Treaty on Open Skies

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Treaty on Open Skies

 

Article I
GENERAL PROVISIONS
1. This Treaty establishes the regime, to be known as the Open Skies regime, for the conduct of observation flights by States Parties over the territories of other States Parties, and sets forth the rights and obligations of the States Parties relating thereto.

2. Each of the Annexes and their related Appendices constitutes an integral part of this Treaty.

Article II
DEFINITIONS
For the purposes of this Treaty:

1. The term “observed Party” means the State Party or group of States Parties over whose territory an observation flight is conducted or is intended to be conducted, from the time it has received notification thereof from an observing Party until completion of the procedures relating to that flight, or personnel acting on behalf of that State Party or group of States Parties.

2. The term “observing Party” means the State Party or group of States Parties that intends to conduct or conducts an observation flight over the territory of another State Party or group of States Parties, from the time that it has provided notification of its intention to conduct an observation flight until completion of the procedures relating to that flight, or personnel acting on behalf of that State Party or group of States Parties.

3. The term “group of States Parties”means two or more States Parties that have agreed to form a group for the purposes of this Treaty.

4. The term “observation aircraft”means an unarmed, fixed wing aircraft designated to make observation flights, registered by the relevant authorities of a State Party and equipped with agreed sensors. The term “unarmed”means that the observation aircraft used for the purposes of this Treaty is not equipped to carry and employ weapons.

5. The term “observation flight”means the flight of the observation aircraft conducted by an observing Party over the territory of an observed Party, as provided in the flight plan, from the point of entry or Open Skies airfield to the point of exit or Open Skies airfield.

6. The term “transit flight”means a flight of an observation aircraft or transport aircraft conducted by or on behalf of an observing Party over the territory of a third State Party enroute to or from the territory of the observed Party.

7. The term “transport aircraft”means an aircraft other than an observation aircraft that, on behalf of the observing Party, conducts flights to or from the territory of the observed Party exclusively for the purposes of this Treaty.

8. The term “territory” means the land, including islands, and internal and territorial waters, over which a State Party exercises sovereignty.

9. The term “passive quota”means the number of observation flights that each State Party is obliged to accept as an observed Party.

10. The term “active quota”means the number of observation flights that each State Party has the right to conduct as an observing Party.

11. The term “maximum flight distance”means the maximum distance over the territory of the observed Party from the point at which the observation flight may commence to the point at which that flight may terminate, as specified in Annex A to this Treaty.

12. The term “sensor”means equipment of a category specified in Article IV, paragraph 1 that is installed on an observation aircraft for use during the conduct of observation flights.

13. The term “ground resolution”means the minimum distance on the ground between two closely located objects distinguishable as separate objects.

14. The term “infra-red line-scanning device”means a sensor capable of receiving and visualizing thermal electro-magnetic radiation emitted in the invisible infra-red part of the optical spectrum by objects due to their temperature and in the absence of artificial illumination.

15. The term “observation period”means a specified period of time during an observation flight when a particular sensor installed on the observation aircraft is operating.

16. The term “flight crew”means individuals from any State Party who may include, if the State Party so decides, interpreters and who perform duties associated with the operation or servicing of an observation aircraft or transport aircraft.

17. The term “pilot-in-command”means the pilot on board the observation aircraft who is responsible for the operation of the observation aircraft, the execution of the flight plan, and the safety of the observation aircraft.

18. The term “flight monitor”means an individual who, on behalf of the observed Party, is on board an observation aircraft provided by the observing Party during the observation flight and who performs duties in accordance with Annex G to this Treaty.

19. The term “flight representative”means an individual who, on behalf of the observing Party, is on board an observation aircraft provided by the observed Party during an observation flight and who performs duties in accordance with Annex G to this Treaty.

20. The term “representative”means an individual who has been designated by the observing Party and who performs activities on behalf of the observing Party in accordance with Annex G during an observation flight on an observation aircraft designated by a State Party other than the observing Party or the observed Party.

21. The term “sensor operator”means an individual from any State Party who performs duties associated with the functioning, operation and maintenance of the sensors of an observation aircraft.

22. The term “inspector”means an individual from any State Party who conducts an inspection of sensors or observation aircraft of another State Party.

23. The term “escort”means an individual from any State Party who accompanies the inspectors of another State Party.

24. The term “mission plan”means a document, which is in a format established by the Open Skies Consultative Commission, presented by the observing Party that contains the route, profile, order of execution and support required to conduct the observation flight, which is to be agreed upon with the observed Party and which will form the basis for the elaboration of the flight plan.

25. The term “flight plan”means a document elaborated on the basis of the agreed mission plan in the format and with the content specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization, hereinafter referred to as the ICAO, which is presented to the air traffic control authorities and on the basis of which the observation flight will be conducted.

26. The term “mission report”means a document describing an observation flight completed after its termination by the observing Party and signed by both the observing and observed Parties, which is in a format established by the Open Skies Consultative Commission.

27. The term “Open Skies airfield”means an airfield designated by the observed Party as a point where an observation flight may commence or terminate.

28. The term “point of entry” means a point designated by the observed Party for the arrival of personnel of the observing Party on the territory of the observed Party.

29. The term “point of exit”means a point designated by the observed Party for departure of personnel of the observing Party from the territory of the observed Party.

30. The term “refuelling airfield”means an airfield designated by the observed Party used for fuelling and servicing of observation aircraft and transport aircraft.

31. The term “alternate airfield”means an airfield specified in the flight plan to which an observation aircraft or transport aircraft may proceed when it becomes inadvisable to land at the airfield of intended landing.

32. The term “hazardous airspace”means the prohibited areas, restricted areas and danger areas, defined on the basis of Annex 2 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, that are established in accordance with Annex 15 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation in the interests of flight safety, public safety and environmental protection and about which information is provided in accordance with ICAO provisions.

33. The term “prohibited area”means an airspace of defined dimensions, above the territory of a State Party, within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited.

34. The term “restricted area”means an airspace of defined dimensions, above the territory of a State Party, within which the flight of aircraft is restricted in accordance with specified conditions.

35. The term “danger area”means an airspace of defined dimensions within which activities dangerous to the flight of aircraft may exist at specified times.

 

Conclusion

Notes

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References and Further Reading

About the Author/s and Reviewer/s

Author: international

Mentioned in these Entries

Aviation and Outerspace Conventions, Disarmament conventions, International Conventions from 1991, Rules of Warfare, Arms Control conventions, Treaty on Open Skies 10, Treaty on Open Skies 2, Treaty on Open Skies 3, Treaty on Open Skies 4, Treaty on Open Skies 5, Treaty on Open Skies 6, Treaty on Open Skies 7, Treaty on Open Skies 8, Treaty on Open Skies 9.

Treaty on Open Skies

In relation to the international law practice and treaty on conventional armed forces in europe and treaty on open skies in this world legal Encyclopedia, please see the following section:

Arms Control, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation

Note: there is detailed information and resources under these topics during the year 2013, covered by this entry on treaty on conventional armed forces in europe and treaty on open skies in this law Encyclopedia.

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