The Legal History of Church and State in United States Law This section provides an overview of Church and State in United States Law Church, Religious Society From the book The Clergyman's Hand-book of Law, about Church, Religious Society (1): A church in one sense is more limited than a […]

Constitutional Law

Introduction to Constitutional Law Constitutional Law, system of fundamental principles on the organization of a country's government and the limitations of its powers. In the United States, constitutional law refers to legal rights that are directly addressed in the Constitution of the […]


Introduction Censorship, supervision and control of the information and ideas that are circulated among the people within a society. In modern times, censorship refers to the examination of books, periodicals, plays, films, television and radio programs, news reports, and other […]

Electoral Reform

Introduction Electoral Reform, elimination of undemocratic, dishonest, and corrupt practices in the conduct of public elections. Reform is usually effected by statutory enactments that contain provisions for accomplishing one or more of the following ends: a change in the qualification […]


Amendment Definition Amendment, in legislation, the alteration of an existing statute. In the United States Although the U.S. Congress has no power to alter the Constitution, it does have the power to repeal and alter laws. The method of amending the Constitution is provided by Article […]


The Legal History of Religion This section provides an overview of Religion. Religion & Law Pages Online Legal Resources

The Islamic Law entry The Jewish Law entry U.S. Federal Religion Law Decisions Recent U.S. Supreme Court Religion Law Decisions – at the Legal […]


Legal Materials For information on Finnish legal materials, see Finnish Law on the Internet. Constitutional Text: Finland 1919, Amendments 1930,1934,1937,1944, 1947 and 1948 1930 AMENDMENT TO FINLAND'S CONSTITUTION OF 1919, NOVEMBER 18, 1930 Number 337 Act on Amending 7 § of […]


The Legal History of Donation (Gift) This section provides an overview of Donation (Gift) Donation, Hostile, Religion From the book The Clergyman's Hand-book of Law, about Donation, Hostile, Religion (1): On the other hand the United States Supreme Court declared the legal right of donees […]


Nationalism Definition Nationalism, movement in which the nation-state is regarded as the most important force for the realization of social, economic, and cultural aspirations of a people. Nationalism is characterized principally by a feeling of community among a people, based on common […]


Plebiscite Definition Plebiscite, a vote by the electorate of a nation, region, or locality on a specific question. Historical Introduction In modern times, plebiscites have been held to determine the wishes of the inhabitants of a country or area as to their choice of sovereignty and […]


Oligarchy Definition Oligarchy, in political philosophy, form of government in which the supreme power is vested in a few persons. Political writers of ancient Greece used the term to designate the debased form of an aristocracy, or government by the best citizens. In an oligarchy, the […]

Legal Rights

Main source: Campbell, Kenneth, "Legal Rights", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = . Legal rights are, clearly, rights which exist under the rules of legal systems. They raise a number of different philosophical issues. (1) […]

Absolute Disparity

Description of Absolute Disparity In this reference work, absolute disparity is a sort of the Constitutional law category. Resources See Also FAIR-CROSS-SECTION REQUIREMENT DUREN TEST STATISTICAL-DECISION THEORY Comparative Disparity Jury Constitutional law


Aid, Contracts From the book The Clergyman's Hand-book of Law, about Aid, Contracts (1): Under the constitution of the United States, Congress cannot make appropriations for nor give aid to any denomination. Also, similar provisions are in many of the constitutions of the States. However, […]


From the book The Clergyman's Hand-book of Law, about Protestant (1): In the early days, under the constitution of the State, the courts of Massachusetts practically held that the Protestant religion was the religion of that State.69 Also, the constitution of New Hampshire referred to […]


Libertarianism Definition Libertarianism, political philosophy emphasizing the rights of the individual. The doctrine of libertarianism stresses the right to self-ownership and, by extension, the right to private ownership of material resources and property. Advocates oppose any form of […]

Equal Protection

The Legal History of Equal Protection This section provides an overview of Equal Protection Due Process and Equal Protection: An Overview: Main Elements in the United States of America (In the U.S. law) The coverage of Due Process and Equal Protection: An Overview includes the following main […]


In the Sphere of Government The business of judicature, requiring as it does the possession of a high degree of technical skill and knowledge, is generally entrusted by the sovereign body or people to a separate and independent class of functionaries. In England the appellate jurisdiction of […]

Individual Rights

Constitutional Law: Individual Rights: Main Elements The coverage of Constitutional Law: Individual Rights includes the following main elements: Due Process and Equal Protection: An Overview For detailed information on this issue, please read the corresponding entry. Statutory Protection of […]

Freedom of Religion

Introduction to Freedom of Religion Freedom of Religion, right of a person to form personal religious beliefs according to his or her own conscience and to give public expression to these beliefs in worship and teaching, restricted only by the requirements of public order. Religious liberty […]


Legal Issues International treaties and conventions are, or should be, based on the presumption that all sovereign states are equal. This presumption forms the basis for the operation of the rules of conflict of laws.5 No country can directly enforce its domestic law within the territory of […]

Attorney General

Introduction to Attorney General Attorney General, in the United States and the United Kingdom, the chief law officer of the government. The duties of the attorney general are to advise and represent the government in important legal matters and to initiate and supervise legal proceedings […]

Christian Scientist

From the book The Clergyman's Hand-book of Law, about Christian Scientist (1): A law requiring a person to be a physician to treat the sick, is constitutional; and the defense of a person who has no license to practise, that he is a Christian Scientist, is not good. Also, a parent must […]

Religious Tests

From the book The Clergyman's Hand-book of Law, about Religious Tests (1): The constitution of the United States provides that "no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States."61 Resources Notes and References […]


Hospitals, Sisters, Appropriation From the book The Clergyman's Hand-book of Law, about Hospitals, Sisters, Appropriation (1): In 1864, Providence Hospital, of Washington, was incorporated by an act of Congress, for general hospital purposes. In 1897, $30,000 was appropriated for the […]

Religious Liberty

Religious Liberty, Bible, Religious Garb, Wages From the book The Clergyman's Hand-book of Law, about Religious Liberty, Bible, Religious Garb, Wages (1): The authorities are not uniform as to what constitutes a violation of religious liberty. The question of whether the reading of the […]

Lawyer or legislator? "How it chanced that a man who reasoned on his premises so ably should assume his premises so foolishly, is one of the great mysteries of human nature. The same inconsistency may be observed in the schoolmen of the middle ages. Those writers show so much […]