Database in Legal Information RetrievalThe following is a basic concept of Database in relation to information retrieval. In addition to this, Database may be applied to legal texts, including case law, legislation and scholarly works. Database is a relatively new word for a collection of data […]

Administrative Court

Administrative Court in Election Law Type of court specialised in ruling on disputes between the public authorities and individuals. It can be mandated by electoral law to rule on election-related disputes. Resources See Also Election Law Electoral Laws Electoral Legislation

Optical Character Recognition

Optical Character Recognition (ocr) Device in Election Law Scanning system that takes images and uses computer software to recognise the shapes of printed or handwritten characters, such as numbers and letters, and stores them as computer-readable data. OCR is typically used to convert printed […]

Universal Suffrage

Universal Suffrage in Election Law A fundamental principle in democratic elections, by which every citizen has the right to vote in periodic and regular elections and referenda. This right must be established by law. Restrictions may apply (minimum age, mental capacity), but the right to vote […]


Veto Definition (Lat. I forbid). Veto may be defined as the refusal of the executive body of a country whose assent is necessary to let pass a law or measure approbed already by the legislative body. See veto in the legal dictonary. In Europe The veto power of the British sovereign has […]


Direct Recording Electronic (dre) Equipment in Election Law Machines or computers normally installed at a polling station, which record and simultaneously store votes. This can be done using a touch screen (with or without a special pen), or by using devices that involve pressing one or more […]


Election Observation in Election Law Verification of the election process for the purpose of collecting all information concerning the conditions in which it took place. This is done by impartial organisations that must not intervene or interfere in the operations they are called upon to […]

Constitutional Court

Spanish Translation of Constitutional Court This is the legal translation of English to Spanish in relation to Constitutional Court and / or a definition of this topic: Tribunal Constitucional (in Spanish, without translation of the dictionary entry). Constitutional Court in Constitutional Law […]

Parliamentary Session

Parliamentary Session in Election Law Period during which parliament operates. During a parliamentary recess, a permanent committee is usually in place to respond to pressing issues. A parliamentary session differs from a legislative session, which is the duration for which representatives […]


Governance in Election Law Manner of understanding and implementing authority. Characteristics of good governance are a high level of organisation and efficiency. It is measured by many different criteria: delivery, transparency, participation and sharing of responsibilities. Literature Review […]


Prisoner Vote in Election Law Some countries allow prisoners to vote. Given that they are usually incarcerated far from their electoral constituencies and obviously cannot leave, polling centres are set up inside jails so that they may exercise their right to vote. Resources See Also Social […]


Census, term usually referring to an official count by a national government of its country's population. A population census determines the size of a country's population and the characteristics of its people, such as their age, sex, ethnic background, marital status, and income. […]


Government Definition Government may be defined as a political organization comprising the individuals and institutions authorized to formulate public policies and conduct affairs of state. Governments are empowered to establish and regulate the interrelationships of the people within their […]


Introduction to Election Election, procedure that allows members of an organization or community to choose representatives who will hold positions of authority within it. The most important elections select the leaders of local, state, and national governments. The chance to decide who will […]

Proportional Representation

Introduction to Proportional Representation Proportional Representation, electoral system designed to produce legislative bodies in which the number of seats held by any group or party is proportional to the number of votes cast for members of that group during the most recent election. The […]


Who Becomes a Refugee? Introduction to Refugee People leave their home countries for many reasons. Sometimes they are fleeing poverty, or they hope to find a better life in another place. People who migrate for economic reasons, however, are not considered refugees. Yet economic migrants […]

Freedom of Association

Freedom of Association in Constitutional Law From the Comparative Constitutions Project: Freedom of association is the right to meet and interact freely, without the interference of the state or others. This is slightly different than freedom of assembly, because assembly refers to the ability […]

Press Release

Press Release in Election Law Official statement, announcement or notice published in the media by the government, election authority, candidate(s) or national/international observers on a specific subject. Resources See Also Media Propaganda Media Law Entertainment Law Resources See Also […]


The Legal History of Parliament This section provides an overview of Parliament Parliament in Election Law National body of representatives having legislative power within the state. House of Representatives in U.S. Constitutional Law A list of entries related to House of Representatives may […]

Gender Equality

Gender Equality and the United Nations The United Nations has the responsibility to ensure that all its actions promote and protect gender equality and women’s empowerment. UN efforts to help establish the rule of law for all on the basis of equality are essential to this end. Advancing […]

Electoral Fraud

Ballot Tampering in Election Law A method of electoral fraud which consists of manipulating the ballot in any manner which would invalidate the vote or alter the counting results. It may happen at different stages of the polling and counting operations. Resources See Also Election Law […]

Civil Society

Civil Society in Election Law Associations, organisations and unions that are active in public affairs and constitute an independent counterforce to the powers that be. In democracies, all persons have a right to participate in public affairs, including in civil society activities and, through […]


Observer and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Observer: An observer to the GATT is a country or international organization that has been authorized by the GATT Council (Sec. […]

Electoral Reform

Introduction Electoral Reform, elimination of undemocratic, dishonest, and corrupt practices in the conduct of public elections. Reform is usually effected by statutory enactments that contain provisions for accomplishing one or more of the following ends: a change in the qualification […]

Representative Democracy

Representative Democracy in Election Law Democracy in which the people do not exercise power directly but rather through representatives, elected periodically through free, secret and universal suffrage. Concept of Representative Democracy Note: explore also the meaning of this legal term in […]


Municipality in Election Law A local administrative division composed of several villages or sometimes city districts, usually represented by an elected body which protects its interests and oversees the administration of its affairs. A municipality is usually financially and administratively […]


Violence Definition Violence may be defined as a physical attack of another person. Activities that may legally involve violence include hunting, law enforcement, sports, and war. Crime includes many illegal forms of violence. The first point that has to be clarified is the meaning of the […]


Subsidiary or Subordinate Election Management Body in Election Law An Election Management Body (EMB) that is not the primary or principal entity responsible for the organisation of elections within a given state. It may be regional or local. Subsidiary in International Trade Meaning of […]


Introduction to Democracy Democracy (Greek demos,"the people"; kratein, "to rule"), political system in which the people of a country rule through any form of government they choose to establish. In modern democracies, supreme authority is exercised for the most part by […]

Code of Conduct

Code of Conduct and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Code of Conduct: An international agreement establishing standards of behavior –by countries, corporations, or […]


"The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn." — Alvin Toffler See Education links History of Education In the following treatment of this subject, the theory and early history of education is […]

Freedom of Movement

Freedom of Movement in Election Law All citizens, except those who are minors and other specific categories of people, have the liberty to travel alone, reside in any part of the state where they please, within the limits of respect for the liberty and rights of others, and to leave that state […]


Association in Election Law Group of people working together to achieve common goals on a nonprofit basis. Associations are the most important component of civil society. Description of Association Resources See Also International Organization Foreign Relations Intergovernmental […]