Case Law

Case Law in Legal Issue Identification Step 1: General Question There is more information about this subjet related to the field of legal research in the legal encyclopedia. Step 2: Look to the Holding There is more information about this subjet related to the field of legal research in the […]


Summary of Patent

A grant issued by a governmental authority to an inventor permitting, for a fixed number of years, an exclusive right to the invention. The grant includes the prerogative of preventing others from making, using, or selling the invention covered. Through various […]

Civil Code

The Legal History of Indian Uniform Civil Code This section provides an overview of Indian Uniform Civil Code Extrinsic Methods of Interpretation or Reading "Beyond the Civil Code" Reasoning a pari ratione or a simili ratione Reasoning a fortiori ratione: a minori ad majus; a […]

Occupational Safety

Resources See Also Working Condition Working Time Occupational Health Work Environment Labor Law Legal Working Age Resources See Also Legal System Judiciary Justice

Civil Law

Introduction to Civil Law "Civil Law, term applied to a legal tradition originating in ancient Rome and to the contemporary legal systems based on this tradition. Modern civil law systems, which were originally developed in Western European countries, have spread throughout the world. […]


Governance in Election Law Manner of understanding and implementing authority. Characteristics of good governance are a high level of organisation and efficiency. It is measured by many different criteria: delivery, transparency, participation and sharing of responsibilities. Literature Review […]


Introduction to Copyright Copyright, branch of law granting authors the exclusive privilege to reproduce, distribute, perform, or display their creative works. The goal of copyright law is to encourage authors to invest effort in creating new works of art and literature. Copyright is one […]


Introduction to Contract Contract, in law, an agreement that creates an obligation binding upon the parties thereto. The essentials of a contract are as follows: (1) mutual assent; (2) a legal consideration, which in most instances need not be pecuniary; (3) parties who have legal capacity […]

Legal System

International Legal System Scholars and judicial decisions have characterized the international legal system as a system of equal and sovereign nation states whose actions are limited only by rules freely accepted as legally binding. [1] Brierly defines international law as ‘the body […]

Company Law

The Legal History of Company Law This section provides an overview of Company Law Applied Company Law Contents of Applied Company Law Contents of this subject matter include: Introduction; Alternative Business Structures Characteristics of a Company Company's liability in Crime, Contract […]

Islamic Law

The Legal History of Islamic Law Law and Dogma Islamic law —ShariÂ’a— evolved over time in response to the Muslim communityÂ’s need for a legal system. The most important source of law was the traditions of the Prophet (sunna) as revealed in reports […]

Administrative Law

Introduction Administrative law deals with the exercise of public power and the control of government decisions. Topics in administrative law include the role of the State, the governmental structures that influence the administrative law system, the principles of good administration, the […]

Constitutional Law

Introduction to Constitutional Law Constitutional Law, system of fundamental principles on the organization of a country's government and the limitations of its powers. In the United States, constitutional law refers to legal rights that are directly addressed in the Constitution of the […]

Industrial Property

Summary of Industrial Property

Intangible property such as patents and trademarks.

(Main Author: William J. Miller)

Spanish Translation of industrial property This is the legal translation of English to Spanish in relation to industrial property and / or a definition of this […]

Common Law

Introduction to Common Law "Common Law, term used to refer to the main body of English unwritten law that evolved from the 12th century onward. The name comes from the idea that English medieval law, as administered by the courts of the realm, reflected the "common"customs of […]

Code of Conduct

Code of Conduct and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Code of Conduct: An international agreement establishing standards of behavior –by countries, corporations, or […]

Roman Law

Introduction to Roman Law Roman Law, in general usage, legal system developed by the Romans from the time of their first codification of law, known as the Law of the Twelve Tables (see Twelve Tables, Law of the), in 450 bc to the death of Justinian I, ruler of the Byzantine Empire, in ad […]


Introduction to Liability Liability, obligation, responsibility, or debt." (1) Concept of Liability Note: explore also the meaning of this legal term in the American Ecyclopedia of Law. Resources See Also Judiciary Resources See Also Legal System Judiciary Justice Resources Notes and […]

Commercial law

Commercial law Introduction to Commercial Law Commercial Law, body of law that relates to commerce and business transactions. Commercial law includes the laws that pertain to sales; negotiable instruments, such as checks and promissory notes; carriage by land and sea; insurance; brokerage; […]

Comparative Law

Comparative law may be defined as the study of the similarities and differences between the laws or legal rules of two or more countries, or between two or more legal systems (i.e. the study of legal systems and laws in different countries). It is not a body of rules and principle. It is a […]


Use, Change, Parsonage, Discipline, Doctrine, Curate From the book The Clergyman's Hand-book of Law, about Use, Change, Parsonage, Discipline, Doctrine, Curate (1): When a fee simple is acquired by a religious corporation, without restriction as to quantity, but limiting the purpose of its […]


Literature Review on (Contracting) Constructive Change Proposals In the Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, [1] Elisabeth Wright offers the following summary about the topic of (Contracting) Constructive Change Proposals: The theory of changes is unique to public […]


The concept of tradition draws on John Henry Merryman's classic development of a multi-disciplinary, historical approach to the study of law. As he wrote in 1969: A legal tradition . . . is a set of deeply rooted, historically conditioned attitudes about the nature of law, about the role of […]


Policy makers, judges, citizens all deplore the increasing complexity of law. Codification is traditionally one of the best ways to sustain the dynamic and necessary evolution of laws.

Meaning of "Code”

Lord Scarman once provided this […]

International Customary Law

Customary International Law Art. 38 (1) Statute of the International Court of Justice, after saying that the court's function is 'to decide in accordance with international law such disputes as are submitted to it', states, in para. (1) (b), that it shall apply 'international custom, as […]

Civil Law System

Overview Civil law may be defined as that legal tradition which has its origin in Roman law, as codified in the Corpus Juris Civilis of Justinian,[1] and as subsequently developed in Continental Europe and around the world. Civil law eventually divided into two streams: the codified Roman […]

International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law

International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law (IECL) is a multivolumen (17-volume Encyclopedia), one of the well-known … Read more