International Trade

International Political Economy Trends: International Trade Introduction to International Trade In the 21st century, international trade has grown to 20 percent of the world's total production of goods and services-around $6.5 trillion per year. This volume of trade is almost seven times […]


Legal Materials Arranged by subject. Articles: To find articles on Internet hardware or software, search the LexisCommunications file (CMPCOM;COMM). C/Net rates Internet hardware, software and related products and services. See also the News section, below. Browsers: […]

Hong Kong

Hong Kong was a somewhat autonomous city-state under British control until July 1, 1997, when the city was returned to China. Legal Materials Company Information: Profiles of Hong Kong companies are available through Lexis (COMPNY;WBCHHK) and SkyMinder and Tolfin. You can obtain […]


Legal Materials For an introduction to the Israeli legal system see A Guide to Legal Research in Israelby Michal Tamir, Legal Research Guide: Israel and/or the Israeli Law Guide by Ruth Levush. For more information on Israeli legal materials, see Esther Snyder's Israel: A Legal Research […]

International Law

International Law consists of the rules and principles of general application dealing with the conduct of States and of international organizations in their international relations with one another and with private individuals, minority groups and transnational companies. Legal Issues […]


Legal Materials This entry discusses sources for French: Business Information Legal Materials News

Business Information

You can look up French company registration records (for free) and retrieve filings (for a fee) from Infogreff. The Union of French Chambers of […]

Islamic Law

The Legal History of Islamic Law Law and Dogma Islamic law —ShariÂ’a— evolved over time in response to the Muslim communityÂ’s need for a legal system. The most important source of law was the traditions of the Prophet (sunna) as revealed in reports […]

Diplomatic Immunity

An immunity from local laws and regulations accorded by host states to accredited foreign diplomats. It is recognized in international law that diplomatic officers are the personal representatives of sovereign states and, as such, are themselves inviolable on the same basis as the states they […]

Lome Convention

Introduction to Lome Convention Lomé Convention, trade and aid agreement between the European Union (EU) and 70 African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries, first signed in February 1975 in Lomé, Togo. The Lomé Convention provided a framework of cooperation between […]

South America

South America includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, the Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI), Uruguay and Venezuela. You can find legal research guides for most South American Countries on […]

United Kingdom

Legal Materials For purposes of this section, the United Kingdom includes England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The following is a compilation of some information concerning any of these jurisdictions into the topics discussed below. For more information, see the U.K. legal […]


Legal Materials For information, call the National Committee on United States-China Relations(NCUSCR) at 212-645-9677. Other possibilities: the Chinese embassy (202-495-2266) or the U.S. State Department. Legal: The National People's Congress posts a free Database of Laws and […]


Legal Materials Business Information: Matthew Bender publishes a guide to Doing Business in Japanthat is available through Lexis (MATBEN;DBJAPN). Deloitte posts a Tax and Investment guide for Japan. See also the sources listed in "Doing Business in Foreign Countries." […]


The India Code is posted by the Ministry of Law, Justice, and Company Affairs. Decisions of the Supreme Court of India are available on Lexis (INDIA;INDCAS). Business laws concerning corporations, partnerships, antitrust, securities, etc., are posted on the Ministry of Corporate Affairs' Acts […]


Legal Materials Singapore statutes in force are posted in English by the Singapore Attorney General's Office. The Library of Congress' Guide to Law Online: Singaporelinks to the major Singapore law sites. Halsbury's Laws of Singapore (Lexis/Butterworths) provides a detailed summary of […]

United Nations

Introduction to United Nations United Nations (UN), international organization of countries created to promote world peace and cooperation. The UN was founded after World War II ended in 1945. Its mission is to maintain world peace, develop good relations between countries, promote […]


Legal Materials: The blue pages of the Bluebook provide an overview of key primary legal materials. Also check out German Business and Commercial Laws: Guide to Translations into English and Select Auxiliary Sources by Martina Kammer and Anne Scharrenberg and/or Legal Research […]


Summary of Embassy The highest level of political mission that one nation may accredit to another. An embassy is a permanent mission charged with maintaining direct political liaison with the government of the host country. The chief officer of an embassy is the ambassador, who is regarded […]

New Zealand

Legal Materials Company Information: You can look up the names, contact information and directors of New Zealand companies using the NZ Companies Office Database. More information on selected New Zealand companies is available from D&B reports. New Zealand securities filings are […]

International Court Of Justice

Introduction to International Court of Justice International Court of Justice, also known as World Court, principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN). It was created in 1945 under the UN Charter as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice under the League of […]


Legal Materials Legal: For an introduction to Jamaican legal materials see The Jamaican Legal System and Guide to Legal Research by Jeanne Slowe and Claudette Solomon. The Laws of Jamaica (Acts) are posted by the Office of the Parliamentary Counsel, although a Disclaimer says the […]


A device, symbol, or word used by a firm to distinguish its products from those of other manufacturers. The object of trademarks is to permit brand identification of products, which may permit a more ready market acceptance of current and new products. Trademarks are protected in the United […]

United Nations Commission on International Trade Law

United Nations Commission On International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Outline The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law was set up in 1966 by the General Assembly of the United Nations to deal with conflicts of national laws […]

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

United Nations Conference On Trade And Development (UNCTAD) Introduction to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, permanent arm of the United Nations General Assembly. The conference, established in December 1964, followed […]

Search Engines

Favorite search engines are a matter of taste, and most people these days like the favor of Google. So do I. I tend to use Google first and look elsewhere later. In most cases, Google gets me what I need. [Tip: Google search commands are explained on the More Search Help page. See also Google […]

World Intellectual Property Organization

Summary of World Intellectual Property Organization A specialized agency of the United Nations charged with fostering international agreements to protect rights to intellectual property, with the object of facilitating international technology transfer. WIPO serves as the nucleus for new […]


Introduction This part of the Encyclopedia of Law provides an overview of the basic attributes of patents, along with the patentability requirements, practice in the USPTO, primarily the steps involved in obtaining a patent, some post-issuance considerations such as the patent term, and the […]

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) GATT was a series of multi-lateral treaties — and an organization of the same name — designed to regulate trade between the member nations. Definition of General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, […]

World Trade Organization

Unlike GATT, the WTO is a permanent body but not a specialized agency of the United Nations. Introduction to World Trade Organization World Trade Organization (WTO), international body that promotes and enforces the provisions of trade laws and regulations. The World Trade Organization has […]

Permanent Court of Arbitration

Introduction to Permanent Court of Arbitration Permanent Court of Arbitration, panel of arbitrators established by the Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, signed by 24 nations at the first international peace conference at The Hague, the Netherlands, in 1899. The […]

African Law

History of the African Law African Law in the Precolonial Period For more information about this section, in the context of the legal history, see the main entry in this legal encyclopedia. African Law in the Colonial Period For more information about this section, in the context of the […]

United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods

United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods Legal Materials The text of the CISG is published … Read more