Bureau, also called Interpol-Washington, which is directed by the […]

Criminal Procedure

Introduction to Criminal Procedure Criminal Procedure, body of law regulating the inquiry into whether a person has violated criminal law. Criminal procedure governs the investigation of crimes; the arrest, charging, and trial of accused criminals; and the sentencing of those convicted (found […]

Piracy

See Transnational crime . The first precise attempt to codify piracy was in 1958 when the Convention on the High Seas was adopted in order to clarify the legal status of pirates and the competence to arrest pirates. These articles in the Convention on the High Seas have been incorporated into […]

International Narcotics Control Board

International Narcotics Control Board (INCB) It is an independent, quasi-judicial expert body established by the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 by merging two bodies: the Permanent Central Narcotics Board, created by the 1925 International Opium Convention; and the Drug […]

Tax Evasion

Tax evasion is when someone has deliberately misled us about their activities to reduce their tax liability, or have not paid tax that is due. tax evasion is escaping payment by illegal means. This is obviously unlawful and is usually a criminal offence Tax evasion is when a person or a […]

International Criminal Law

International Criminal Law

International Criminal Law Authority

Main source: Duff, Antony, "Theories of Criminal Law", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = . We have focused so […]

Criminal Law

Introduction to Criminal Law Criminal Law, branch of law that defines crimes, establishes punishments, and regulates the investigation and prosecution of people accused of committing crimes. Criminal law includes both substantive law, which is addressed in this article, and criminal […]

Pornography

"From a criminological perspective, pornography has been investigated in its relationship to criminal behavior or as a form of crime itself. Research on the relation between pornography and crime has primarily focused on the impact which the exposure to pornographic materials has on […]

Extenuation

Extenuations Extenuations, by Bentham Text of one of the sections, titled “Extenuations” in the “Specimen of a Penal Code”, edited from the French of Dumont, and the original MSS. and printed works of Bentham, of the “Essay on the Promulgation of Laws, and the Reasons Thereof; with Specimen of a Penal Code”, of the classical … Read more

Private Ethics

Private Ethics Limits between Private Ethics and the Art of Legislation Text of the Chapter XIX, § 1, titled “Limits between Private Ethics and the Art of Legislation” in the classical book “An Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation”, by Jeremy Bentham: I. So much for the division of offences in general. Now … Read more

Trafficking in Persons

Definition Definition of “Trafficking in persons” based on the concept provided by the United Nations Protocol To Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking In Persons, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized […]

Trafficking in Persons Report

Trafficking in Persons Report in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On June 27, 2011, the Department of State released the 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report pursuant to § 110(b)(1) of the […]

Bigamy

Bigamy, in law, the criminal offense of marrying while one is still a partner in a valid earlier marriage. A person is not guilty of bigamy, however, if the prior marriage has been terminated by divorce or annulment. Bigamy is a crime in most Western nations, including the United States, the […]

Organized Crime Investigation

Organized Crime Investigation Below are some information on how the police can effectively investigate organized crime. For references to general resources on addressing organized crime, please see, in this global encyclopedia, the entry on international Organized Crime. Overview of Organised Crime Investigations In the new global age, borders have opened up, you can now drive … Read more

Criminal Justice System

Criminal Justice System The Concept “Criminal justice,” was born of the mid-20th century in the United States. The first school of criminal justice was established at the State University of New York at Albany in the 1960s, and the curriculum of that school has been used as a blueprint for many schools and departments in … Read more

Road Traffic Treaties

Road Traffic Conventions, International Agreements and Treaties A list of Road Traffic Conventions, International Agreements and Treaties Convention on Road Traffic. Geneva, 19 September 1949 Protocol concerning countries or territories at present occupied. Geneva, 19 September 1949 Protocol on Road Signs and Signals. Geneva, 19 September 1949 European Agreement supplementing the 1949 Convention on road … Read more

Arraignment

Arraignment, in the law of Great Britain and the United States, the bringing of a person who has been formally accused of a crime before the court that has jurisdiction to try the person to answer the accusations of the indictment. After the accused is identified, the indictment is read, and […]

Financial Crime

Financial Crime Money laundering and terrorism financing are the two most common forms of financial crimes in developing countries. In recent years, worldwide efforts to combat these financial crimes have assumed heightened importance and gained greater visibility. These are global problems that not only threaten security, but also undermine economic prosperity by compromising the stability, … Read more

Transnational Crime

Transnational crime From a criminological perspective, the concept of 'transnational crime' originates from the mid-1970s when the United Nations used the term in order to identify certain criminal activities which transcend national jurisdictions. In 1995, the United Nations identified […]

Age

Introduction to Age A perpetrator's youth has long been a defense to criminal charges because children are deemed incapable of making rational decisions for which they should be held accountable. Under the common law, a child under 7 years of age is deemed too young to be criminally […]

UN Convention against Corruption

UN Convention against Corruption

Title

United Nations Convention Against Corruption

About the Convention

The purposes of the Convention are to promote and strengthen measures to prevent and combat corruption […]

Search and Seizure

The Legal History of Search and Seizure This section provides an overview of Search and Seizure Search and Seizure Explained References See Also Criminal Law (in international or comparative law) Criminal Procedure (in international or comparative law) Resources See Also Criminal Law […]

Duress

• Why is duress a problem? We want to know people actually agreed to contract of their own free will. (either under subjective or objective theory). Also violates pareto superior economic model, where at least one of the parties is better off and the other is at least not worse off. […]

Extradition Treaties

Because international extradition is not compulsory in case of lack of a formal treaty (at least for the United States traditional point of view -see Extradition History), there are hundreds of bilateral extradition treaties. No country has a network of bilateral treaties that cover all […]

Capital Punishment

Introduction Capital Punishment, legal infliction of death as a penalty for violating criminal law. Throughout history people have been put to death for various forms of wrongdoing. Methods of execution have included such practices as crucifixion, stoning, drowning, burning at the stake, […]