Oath of Allegiance Introduction to Oath of Allegiance Oath of Allegiance in 1889 The following information about Oath of Allegiance is from the Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States by the Best American and European Writers. “There is, I conceive, nothing in law to prevent the crown, by and with the consent of the estates of the realm, in the ordinary form of an act of parliament, and with the advice of responsible ministers, from repealing or amending the act of settlement. In the event of its appearing likely that there should be a failure of the persons thereby defined as capable of succession, amendment would become necessary; for example, if they should not be or should cease to be Protestants. It is remarkable that in the assize of Northampton (1176) the justices are directed to take the oath of fealty even from “rustics”: “Item justitiœ capiant domini regis fidelitates * * ab omnibus, scilicet comitibus, baronibus, militibus et libere tenentibus, et etiam rusticis, qui in regno manere voluerint.” Does this include men who were not free? In the earliest forms of the oath of fealty to the king, both in England […]
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Nobility Nobility in 1889 The following information about Nobility is from the Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States by the Best American and European Writers. “The Domesday Book is nothing but a great inventory of the Norman conquest. We quote from the history of M. Augustin Thierry some interesting details concerning the origin of this curious inquiry, and upon the way in which it was drawn up. “King William,” says M. Augustin Thierry, “caused a great territorial inquiry to be made, and a universal register of all the changes of property made in England by the conquest to be drawn up. He wished to know into what hands, throughout all the extent of the country, the domains of the Saxons had passed, and how many of them still kept their inheritances by reason of treaties concluded with himself or with his barons; how many acres of land there were in each rural domain; what number of acres would be sufficient for the support of a soldier, and what was the number of the latter in each province or county of England; what was the gross sum of the products of the cities, […]
Dueling Dueling in 1889 The following information about Dueling is from the Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States by the Best American and European Writers. “We think, with our honorable collaborator, that something should be done against dueling. Experience has proven that a Draconian penalty would remain powerless. There is too flagrant an injustice in confounding with the assassin the honorable man who, yielding to a prejudice which reigns like a king in society, kills his equal, for public sentiment not to cry out against this too radical solution of the question. But we hesitate to admit the theory proposed by Mr. Pessard, although his proposition has already begun to be put in practice. The tribunal of honor can not but diminish the number of duels, but it does not attack the root of the prejudice. Rather would it strengthen it. Now, all our efforts should aim at its extermination. The best means to obtain this result will be, we believe: 1, to deny social recognition to any one who has challenged and then killed his adversary in a duel; 2, to have it admitted by the code of honor that no […]
Congress Congress in 1889 The following information about Congress is from the Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States by the Best American and European Writers. Attention should be here called to the congress of Berlin, held July 13, 1878. The treaty of Berlin contains the following stipulations: The principalities of Roumania (proclaimed a kingdom in 1881), Servia and Montenegro, to become independent states, Roumania to cede to Russia Bessarabia, and receive the Dobrudscha in return. Servia obtained Nish, Tirot, and almost the entire northern territory of the Morava. Montenegro received Nikschitz, Podgorizza and Antivari. Austria-Hungary was to occupy Bosnia and the Herzegovina. Russia obtained the largest part of Armenia, with Ordahan, Kars and Batum. The land between the Danube and the Balkan to be constituted into a Christian principality, Bulgaria, which, however, remains under the suzerainty of the porte. South of the Balkans a province of Roumelia, under a Christian governor, is to be formed. Turkey was thus left with 4,800,000 inhabitants, and a territory of about 170,000 kilomètres in Europe: while in Asia it retained 1,890,000 square kilomètres, with 17,000,000 inhabitants.
Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy and the Political History of the United States Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy and the Political History of the United States. By the Best American and European Writers Subjects of the Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy and the Political History of the United States. By the Best American and European Writers Switzerland Revenue Patent System. Political Economy. Physiocrates Philosophy of Law Population. Press Slavery Republican Party Parliamentary Law. Political Science Rent Paper Money. Prussia Politics Paris Monetary Conference Protection. Roman Catholic Church. Party Government State Sovereignty Prices Spain Silver United States Patronage Production of Wealth Taxation Property Value Term and Tenure of office Tariffs United States Notes. Pauperism States Protection Secession Reconstruction Russia Revolution Scotland Property Pension Laws Sweden. Railways Political Economy office-Holders Repudiation. Races of Mankind Turkey. Representation Parties Railways Public Lands Primary Elections. Police Power Oath of Allegiance Removals From office Paraguay Territories Refunding of Public Debt Surplus Money Wages Portugal. Whig Party Tammany Hall Oceanica Oath Outlet Ordinance of 1787 Over-Production Ohio Opposition Oregon Oriental Question Outlawry Occupation Oligarchy Zeitgeist. Spoils System Treaties Transportation Virginia Smith Treaties. Sovereignty Parasites Pennsylvania X Y Z Mission Suffrage Prisons Sanitary System Wealth. […]
Intemperance Intemperance in 1889 The following information about Intemperance is from the Cyclopaedia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States by the Best American and European Writers. “According to Bär (p. 348), the most experienced judges, magistrates and prison officials in England have declared, that three-fourths to four-fifths of all crimes are the result of intemperance. In the year 1877, before a parliamentary committee, nineteen prison superintendents and clergymen stated that the number of prisoners who were victims of intemperance amounted to 60-90 per cent. of all criminals (p. 344). In Germany, according to Bär (p. 348), in the year 1875, of 32,837 prisoners, there were 13,706 drunkards (41.7 per cent.), 7,269 occasional drinkers (22.1 per cent.), and 6,437 habitual drunkards (19.6 per cent.).”
Syllabus of Public International Law Syllabus of Public International Law in Pakistan An example: Course contents: 1: Nature, origin and Basis of International Law 2: Material Sources of International Law 3: Subjects of International Law 4: Relation between International and State law 5: States in General 6: Recognition 7: State Territorial Sovereignty 8: State Jurisdiction 9: State Responsibility 10: Succession to Rights and obligations 11: The State and the Individual 12: The State and the economic interest 13: Diplomatic Envoys, Councils and other Representatives 14: The Law and Practice as to Treaties 15: The International Disputes 16: War, Armed Conflicts and other Hostilities 17: Neutrality 18: International Humanitarian Law 19: International Institutions including International Criminal Court Books Recommended 1. Principles of Public International Law by Brownie, 1. 2. International Law by Oppenheiun, Vol. I & II Edited by H. Lauter Pacht. 3. Introduction to International Law by J G Starke. 4. Law of Nations, Brierly, J L. 5. International Law by Schwazanberger. 6. International Law by Tandon. 7. International Law by DJ Harris. 8. International Humanitarian Law – a compilation of selected texts by ICRC-Pakistan. 9. International Institutions by D W Bowett.
A case may generally not be cited as unreported if it has been reported. Although some online databases are allocating medium neutral designations retrospectively, such designations have not been used in past citations of unreported cases. To avoid confusion and to unambiguous…
Parallel citations are used in citations of the United Kingdom Nominate Reports and early United States Supreme Court decisions. …
Authorised reports usually indicate that they are the 'authorised reports' of the court in the opening pages of each volume. Judgments reproduced therein have been approved by a judge or their associate….
On occasion, a law report series may change from being organised by year to volume number or vice versa. The system used for the volume in which the relevant case appears may be used. Where a law report series organised by year contains decisions that were handed down before t…
Phases before the International Court of Justice and Permanent Court of International Justice may involve a number of separate decisions of the court.
The 'phase' is the broad characterisation of the stage of the decision cited in the course of a case. The most …
The official report series of both the International Court of Justice and Permanent Court of International Justice are organised by year. The year therefore appears in square brackets…
The International Court of Justice publishes its decisions in Reports of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders (abbreviated 'ICJ Rep'). The Permanent Court of International Justice published its decisions in series A, series B and series A/B of Publications of the Pe…
For decisions of the International Court of Justice, the starting page is generally that on which the judgment begins. The page numbers of title page and the page containing information about mode of citation should not be used as the starting page. (However, the information o…
The International Court of Justice publishes Pleadings, Oral Arguments, Documents (abbreviated 'ICJ Pleadings'), which contains documents and transmissions of the parties and the Court (such as the application instituting proceedings, submissions, minutes of oral argum…
The Permanent Court of International Justice published similar documents to International Court of Justice Pleadings, Oral Arguments, Documents (International Court of Justice Pleadings) in series C of Publications of the Permanent Court of International Justice (abbreviated &…
Paragraph numbering generally begins afresh in a separate or dissenting opinion.
Paragraph references to a separate or dissenting opinion are therefore to paragraphs within the opinion.
A judge's name must therefore be included in such references.
Some commonly cited report series containing state-state arbitral decisions are the Arb Mat, Hague Ct Rep (Scott), Hague Ct Rep 2d (Scott), ILR and RIAA.
In general, the abbreviations for report series should appear as they do in one of the citation systems.
The International Criminal Court has three types of chambers:
Pre-Trial Chambers, Trial Chambers and Appeals Chambers.
Other international criminal tribunals and courts often have one or several Trial Chambers and an Appeals Chamber.
Such chambers are typi…