Rwanda

The Legal History of Rwanda This section provides an overview of Rwanda Bilateral Investment Treaty With Rwanda in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On September 26, 2011, the U.S. Senate approved the […]

Peru

The Legal History of Peru This section provides an overview of Peru Implementation: United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement ("ptpa") In relation to the international law practice and Implementation: United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement ("ptpa") in this world […]

Africa

African nations include Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Congo (Democratic Republic), Djibouti, Egypt, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Lesotho, Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, […]

Mali

The Legal History of Mali This section provides an overview of Mali African Growth and Opportunity Act ("AGOA") in 2013 United States views on international law [1] in relation to Agoa: On December 23, 2013, President Obama issued a proclamation, designating Mali as a beneficiary […]

Intellectual Property

Summary of Intellectual Property Intellectual Property is, according withWilliam J. Miller, a general term covering industrial property such as patents, trademarks, and trade names, as well as literary and artistic property, including copyrights. Consideration of the meaning of the word […]

Biodiversity

Concept of Biodiversity An introductory definition of Biodiversity is provided here: two kinds: species and genetic diversity, species diversity refers to the differences between species, while genetic diversity refers to differences within species Biodiversity (in the Human Development Area) […]

China

Legal Materials For information, call the National Committee on United States-China Relations(NCUSCR) at 212-645-9677. Other possibilities: the Chinese embassy (202-495-2266) or the U.S. State Department. Legal: The National People's Congress posts a free Database of Laws and […]

Central America

The Legal History of Central American Republics This section provides an overview of Central American Republics The Legal History of South and Central America This general section provides an overview of South and Central America and its historical context. South and Central America […]

Emissions Trading Scheme

European Union's Emissions Trading Scheme in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): In 2011, the United States joined multilateral efforts to prevent the European Union ("EU") from including […]

Consular Officers

Expanded Authority of Consular Officers to Revoke Visas in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On April 27,2011, the Department of State announced a change to its regulations in order to expand the […]

Conflict Minerals

Oecd Guidelines For Multinational Enterprises: Due Diligence Regarding Conflict Minerals in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On May 25, 2011 the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development […]

Arbitration on Under-pricing of Timber

New us Request For Arbitration on Under-pricing of Timber: Case no 111790 in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): I. Relevant Provisions Of The SLA A. The United States Negotiated For A System Of Export […]

Raw Materials

China—measures Relating to the Exportation of Various Raw Materials (ds394) in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): As discussed in World Encyclopedia of Law 2009 at 423-24, in 2009, the United […]

Cafta-dr Free Trade Commission

Meeting of the Cafta-dr Free Trade Commission in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): The first meeting of the CAFTA-DR Free Trade Commission was held on February 22-23, 2011, in San Salvador, El […]

Intellectual Property Rights

Introduction Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) protection is one of the most important and current legal issues in the international trade arena. As international trade and investment increases around the world, copyrights, trademarks, patents and trade secrets need to be subjects of a […]

Canadian Court Set-aside Proceedings

United States Statement in Canadian Court Set-aside Proceedings: Cargill v United Mexican States in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On January 31, 2011, the United States submitted a brief as […]

Intellectual Property Policy

Intellectual Property Law and Policy Contents of Intellectual Property Law and Policy Contents of this subject matter include: (Copyright Law – introduction, subsistence and exclusive rights; Copyright law – balancing the interests, dealing with copyright) Patents and Biotechnology […]

Doe V Exxon Mobil

Doe v Exxon Mobil in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): In 2011, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit also decided a case involving the question of corporate liability under […]

Chicken Broiler Products

New Request For Consultations: China—countervailing and Anti-dumping Duties on Chicken Broiler Products From the United States (ds427) in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On September 20, 2011, […]

Dominican Republic-central America-united States Free Trade Agreement

Dominican Republic-central America-united States Free Trade Agreement ("cafta-dr") in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): The text of the CAFTA-DR is available at (internet link) […]

Ofac

OFAC Amendment to Method of Listing Blocked Persons In relation to the international law practice and Ofac Amendment to Method of Listing Blocked Persons in this world legal Encyclopedia, please see the following section: Trade, Commercial Relations, Investment, Transportation About this […]

Cross-border Trucking Dispute

Resolution of Cross-border Trucking Dispute in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On July 6, 2011, U.S. Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood and Mexican Secretary of Communication and Transportation […]

Countervailing Duties

Summary of Countervailing Duties

Special duties, over and above ordinary duties, imposed upon imported merchandise to counteract the economic advantage provided to the foreign supplier by his government in the form of export subsidies. The object of countervailing duties is to protect […]

International Comity

International Comity in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): The U.S. brief filed in the Second Circuit in Figueiredo (discussed in Section 1 above) also contained an argument that principles of […]

Generalized System of Preferences

Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): A system of tariff preferences applied by industrial […]

Award in Arbitration on Provincial Subsidies

Award in Arbitration on Provincial Subsidies: Case no 81010 in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On January 20, 2011 a tribunal of the LCIA ("Tribunal") issued an award in favor of the […]

Free Trade Agreements

In the United States For information about Free Trade Agreements in the context of international trade, click here United States-Singapore free trade agreement The United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement has been in force since January 1, 2004. U.S. two way goods trade totaled $37 […]

Open Sky Agreement

Bilateral Open Skies and Air Transport Agreements in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): Information on recent U.S. Open Skies and other air transport agreements, by country, is available at (internet […]

Tuna Products

United States—measures Concerning the Importation, Marketing, and Sale of Tuna and Tuna Products (ds381) in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): Mexico requested consultations in 2008 regarding […]

Zeroing

Zeroing in International Trade Meaning of Zeroing, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): In the World Trade Organization (WTO) dumping procedures, an investigating authority usually calculates the dumping margin by getting the average of the differences […]

Berne Convention

Definition of Berne Convention In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, this is a description of Berne Convention : The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works: an international convention of September 1886 that sets out ground rules for protection of […]

Trade Agreements

Commercial Treaties: Trade Agreements In addition to formal agreements between modern states having important economic ties with each other, less formal and durable agreements relate to such matters as tariff rates, navigation dues, customs formalities, air-transport clearance arrangements, […]

Intellectual Property Law

Intellectual property law deals with the rules for securing and enforcing legal rights to inventions, designs, and artistic works. For example, a book may be considered an intellectual property, and its author may have the rightful ownership over it. In a nutshell, intellectual property law […]

Subsidies on Large Civil Aircraft

Dispute Brought by the United States Against the European Union: Subsidies on Large Civil Aircraft (ds316) in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): (2) Dispute brought by the United States against the […]

International Law Key Features

International Law Key Features in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): – Intellectual Property. TPP countries have agreed to reinforce and develop existing World Trade Organization Agreement on […]

Softwood Lumber Agreement

Arbitration and Related Actions Arising From the Softwood Lumber Agreement in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): The United States has availed itself of the dispute resolution provisions under the 2006 […]

African Growth

African Growth and Opportunity Act in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On October 25, 2011, President Obama signed a presidential proclamation designating Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, and Niger as […]

Zivotofsky

Zivotofsky in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): See Ch. 9.C. In relation to the international law practice and Zivotofsky in this world legal Encyclopedia, please see the following section: Trade, […]