Photos Copyright Protection Protection of the owner photos 1. Register the owner copyrights to the owner photos. When a photo is not registered with the U.S. Copyright Office prior to the infringement (or within three months of the first publication of the photo), a copyright owner may recover only “actual damages” for the infringement (pursuant to 17 U.S.C. 504 (b)), instead of statutory damages. Courts usually calculate actual damages based on the owner normal license fees and/or industry standard licensing fees. The owner of the rights also may recover the profits the infringer made from the infringement if they aren’t too speculative. Unfortunately, actual damages usually don’t amount to much so that lawyers will not take the copyright owner infringement case on a contingency basis. If the copyright owner of the photo is timely registered for an infringement, he or she will be eligible for statutory damages of up to $150,000 for a willful infringing use. See 17 USC §504(b) and (c). Legal fees and costs also may be recovered from the infringer. See 17 USC §505. Additionally, the copyright owner needs to have received the owner registration certificate to file a complaint for a copyright infringement lawsuit in most […]
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Zollverein in 1889 The following information about Zollverein is from the Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States by the Best American and European Writers: Says Henri Richelot, writing in 1862: “Since the year 1832 the Zollverein, although other influences concurred with its influence, has been the principal fact in Germany; and the progress of Germany since then has been, in great part, the progress of the Zollverein. The first advance of the Zollverein consisted in its material enlargement; this it accomplished by successive incorporations which leave nothing in Germany outside of its boundaries save Austria, the Hanseatic cities and Mecklenburg. The increase of population of the Zollverein was a necessary consequence of the increase of its territory; but it has been more rapid; from twenty-three and one-half millions in 1834, the number of inhabitants of the Zollverein has risen to nearly thirty-four millions. Commerce of the Zollverein —The reports of the commerce of the Zollverein, containing only quantities and no values, do not enable us to give the total annual movement of its trade with non-Zollverein states and countries, and in this matter we have only more or less uncertain approximations. But […]
Taxation Assessment in 1889 The following information about Taxation is from the Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States by the Best American and European Writers: “The person to whom the assessment is made need not be the owner. He may be the agent, trustee, guardian, executor or administrator. This is because the property, which owes the tax by reason of being protected, has not hands wherewith to take from itself a portion of itself, to pay for protection to be accorded to the remainder. Therefore the law, following the property to get the tax, makes its demand upon whoever it finds in possession, without inquiring upon what interest the property is based. This it does, ignoring all persons beneficially interested in the title, even the owner himself. ‘Every person,’ says the statutes of New York, ‘shall be assessed, etc., for all personal property owned by him, including all property in his possession, or under his control, as agent, trustee, guardian, etc.’ Thus it will be seen, that, for the purpose of assessment, possession is a title superior to ownership. And I now reiterate, that, according to the theory of our government, a […]
Objections to Property
Social Utility of Property Social Utility of Property in 1889 The following information about Property is from the Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States by the Best American and European Writers: “What is just always useful: Property has such a character of social utility that society could not exist without property, and there is no thriving society without individual property. Therefore, when persons have desired to bare property upon utility, arguments were certainly not lacking; but utility, which must be taken great account of in political subjects is, as we have remarked, a result, and not a principle, and we must content ourselves with saying that the excellent effects of property corroborate the lawfulness of the right. “Man”, says M. Thiers, “has a first property in his person and his faculties; he has a second, less adherent in his being, but not less sacred, in the product of these faculties, which embraces all that is called the goods of this world, and which society is deeply interested in guaranteeing to him; for without this guarantee there would be no labor, without labor no civilization, not even the most necessary, but only misery, […]
Student’s Guide to Elections Editor: Bruce J. Schulman Since the 1980s, Dr. Bruce J. Schulman has been teaching and writing about the political face of the United States. He is Professor of History at Boston University. He has taken an active role in education. Other contributions from Bruce J. Schulman to the collection: Student’s Guide to the Presidency (2009) Student’s Guide to the Supreme Court (2010) Student’s Guide to Congress (2008) Student’s Guide to Elections (2008) Main Keywords used in this work Handkerchief in the U.S. Elections Benjamin Harrison in the U.S. Elections Jimmy Carter in the U.S. Elections Richard M. Nixon in the U.S. Elections James A. Garfield in the U.S. Elections George W. Bush in the U.S. Elections Dixiecrats in the U.S. Elections Albert Gore in the U.S. Elections Poll Tax in the U.S. Elections Communist Party in the U.S. Elections Baker v. Carr in the U.S. Elections Socialist Workers Party in the U.S. Elections Socialist Party in the U.S. Elections Peace and Freedom Party in the U.S. Elections Anti-Federalists in the U.S. Elections Buckley v. Valeo in the U.S. Elections Literacy Tests in the U.S. Elections Franklin D. Roosevelt in the U.S. Elections Whig Party in the […]
Student’s Guide to Congress Editor: Bruce J. Schulman Since the 1980s, Dr. Bruce J. Schulman has been teaching and writing about the political face of the United States. He is Professor of History at Boston University. He has taken an active role in education. Other contributions from Bruce J. Schulman to the collection: Student’s Guide to the Presidency (2009) Student’s Guide to the Supreme Court (2010) Student’s Guide to Congress (2008) Student’s Guide to Elections (2008) Main Keywords used in this work Census Congressional Research Service Mace Joint Session Parliamentarian Lobbyists Gavel Checks and Balances Nineteenth Amendment African Americans Federalist Connecticut Compromise Members of Congress Conference Committees Line-Item Veto Library of Congress Impeachment Whips Pressure Groups Senate Rules Congressional Pay Army Article I Article II Implied Powers Senate Appropriations Bills Congressional Office Buildings Cloakroom Constitutional Amendments Naturalization District of Columbia Ad Hoc Committees Joint Committees Constituents Bipartisanship Albany Plan Senatorial Courtesy History of Congress War Powers Resolution Telegram Midterm Elections Senatorial Elections House of Representatives Elections Vice President Capitol Commerce Declaration of War Caucus Committees Political Parties Congressional Government Joseph McCarthy Abscam Gibbons v. Ogden Nancy Pelosi Army-McCarthy Hearings Texas Filibuster Hispanic Caucus Black Caucus Electoral College Gibbons v. Ogden […]
Oath of Allegiance Introduction to Oath of Allegiance Oath of Allegiance in 1889 The following information about Oath of Allegiance is from the Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States by the Best American and European Writers. “There is, I conceive, nothing in law to prevent the crown, by and with the consent of the estates of the realm, in the ordinary form of an act of parliament, and with the advice of responsible ministers, from repealing or amending the act of settlement. In the event of its appearing likely that there should be a failure of the persons thereby defined as capable of succession, amendment would become necessary; for example, if they should not be or should cease to be Protestants. It is remarkable that in the assize of Northampton (1176) the justices are directed to take the oath of fealty even from “rustics”: “Item justitiœ capiant domini regis fidelitates * * ab omnibus, scilicet comitibus, baronibus, militibus et libere tenentibus, et etiam rusticis, qui in regno manere voluerint.” Does this include men who were not free? In the earliest forms of the oath of fealty to the king, both in England […]
Nobility Nobility in 1889 The following information about Nobility is from the Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States by the Best American and European Writers. “The Domesday Book is nothing but a great inventory of the Norman conquest. We quote from the history of M. Augustin Thierry some interesting details concerning the origin of this curious inquiry, and upon the way in which it was drawn up. “King William,” says M. Augustin Thierry, “caused a great territorial inquiry to be made, and a universal register of all the changes of property made in England by the conquest to be drawn up. He wished to know into what hands, throughout all the extent of the country, the domains of the Saxons had passed, and how many of them still kept their inheritances by reason of treaties concluded with himself or with his barons; how many acres of land there were in each rural domain; what number of acres would be sufficient for the support of a soldier, and what was the number of the latter in each province or county of England; what was the gross sum of the products of the cities, […]
Dueling Dueling in 1889 The following information about Dueling is from the Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States by the Best American and European Writers. “We think, with our honorable collaborator, that something should be done against dueling. Experience has proven that a Draconian penalty would remain powerless. There is too flagrant an injustice in confounding with the assassin the honorable man who, yielding to a prejudice which reigns like a king in society, kills his equal, for public sentiment not to cry out against this too radical solution of the question. But we hesitate to admit the theory proposed by Mr. Pessard, although his proposition has already begun to be put in practice. The tribunal of honor can not but diminish the number of duels, but it does not attack the root of the prejudice. Rather would it strengthen it. Now, all our efforts should aim at its extermination. The best means to obtain this result will be, we believe: 1, to deny social recognition to any one who has challenged and then killed his adversary in a duel; 2, to have it admitted by the code of honor that no […]
Congress Congress in 1889 The following information about Congress is from the Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States by the Best American and European Writers. Attention should be here called to the congress of Berlin, held July 13, 1878. The treaty of Berlin contains the following stipulations: The principalities of Roumania (proclaimed a kingdom in 1881), Servia and Montenegro, to become independent states, Roumania to cede to Russia Bessarabia, and receive the Dobrudscha in return. Servia obtained Nish, Tirot, and almost the entire northern territory of the Morava. Montenegro received Nikschitz, Podgorizza and Antivari. Austria-Hungary was to occupy Bosnia and the Herzegovina. Russia obtained the largest part of Armenia, with Ordahan, Kars and Batum. The land between the Danube and the Balkan to be constituted into a Christian principality, Bulgaria, which, however, remains under the suzerainty of the porte. South of the Balkans a province of Roumelia, under a Christian governor, is to be formed. Turkey was thus left with 4,800,000 inhabitants, and a territory of about 170,000 kilomètres in Europe: while in Asia it retained 1,890,000 square kilomètres, with 17,000,000 inhabitants.
Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy and the Political History of the United States Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy and the Political History of the United States. By the Best American and European Writers Subjects of the Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy and the Political History of the United States. By the Best American and European Writers Switzerland Revenue Patent System. Political Economy. Physiocrates Philosophy of Law Population. Press Slavery Republican Party Parliamentary Law. Political Science Rent Paper Money. Prussia Politics Paris Monetary Conference Protection. Roman Catholic Church. Party Government State Sovereignty Prices Spain Silver United States Patronage Production of Wealth Taxation Property Value Term and Tenure of office Tariffs United States Notes. Pauperism States Protection Secession Reconstruction Russia Revolution Scotland Property Pension Laws Sweden. Railways Political Economy office-Holders Repudiation. Races of Mankind Turkey. Representation Parties Railways Public Lands Primary Elections. Police Power Oath of Allegiance Removals From office Paraguay Territories Refunding of Public Debt Surplus Money Wages Portugal. Whig Party Tammany Hall Oceanica Oath Outlet Ordinance of 1787 Over-Production Ohio Opposition Oregon Oriental Question Outlawry Occupation Oligarchy Zeitgeist. Spoils System Treaties Transportation Virginia Smith Treaties. Sovereignty Parasites Pennsylvania X Y Z Mission Suffrage Prisons Sanitary System Wealth. […]
Encyclopedia of Law and Higher Education Details Alternative Titles Sage eReference , Encyclopedia of Law & Higher Education Encyclopedia of Law and Higher Education (SAGE Reference Online) Sage e-Reference, e Reference Editor Charles J. Russo, editor also of the Handbook of Comparative Higher Education Law. Description from the Publisher This Encyclopedia of Law and Higher Education addresses legal issues from institutions of higher learning. It is intended to serve, for undergraduate and graduate students, educators, legal practitioners, and general readers concerned with this central area of public life (desegregation, race-conscious admissions plans, gender equity, and the free speech rights of faculty members), as a comprehensive source on the law of higher education. The Encyclopedia of Law and Higher Education is a source of information drawn from the various dimensions of education law that tells its story from a variety of perspectives. The Encyclopedia may serve as secondary source for research on education law. At the same time, since education law is a component in a much larger legal system, the Encyclopedia includes articles on the historical development of the law that impact on the education. As many of the entries in this encyclopedia reflect, the editor and contributors have sought […]
Intemperance Intemperance in 1889 The following information about Intemperance is from the Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States by the Best American and European Writers. “According to Bär (p. 348), the most experienced judges, magistrates and prison officials in England have declared, that three-fourths to four-fifths of all crimes are the result of intemperance. In the year 1877, before a parliamentary committee, nineteen prison superintendents and clergymen stated that the number of prisoners who were victims of intemperance amounted to 60-90 per cent. of all criminals (p. 344). In Germany, according to Bär (p. 348), in the year 1875, of 32,837 prisoners, there were 13,706 drunkards (41.7 per cent.), 7,269 occasional drinkers (22.1 per cent.), and 6,437 habitual drunkards (19.6 per cent.).”
Syllabus of Public International Law Syllabus of Public International Law in Pakistan An example: Course contents: 1: Nature, origin and Basis of International Law 2: Material Sources of International Law 3: Subjects of International Law 4: Relation between International and State law 5: States in General 6: Recognition 7: State Territorial Sovereignty 8: State Jurisdiction 9: State Responsibility 10: Succession to Rights and obligations 11: The State and the Individual 12: The State and the economic interest 13: Diplomatic Envoys, Councils and other Representatives 14: The Law and Practice as to Treaties 15: The International Disputes 16: War, Armed Conflicts and other Hostilities 17: Neutrality 18: International Humanitarian Law 19: International Institutions including International Criminal Court Books Recommended 1. Principles of Public International Law by Brownie, 1. 2. International Law by Oppenheiun, Vol. I & II Edited by H. Lauter Pacht. 3. Introduction to International Law by J G Starke. 4. Law of Nations, Brierly, J L. 5. International Law by Schwazanberger. 6. International Law by Tandon. 7. International Law by DJ Harris. 8. International Humanitarian Law – a compilation of selected texts by ICRC-Pakistan. 9. International Institutions by D W Bowett.
A case may generally not be cited as unreported if it has been reported. Although some online databases are allocating medium neutral designations retrospectively, such designations have not been used in past citations of unreported cases. To avoid confusion and to unambiguous…
Parallel citations are used in citations of the United Kingdom Nominate Reports and early United States Supreme Court decisions. …
Authorised reports usually indicate that they are the 'authorised reports' of the court in the opening pages of each volume. Judgments reproduced therein have been approved by a judge or their associate….
On occasion, a law report series may change from being organised by year to volume number or vice versa. The system used for the volume in which the relevant case appears may be used. Where a law report series organised by year contains decisions that were handed down before t…
Phases before the International Court of Justice and Permanent Court of International Justice may involve a number of separate decisions of the court.
The 'phase' is the broad characterisation of the stage of the decision cited in the course of a case. The most …