Definition Document, strictly, in law, that which can serve as evidence or proof, and is written or printed, or has an inscription or any significance that can be “read”; thus a picture, authenticated photograph, seal or the like would furnish “documentary evidence.” More generally the word […]


Summary of Patent

A grant issued by a governmental authority to an inventor permitting, for a fixed number of years, an exclusive right to the invention. The grant includes the prerogative of preventing others from making, using, or selling the invention covered. Through various […]

European Patent

Hierarchical Display of European patent Production, Technology And Research > Research and intellectual property > Intellectual property > Industrial property > Patent
Production, Technology And Research > Research and intellectual property > Intellectual property > European organisation > […]

International Economic Law

Legal Issues International economic law is more likely to fall under the rubric of public international law, as it deals with international economic relationships between states. See, for example, Petersmann, 'International Economic Theory and International Economic Law: On the Tasks of a […]


Research Disclosure in E.U. Patent System Defensive-type publications which are published, often anonymously, to give companies and inventors "freedom of use" rather than legal protection. Once research disclosures are published the invention described cannot be patented. Academic […]


Defensive Publication in E.U. Patent System A publication and disclosure to the public of a pending patent application. Publication in E.U. Patent System Documents, including patents of most countries that are printed (published) in and are actually or presumptively available to the public. […]

Commercial law

Commercial law Introduction to Commercial Law Commercial Law, body of law that relates to commerce and business transactions. Commercial law includes the laws that pertain to sales; negotiable instruments, such as checks and promissory notes; carriage by land and sea; insurance; brokerage; […]


Preliminary Examination in E.U. Patent System The initial study of an application by an official in the patent office to check that the specification is properly arranged and for preparing search reports. Examination in Chief in Canadian Procedural Law Examination in Chief and related […]


Grant in E.U. Patent System A temporary right given by a patent office for a specified period, to prevent anyone else from using the technology defined in the claims of a patent. Grant Land grant For additional information related to the definition of Land grant in connection to Grant, please […]


Introduction to LicenseLicense, a permit granting permission to engage in an activity that would otherwise be illegal. The main purpose of a license is to protect the public interest. A license issued by a government agency is required in order to pursue certain occupations, run certain bus…

Paris Convention

Known formally as the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, an international agreement formulated to protect rights to industrial property including inventions, trademarks, service marks, trade names, and appellations of origin. The substantive provisions of the convention […]


Kinds in E.U. Patent SystemThe letter, often with a further number, indicating the level of publication of a patent. For example DE-A1 is the German Offenlegungsschrift (application laid open for public inspection) while a DE-C1 is the German Patentschrift (first publication of the granted patent).

Patent Co-operation Treaty

Patent Co-operation Treaty (P.C.T.) in E.U. Patent SystemThe P.C.T. was signed in Washington D.C. on June 19 1970 and entered into force January 24 1978. It was amended with effective dates of May 3 1984 and January 1 1985. There are currently 96 signatories to this treaty. Contracting states […]


The Legal History of Punishment and Status in Chinese LawThis section provides an overview of Punishment and Status in Chinese Law ResourcesSee AlsoLegal Biography Legal Traditions Historical Laws History of Law Further Reading Punishment and Status in Chinese Law in the Oxford International […]


Non-Convention Equivalents in E.U. Patent SystemAn application filed in a second, or subsequent country which does not claim a priority application in another country. Usually a result of filing the application after the 12 month Convention period, but may be within that period by choice of the […]


Continuation in E.U. Patent System(see Continuing Applications) Applicable mainly in the US, continuations are second or subsequent applications which are subsequently filed while the original parent application is pending. Continuations must claim the same invention as the original application […]