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Unreported

Citation Notes

A case may generally not be cited as unreported if it has been reported. Although some online databases are allocating medium neutral designations retrospectively, such designations have not been used in past citations of unreported cases. To avoid confusion and to unambiguous…

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Parallel Citations

Citation Notes

Parallel citations are used in citations of the United Kingdom Nominate Reports and early United States Supreme Court decisions. …

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Authorised reports

Citation Notes

Authorised reports usually indicate that they are the 'authorised reports' of the court in the opening pages of each volume. Judgments reproduced therein have been approved by a judge or their associate….

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Law Report

Citation Notes

On occasion, a law report series may change from being organised by year to volume number or vice versa. The system used for the volume in which the relevant case appears may be used. Where a law report series organised by year contains decisions that were handed down before t…

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Phases

Citation Notes

Phases before the International Court of Justice and Permanent Court of International Justice may involve a number of separate decisions of the court.

The 'phase' is the broad characterisation of the stage of the decision cited in the course of a case. The most …

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Official Reports

Citation Notes

The official report series of both the International Court of Justice and Permanent Court of International Justice are organised by year. The year therefore appears in square brackets…

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Decisions

Citation Notes

The International Court of Justice publishes its decisions in Reports of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders (abbreviated 'ICJ Rep'). The Permanent Court of International Justice published its decisions in series A, series B and series A/B of Publications of the Pe…

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Page Numbers

Citation Notes

For decisions of the International Court of Justice, the starting page is generally that on which the judgment begins. The page numbers of title page and the page containing information about mode of citation should not be used as the starting page. (However, the information o…

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International Court of Justice Pleadings

Citation Notes

The International Court of Justice publishes Pleadings, Oral Arguments, Documents (abbreviated 'ICJ Pleadings'), which contains documents and transmissions of the parties and the Court (such as the application instituting proceedings, submissions, minutes of oral argum…

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Permanent Court of International Justice

Citation Notes

The Permanent Court of International Justice published similar documents to International Court of Justice Pleadings, Oral Arguments, Documents (International Court of Justice Pleadings) in series C of Publications of the Permanent Court of International Justice (abbreviated &…

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Paragraph

Citation Notes

Paragraph numbering generally begins afresh in a separate or dissenting opinion.

Paragraph references to a separate or dissenting opinion are therefore to paragraphs within the opinion.

A judge's name must therefore be included in such references.

Deci…

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Citation

Citation Notes

Some commonly cited report series containing state-state arbitral decisions are the Arb Mat, Hague Ct Rep (Scott), Hague Ct Rep 2d (Scott), ILR and RIAA.

In general, the abbreviations for report series should appear as they do in one of the citation systems.

Wher…

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Chambers

Citation Notes

The International Criminal Court has three types of chambers:

Pre-Trial Chambers, Trial Chambers and Appeals Chambers.

Other international criminal tribunals and courts often have one or several Trial Chambers and an Appeals Chamber.

Such chambers are typi…

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Marrakesh Agreement

Citation Notes

Annexes 1A and 4 to the Marrakesh Agreement both contain more than one agreement or understanding.

It is thus necessary to include the name of the relevant agreement or understanding as a short title when referring to WTO agreements or understandings other than the Marr…

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Journal

Citation Notes

The Official Journal of the European Communities became the Official Journal of the European Union on 1 February 2003.

Both, as well as previous equivalent publications, are abbreviated 'OJ'.

Within the EU, legislative acts include regulations, directives…

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Codes

Codes

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Party

Introduction to Party

Party (law), a person or group involved in a legal proceeding as a litigant." (1)

Resources

Notes and References

    Information about

Judge

Judge (court officer)

Introduction to Judge

Judge (court officer), government official who administers the law in a court of justice by supervising trials, instructing juries, and pronouncing judgments and sentences. " (1)

Resources

Notes and References

    Inform…

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Admiralty Law

Resources

See Also

Carriers; Environmental Law; Navigable Rivers; Piracy; Salvage; Shipping Law; Territorial Waters.

Further Reading (Articles)

Richard Cooper Memorial Lecture Admiralty Law – What Is It Good For?, University of Queensland Law Journal; July 1, 2009; Myburgh, Pa…

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Arbitration

Arbitration

Arbitration, reference of a dispute to an impartial person or persons, called arbitrators, for a decision or award based on evidence and arguments presented by the disputants. The parties involved usually agree to resort to arbitration in lieu of court proceedings to resolve an e…

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