679,423  Entries(and counting)     236  Million Words      1,508  Billion Characters

 

 

Encyclopedia of Sexual Behavior and the Law

Encyclopedia of Sexual Behavior and the Law Details of the Encyclopedia ISBN-13:9781933116570 Publisher:Congressional Quarterly, Inc. Publication date:09/21/2006 Pages:368 About the author of this Encyclopedia Robert L. Maddex is an attorney specializing in international law who serves as an advisor on constitutional procedures and issues. He is the author of Congressional Quarterly’s Constitutions of the World, Illustrated Dictionary of Constitutional Concepts, and State Constitutions of the United States. Robert L. Maddex, according to the text in this legal reference, “spurred a movement to protect human rights internationally and in the United States, including equal rights for persons of both sexes.” From the Publisher Whether the issue is sexual predators, abortion, same-sex marriage, sexual harassment, or internet pornography, stories relating to sexual matters regularly make headlines in the news and provoke strong emotions. But until now, researchers looking for policy information on these issues have been limited to reading books that often express particular points of view, or to searching multi-volume professional legal resources. Encyclopedia of Sexual Behavior and the Law is a single comprehensive volume, written specifically for the non-lawyer, that addresses sexual policy in the United States, as shaped by federal laws, state laws, and court cases. This unique new […]

History of Chinese Law

History of Chinese Law Shang Dynasty (c.16th?11th Century BCE) For more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. Western Chou Dynasty (c.1045?771 BCE) For more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. Eastern Chou, Spring and Autumn (771?464 BCE) For more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. Eastern Chou, Warring States (464?221 BCE), and Qin State and Empire (c. 350-206 BCE) For more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. Han Empire (206 BCE-220 CE) For more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. Three Kingdoms, Chin, and Southern Dynasties (220?589 CE) For more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. The Northern Dynasties (386-589 CE) For more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. Sui and Tang Dynasties (581-907 CE) For […]

Canon Law

Canon Law Orthodox Churches For more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. Protestant Churches For more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. The Codes of Canon Law (1917 and 1983) For more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. Courses and Classes For more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia.

Byzantium

Byzantium Early Byzantium For more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. Later Byzantium to 1453 For more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. Byzantine Legislation For more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. Byzantine Jurists For more information about this section, in the context of legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia.

Ancient Mesoamerica

Ancient Mesoamérica Overview The Aztecs, Maya, and Their Predecessors, 3rd ed. (1993) Mesoamerica: The Evolution of a Civilization (1968) Prehistoric Mesoamerica (Adams 1991) Historical Atlas of Ancient America (2001) Bibliographies (see also Epigraphy, Maya, Mexica) The Ancient Americas: A Brief History and Guide to Research (1989) Art and Archaeology of Pre-Columbian Middle America: Annotated Bibliography of Works in English (1977) The Art of pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica: An Annotated Bibliography (1985) Bibliografia Mesoamericana (kawil.saiph.com:5000/) Mesoamerican Archaeology: A Guide to the Literature and Other Information Resources (1981) Codices (see Epigraphy) Cultures, major Maya – Modern geographic locations: Chiapas State & Yucatan (Mexico), Guatemala, Honduras An Album of Maya Architecture (1946 and later ed.) Blood of Kings: Dynasty and Ritual in Maya Art (1986) Lexicon for Maya Architecture (1984) The Maya (Coe 1999) Maya Civilization [bibliography] (1993) Maya Civilization 1990-1995: A Bibliographic Guide (2) (1997) The Mayas: A Bibliography of Books and Periodical Articles (1991) o Study of Maya Art (1913; 1975) Mexica (Aztec) – Modern geographic location: Central Highlands of Mexico o Aztec Art (Pasztory 1981) The Aztecs (Smith 1996) The Aztecs: A Bibliography of Books and Periodical Articles (1987) Aztecs: An Interpretation (1991) Aztecs of Central Mexico: An Imperial Society (1982) Mixtec […]

Maya Law

Maya Law Maya Legal System and Sources of Law From the Tarlton Law Library (University of Texas): The laws that governed the various Maya states were issued by the halach uinic and his council, or by the council alone if the state did not have an halach uinic. The batabs were responsible for carrying out these laws and serving as administrators to smaller towns and cities. Batabs also served as judges for their towns and adjudicated civil and criminal cases. Court cases were generally handled swiftly in public meeting houses known as popilna. Judicial proceedings were conducted orally and written records were not maintained. Witnesses were required to testify under oath and there is evidence to suggest that the parties were represented by individuals who functioned as attorneys. Batabs would review the evidence, evaluate the circumstances of the case, consider whether the criminal act in question was deliberate or accidental, and would order an appropriate punishment. Decisions made by the batabs were final and could not be appealed, though the victims could pardon the accused, thus reducing their punishment. If the accused parties were found guilty, their sentences were carried out immediately by the tupiles. The Maya did not have […]

Aztec Law

Aztec Law Aztec Legal System and Sources of Law From the Tarlton Law Library (University of Texas): “The Aztec legal system was highly complex and was designed to maintain social order and respect for government institutions. Aztec laws were based on royal decrees and on customs that had been passed down from generation to generation. These laws were also interpreted and applied by Aztec judges in the various court systems. Aztec judges were not necessarily bound by existing law, and had some discretion to do what was just and reasonable under the circumstances. The concept of stare decisis did apply in certain situations, as punishments ordered in certain cases were typically applied to subsequent similar cases. The major civil and criminal laws were written down in pictograph for use by judges, while other customary laws were passed down to younger generations through spoken hymns. At the time of the conquest, the Aztecs had just begun to codify their laws into a more formal written form. However, the Spanish missionaries deliberately destroyed the few written court and legal records that existed because they were considered to be heretical. Other legal manuscripts were burned by Spanish troops for fuel, or were allowed […]

De Verborum Quae ad Jus Civile Pertinent Significantione

De Verborum Quae ad Jus Civile Pertinent Significantione Details of the Dictionary “De Verborum Quae ad Jus Civile Pertinent Significantione” Publisher: Halle Magdeburg: Impensis Orphanotrophei Year of Publication: 1743 About the Author: Barnabé Brisson (1531-1591) In the words of the Tarlton Law Library (University of Texas School of Law): “Barnabé Brisson was born in Poitou into a family of jurisconsults. After studying law in Orléans, Bourges and finally Poitiers (France), he rapidly distinguished himself as a jurist and philologist. Bernabé Brisson joined the royal court in 1575 and in 1588 Henry III appointed him sixth president of the Parliament of Paris. Although he was a moderate, his career was cut short in 1591 when he was hanged by the Seize (the Sixteen), on suspicion of royalist sympathies. First issued in 1559, Brisson’s dictionary derived from similar works that preceded it. De Verborum became the standard legal dictionary of the time, and lexicographers continued to refer to his work as an authoritative source for hundreds of years. In addition to definitions, the work listed the laws of the kingdom and collected Roman law. The 1743 edition is a great deal larger than its predecessors. Edited and corrected by Johann Gottlieb Heineccius, […]

Thesaurus Locorum Communium Jurisprudentiae: ex Axiomatibus

Thesaurus Locorum Communium Jurisprudentiae: ex Axiomatibus Details of the Thesaurus Locorum Communium Jurisprudentiae: ex Axiomatibus Publisher: Lipsig: Joh. Friderici Gleditsch Year of Publication: 1691 About the Author: Agostinho Barbosa (1590-1649) In the words of the Tarlton Law Library (University of Texas School of Law): “Agostinho Barbosa was born near Guimarães, Portugal on 17 September 1590, son of successful jurisconsult Manuel Barbosa. Title page, Thesaurus, 1691Agostinho Barbosa enrolled at the University of Coimbra, and after taking orders received a bachelor’s degree in both Civil and Canon Law. He spent the next years expanding his education in France, Germany and Italy, finally ending up in Rome. His erudition attracted the attention of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, and Urban VIII appointed him treasury officer of the College in Guimarães. In February 1648, King Philip IV of Naples awarded him the bishopric of Ugento (Naples), Barbosa was consecrated in Rome, and took possession of the see in May 1649, dying a few months later. Often hailed as the most eminent of Portuguese canonists, Barbosa’s writings were both extensive and influential. Early in his career he published Dictionarium Lusitanico Latinum (1611) the most complete Latin-Portuguese dictionary at the time. In the field of canon law, he […]

Lexicon Juridicum Juris Caesarei Simul, et Canonici

Lexicon Juridicum Juris Caesarei Simul, et Canonici Details of the Dictionary “Lexicon Juridicum Juris Caesarei Simul, et Canonici: feudalis item, civilis, criminalis, theortici, ac practici” Publisher: Genevae: Apud Philippum Albertum Year of Publication: 1622 About the Author: Johannes Calvinus (1550-1614) In the words of the Tarlton Law Library (University of Texas School of Law): “Johann Kahl (also Calvinus, Calvus) was born in Wetter, near Marburg (Germany). He began his education at the university of Marburg in 1571, continuing at the University of Heidelberg beginning in 1576 under the guidance of French legal humanist Hugues Doneau, more commonly, Hugo Donellus, (1527-1591). He accepted a position on the Faculty of Law at Heidelberg in 1595, and taught there until his death in 1614. He wrote several books on politics, Roman Law, Jewish Law, judicial process, and produced two lexicons. His best known work is Lexicon iuridicum, appearing for the first time in 1600 (Frankfurt, Germany). The text combines original work with compilations drawn from the writings of earlier lexicographers and scholars and substantial annotations. The Lexicon proved to be both serviceable and influential – John Cowell credited Kahl’s text with his inspiration to undertake his own law dictionary (Interpreter, 1607). Because Kahl […]

Lexicon Juridicum

Lexicon Juridicum Details of the Dictionary “Lexicon juridicum: hoc est, juris civilis et canonici in schola atque foro usitatarum vocum penus: accessit legum populi Romani copiosus index” Publisher: Geneva (Italy): Ex typographia Iacobi Stœr Year of Publication: 1615 About the Author: Jacob Stoer In the words of the Tarlton Law Library (University of Texas School of Law): “The compiler of this work is thought to be printer Jacob Stoer. The work is primarily drawn from the earlier efforts of Barnabé Brisson and Francois Hotman, as indicated in the full title. Brisson was thought of as a royalist, and Hotman was indisputably both a Huguenot and a “monarchomaque” (an anti-absolutist), so the juxtaposition of the two renown scholars would suggest an attempt at moderation, if Stoer had not in fact been the original publisher of Hotman’s polemical Franco-Gallia (1573), and a Calvinist. Entries contain references to Greek and Latin sources, and a list of authorities was included in the front material. Jacob Stoer (1542-1610) was born in Otlingen, near Strasbourg. He travelled to Geneva at the age of 17 to apprentice himself to master printer Jean Crespin. This association introduced him to prominent Reformers such as Jean Calvin and Theodore Beza. […]

Dictionarium Iuris tam Civilis, quam Canonici

Dictionarium Iuris tam Civilis, quam Canonici Details of the Dictionarium Iuris tam Civilis, quam Canonici Publisher: Venice: (Italy) [Societas Aquilae se Renovantes] Year of Publication: 1581 About the Author: Albericus de Rosate (c. 1290-1354) In the words of the Tarlton Law Library (University of Texas School of Law): “Albericus (or Alberico) was born in Rosate (also appears as Rosciate), near Bergamo (Italy), around 1290. Title page, Dictionarium, 1581Educated in Padua, he acquired a doctorate but never taught, instead returning to Bergamo to practice law. He soon achieved both success and wealth, rapidly becoming intensely involved in local politics. In Bergamo he served as a judge and participated in the revision of the city’s statutes in 1331 and 1333. While in the service of the Visconti of Milan, he travelled as ambassador to the papal court in Avignon three times — 1335, 1337, and 1340. By the middle of the century Albericus was known across Europe for his commentaries on the Digest and Codex of Justinian and for his dictionary of civil and canon law. Compiled after 1350 (see jubileus annus), Albericus’ dictionary was considered essential for jurists and students for hundreds of years, and directly influenced all legal lexicography that […]

Lexicon Juris Civilis et Canonici

Lexicon Juris Civilis et Canonici: sive potius, commentarius de verborum quae ad utrumquae jus pertinent significatione Details of the Dictionary: Lexicon Juris Civilis et Canonici: sive potius, commentarius de verborum quae ad utrumquae jus pertinent significatione Publisher: Lyon (France): Apud G. Rovillium Year of Publication: 1567 About the Author: Pardoux Duprat (1520-1569) In the words of the Tarlton Law Library (University of Texas School of Law): “Pardoux Duprat was a celebrated humanist in his own time, but has now fallen into relative obscurity.Title page, Lexicon, 1580 Born in 1520 in Aubusson into family of merchants, he also reputedly brought Calvinism to the town. Duprat appears to have been the student of Jean Coras, counselor to the Parlement de Toulouse. He became a Doctor of Laws in 1567 and became the official annotator of the laws of Charles IX of France the same year. Although the details of his life are sparse, he is better known for his scholarship. He edited works by Andrea Alciati (1492-1550), Azo of Bologna (fl. c. 1150-c. 1230), Everardi Hadrianus Marius (1509-1568), and Jean Faber (d. 1340). Duprat also wrote books on ancient Greek law and French notarial practice, and made the first translation of the […]

Vocabularium Utriusque Juris

Vocabularium Utriusque Juris Details of the Dictionary “Vocabularium Utriusque Juris” Publisher: Lyon (France): Apud haeredes Iacobi Iuntae Year of Publication: 1559. About the Author: Elio Antonio de Nebrija (c. 1444-1522) In the words of the Tarlton Law Library (University of Texas School of Law): “Antonio de Nebrija was a leading Spanish author, humanist, philologist, and educator. He was born in Lebrija (the Latin name is Nebrissa), Seville (Spain), and lived and studied in Salamanca and Bologna, concentrating on classical languages but reading widely in law, medicine, and theology. Between 1502 and 1517 he was briefly a member of the group of scholars gathered by Cardinal Ximénes de Cisneros at Alcalá to produce the Complutensian Polyglot Bible. During the same period his series of scriptural commentaries garnered the condemnation of the Inquisition, and Nebrija dedicated himself to lexicography. Nebrija sought to standardize and regularize Spanish language and spelling, frequently under the patronage of Queen Isabella. He published the first reliable Latin grammar in Spain, Introductiones latine (1481), which he later translated into Spanish. Other works include Interpretatio dictionum ex sermone latino in hispaniensem (1492), and the first scientific grammar of any European vernacular language, Gramática sobre la lengua castellana (1492). Nebrija’s […]

Sociology of Law

The Sociology of Law The Eastern-European Pioneers of the Sociology of Law This section provides an overview of the following pioneers: Eugen Ehrlich Leon Petrazycki Georges Gurvitch Nicholas S. Timasheff Foundational Works in Law and Society This section provides an overview of the following issues: The Classical Tradition Sir Henry Maine William Graham Sumner The Sociological Movement in Law This section provides an overview of the following issues: Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. Roscoe Pound Sociological Jurisprudence American Legal Realism Marxian Sociology of Law This section provides an overview of the following issues: Karl Marx Friedrich Engels The Marxian Perspective Weberian Sociology of Law This section provides an overview of the following issues: Max Weber The Weberian Perspective Durkheimian Sociology of Law This section provides an overview of the following issues: Emile Durkheim The Durkheimian Perspective Structural Functionalism This section provides an overview of the following issues: Structural Functionalism in General Systems Theory/Autopoietic Theory Donald Black’s Pure Sociology of Law This section provides an overview of the following issues: Donald Black The Behavior of Law Conflict Theory   Critical Legal Studies   Critical Race Theory   Feminist Jurisprudence   The Anthropology of Law   Postmodernism and Deconstructionism   The Socio-Historical Method […]

This entry of the legal Encyclopedia was posted in Uncategorized on by You can follow any added content to this entry through the RSS feed. You may skip to the end and expand the entry.

Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity

Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity Details of the Encyclopedia Editor: Dinah L. Shelton, editor in chief. Published: Detroit : Macmillan Reference Date of Publication: c2005. Contents of the Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes against Humanity Entries Starting by A in the Encyclopedia Advertising African Americans African Crisis Response Initiative Aggression Algeria Alien Tort Claims Act Almohads Altruism, Biological Altruism, Ethical Amazon Region American Indians Amnesty Ancient World Anthropology, Cultural Anti-Semitism Apartheid Arbour, Louise Archaeology Architecture Arendt, Hannah Argentina Argentina’s Dirty Warriors Armenians in Ottoman Turkey Armenians in Russia and the USSR Arms Embargoes Arms Trafficking Art as Propaganda Art as Representation Art, Banned Art, Stolen Ataturk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha Athens and Melos Attempt Auschwitz Australia Aztecs Entries Starting by B in the Encyclopedia Babi Yar Bagosora, Théoneste Baháís Banda Bangladesh/East Pakistan Barbie, Klaus Beothuks Biafra/Nigeria Biographies Bosnia-Herzegovina Burma/Myanmar Burundi Bystanders Entries Starting by C in the Encyclopedia Cambodia Canada Carthage Cathars Catholic Church Charles Taylor Chechens Cheyenne Children Chile China Chittagong Hill Tract, Peoples of the Chmielnicki, Bogdan Christians, Roman Persecution of Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind Collaboration Comics Commission on Responsibilities Comparative Genocide Compensation Complicity Concentration Camps Conspiracy Control Council Law #10 […]

A Dictionary of Law

A Dictionary of Law

Lexicon Juris Civilis

Lexicon Juris Civilis Details of the Dictionary Lexicon Juris Civilis Publisher: Basel: apud Joannem Hervagium Year of Publication: 1554 About the Author: Jakob Spiegel (1483-1547) In the words of the Tarlton Law Library (University of Texas School of Law): “Jakob Spiegel was a humanist, jurist, and diplomat. At the height of his career, Speigel served as secretary to Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, later Holy Roman Emperor, from c. 1514. In 1526 he retired to his hometown of Selestat in Alsace and resumed the practice of law. Although Spiegel was a prolific author, Lexicon juris civilis was his most successful book. The entries are typically brief, from a sentence to a few paragraphs. Entries are supported by references to classical Roman jurists, medieval commentators, and sixteenth century luminaries including Erasmus, Aymar du Rivail, Guillame Budé, and Spiegel’s mentor Ulrich Zasius. Indices, exegeses, essays, and related materials complement the central work.” Resources See Also Jakob Spiegel Vocabularium utriusque juris Historical Development of Civil Law Civil Law History Lexicon juridicum Romano-Teutonicum Allgemeines Teutsches Juristisches Lexicon Corpus Juris Secundum Nomo-Lexicon: a Law Dictionary Modus Legendi Abbreviaturas Vocabularius Utriusque Iuris Roman Law Further Reading Joseph Ritter von Aschbach. “Spiegelius.” Geschichte der Wiener Universität. Vienna: Wilhelm […]

Modus Legendi Abbreviaturas

Modus Legendi Abbreviaturas in utroque jure Details of the Dictionary “Modus Legendi Abbreviaturas in utroque jure Publisher: Paris (France): Impressus per Iohannem lambert [for J. Petit,] Year of Publication: 1506 About the Author: Werner von Schussenried In the words of the Tarlton Law Library (University of Texas School of Law): “The Modus legendi abbreviaturas is not, strictly speaking, a dictionary, but rather a verse glossary of abbreviations commonly found in Roman and canon law texts. Printer’s mark, Modus legendi, 1506 No author was credited in the publication, but Victor Scholderer (1880–1971), distinguished bibliographer and Fellow of the British Academy, discovered that the author, Wernherus of Schussenried (Werner von Schussenried), had embedded his name in an acrostic in the section titled “De decreto versificato.” The first letters of each line over several pages reveal: Wernherus monstrat ut sic distinctio fiat Sancti Germani Spirae canonicus Cuius erat patria Schussenrieth in Swevia. Discere causarum quarumlibet ordine membra The text probably continued, but as Dr. Scholderer noted, the minor emendations needed to read the first few words rapidly devolve to incoherence. The assumption is that a later editor, unaware of the acrostic, altered the text in the process of preparing the work for printing. […]

Vocabularius Utriusque Iuris

Vocabularius Utriusque Iuris Details of the Dictionary “Vocabularius Utriusque Iuris” Publisher: Strasbourg (France): George Reyser Year of Publication: c. 1476 Review In the words of the Tarlton Law Library (University of Texas School of Law): “The anonymous Vocabularius utriusque juris remained a popular legal reference work from its first publication around 1475Title page Vocabularius utriusque iuris, 1476 until its last appearance seventy editions later in the early seventeenth century (possibly 1618). The earliest manuscripts of the text and the first printed editions are both fifteenth-century – it is quite likely that the original text was completed by 1424. The text is an authoritative collection of terms and concepts taken from legal texts dating from the twelfth through the fifteenth centuries, including the Vocabularius Stuttgardiensis (1432), the Collectio terminorum legalium (c. 1400), and the Introductorium pro studio sacrorum canonum of Hermann von Schildesch (c. 1330). Although the authorship is uncertain; Vocabularius is attributed to Jodocus, a jurist of Erfurt University, whose name appears in the colophon of some manuscripts of the text.” Resources See Also Roman Law Nouvelle Introduction a la Pratique Termes de la ley A New Law Dictionary, Intended for General Use as Well as for Gentlemen of the […]