Ecosystem (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Ecosystem means: the system of interactions between living organisms and their environment. Resources See Also Economic Development Social development

Basic Needs

Summary of Basic Needs

A code word for official development ASSISTANCE (read this legal term for further details) programs aimed toward the improvement of health care, education, nutrition, and like fundamental services in poorer nations. The basic needs concept has been criticized by some […]


Summary of Underdevelopment

A condition in which a nation's per capita real income is significantly below that enjoyed in the industrialized world, and where national income is inadequate to provide the investment capital essential to expand the economy. In addition, most underdeveloped […]

Trade Policy

Diplomacy and International Trade (London, 1994) "Today, the generally accepted view (at least on the part of most states) is that trade, and particularly free trade, is good, notwithstanding the conflicts (and bouts of protectionism) that arise between individual states and between […]

Fiscal Policy

Other Popular Tax Definitions in the World Legal Encyclopedia Adjusted Gross Income (sometimes, including Fiscal Policy) Ad Valorem Tax (sometimes, including Fiscal Policy) Alternative Minimum Tax (sometimes, including Fiscal Policy) Big Four (audit firms) (sometimes, including Fiscal Policy) […]

Monetary Policy

Monetary Policy (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Monetary Policy means: the complex of actions aiming to regulate the money supply in a country. By changing banking interest rate, or acting on open securities' market, a government either enlarges or diminishes inflow of […]


Literature Review on (Management) Productivity and Budgeting In the Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, [1] Gerald J. Miller and Donijo Robbins provide the following summary about the topic of (Management) Productivity and Budgeting: When setting goals, decision makers […]


Globalization Further Reading A concise encyclopedia of the United Nations (including Globalization , H Volger, KA Annan -2010) The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (TG Weiss – 2007) International Law: A Dictionary (including Globalization , Boczek, Boleslaw Adam -2005) Globalization […]


Matters of International Concern: The Environment Introduction to Environment In the late 1960s concern with the state of the world's environment emerged as an international issue. This occurred largely in response to several disastrous spills by oil tankers that brought attention to high […]