Social Media

Social Media Legal Guidelines and the Electronic Commerce Social Media Legal Guidelines in the Online Business Law Issues and Challenges in Enterprise Social Media, the Law and other Social Sciences Contemporary organizations face the challenge of collaboration among the widely dispersed […]


Legal Materials Arranged by subject. Articles: To find articles on Internet hardware or software, search the LexisCommunications file (CMPCOM;COMM). C/Net rates Internet hardware, software and related products and services. See also the News section, below. Browsers: […]

General Data Protection Regulation

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) will fundamentally reform the data protection law in Europe. In Germany, the GDPR is going to replace the current Federal Data Protection Act (Bundesdatenschutzgesetz) and will be directly applied by the authorities and courts. The GDPR has been negotiated since 2012 by the European Commission, Council and Parliament. It will enter into force in May 2018. The different levels of data protection within the EU are supposed to be standardized. There will be some areas, however, in which the member states will be authorized to enact own laws (e.g. regarding employee data protection). This paves the way for the further development of big data. The GDPR will—as far as foreseeable—loosen the screws on some relevant focal points of the data protection law, such as the principle of purpose limitation. However, this will not go as far as critics have feared. The German data protection level will be slightly lowered, while the European level will be raised on average. This will also have a positive impact on German actors at times of cloud computing and cross-border data processing.

Search Engines

Favorite search engines are a matter of taste, and most people these days like the favor of Google. So do I. I tend to use Google first and look elsewhere later. In most cases, Google gets me what I need. [Tip: Google search commands are explained on the More Search Help page. See also Google […]

Crowdsourced Online Dispute Resolution

Crowdsourced Online Dispute Resolution (CODR) Daniel Dimov has released his dissertation on CODR, or Crowdsourced Dispute Resolution: “Although crowdsourced online dispute resolution (CODR) is one of the newest forms of dispute resolution, it has gained tremendous success. For example, Taobao User Dispute Resolution System resolved 238,000 online-shopping disputes in 2013 and attracted more than 575,000 … Read more

Online Court

Online Court Dutch Online Court Michael Cross wrote a new piece on the Law Society Gazette website about failure of a pioneering online court in The Netherlands. From the article: “The failure of a pioneering online court in The Netherlands should not deter efforts to build more ambitious version in England and Wales, the Master … Read more

App Personal Information

App Personal Information GoogleSearch App: Personal Information in Android In December 2012, Google Inc. (“Google”) released an update for the Google Search App (the “App”) on the Android operating system. This update asked users to grant the App a number of “permissions,” which had to be accepted in order to use the updated app. About … Read more


Offering E-commerce Solutions and the Electronic Commerce Overview of Significant Legal Trends and Issues for E-Commerce and the Electronic Commerce E-Commerce Law in Developing Countries: An Indian Perspective Paper published by C. M. ABHILASH, C. M. Abhilash, in 2002. Here are the […]

Electronic Contract Formation

Electronic Contract Formation In his Book “Implicity of Electronic Contract Formation: With Reference to Email and Website Copyright” (2009), Taimur Inayat Malik wrote: “Communication plays an important role in a society and it is seen that with development in communication the society changes. From the industrial revolution which led its way to the development of … Read more

Electronic Contract Creation

Electronic Contract Creation In his Book “Implicity of Electronic Contract Formation: With Reference to Email and Website Copyright” (2009), Taimur Inayat Malik wrote: “A contract can be created in numerous ways varying from either being created orally, electronically, or in writing. This is evidenced by section 4 of the Sale of Goods Act 1979 which … Read more

Commercial Emails

Commercial Emails Commercial Emails and Text Messages Regulation Certain aspects of how customers of online veders utilize the vendor’s platforms are subject to regulations in the United States, European Union and elsewhere. In recent years, U.S. and European lawmakers and regulators have expressed concern over the use of third-party cookies or web beacons for online … Read more

Internet Provider

Internet Provider Internet Platorm Providers The providers of internet platforms, including cloud-based marketing and sales software platforms, we may be subject to potential liability for the activities of their clients on or in connection with the data is stored on the provider servers. Although many customer terms of use prohibit illegal use of the provider … Read more

Public Companies

Public Companies In the United States, public companies are subject to the reporting requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or the Dodd-Frank Act, and the rules and regulations of … Read more


E-Book Legal Treatises in E-book Format Legal E-treatises (treatises e-books) can be consulted without incurring incremental charges, they can be shared by multiple researchers, and they can be used with the full spectrum of online legal research services. These include the many smaller services in the U.S. (both free and fee) that have in recent … Read more


Usability Web Usability and Legal Research In the introduction of his book “DESIGNING WEB USABILITY”, Jakob Nielsen said that “Usability rules the Web. Simply stated, if the customer can’t find a product, then he or she will not buy it.” According with this author (in other books), consistency, scannability, simplicity and visibility, and accessibility are … Read more


Cryptocurrency Cryptocurrency refers to a math-based, decentralized convertible virtual currency that is protected by cryptography, i.e., it incorporates principles of cryptography to implement a distributed, decentralized, secure information economy. Cryptocurrency relies on public and private keys to transfer value from one person (individual or entity) to another, and must be cryptographically signed each time it … Read more

Proxy Server

Proxy Server Proxy Server in the E-Commerce Law A proxy server, also known as a proxy, is a computer that acts as a gateway between a local network (e.g., all the computers at one company or in one building) and a largerscale network such as the Internet. Proxy servers provide increased performance and security. In … Read more


Exchanger Exchanger in the E-Commerce Law An exchanger (also sometimes called a virtual currency exchange) is a person/entity engaged as a business in the exchange of virtual currency for real currency, funds, or other forms of virtual currency. Exchangers generally accept a wide range of payments, including cash, wires, credit cards, and other virtual currencies, … Read more

Closed Virtual Currency

Closed Virtual Currency Closed Virtual Currency in the E-Commerce Law Non-convertible (or closed) virtual currency is specific toa particular virtual world, such as a Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG), and cannot be exchanged for fiat currency under the rules governing its use. Examples: Project Entropia Dollars; Q Coins; and World of Warcraft Gold. All … Read more

Convertible virtual currency

Convertible (or open) virtual currency Convertible (or open) virtual currency may be either centralized or decentralized. Convertible virtual currency has an equivalent value in real currency and can be exchanged back-and-forth for real currency. Examples include: Bitcoin; e-Gold (defunct); Second Life Linden Dollars; and WebMoney. “Bitcoin” (capitalized) refers to both the open source software used … Read more

List of Top Free Legal Sites in English in 2015

List of Top Free Legal Sites and Law Blogging in English in 2015 List of Top Free Law Sites in English, according to SimilarSites The following are the most visited legal Blog Sites on the Internet, according to SimilarSites (Nov 2015), by countries: List of Top Popular Law Sites in the United States … Read more

Legal Firm Data Storage

Legal Firm Data Storage There is digital information: case files, emails, pleadings and other documents and shared files, even instant messages everyone in the firm generates each day. And then there’s information governance: the rules and framework for managing all of a law firm’s electronic data and documents, including material produced in discovery, as well … Read more

Social Media Confidentiality

Social Media Confidentiality Social Media Confidentiality for Lawyers By Sunny S. Shapiro, a special counsel in the San Francisco office of Sedgwick LLP, and Steven D. Wasserman, a partner of the firm. Lawyers using social media must keep clients’ confidentiality in mind. The explosive growth of social media has given attorneys more platforms for engaging … Read more

Cyber Attack

Cyber Attack Cyber Attack Definition Cyber attacks are socially or politically motivated attacks carried out primarily through the Internet. Attacks target the general public or national and corporate entities. A cyberattack is deliberate exploitation of computer systems, technology-dependent enterprises and networks. Cyber Attacks in Law Firms By Susan Kuchinskas. She covers business and the business … Read more

Internet Research

Internet and Computer-Aided Research as Legal Research Source Constitutions Statutes and Ordinances There is more information about this subjet related to the field of legal research in the legal encyclopedia.Administrative Law There is more information about this subjet related to the field of […]

Google Buzz Privacy Concerns

Google Buzz Privacy Concerns Google, like all multinational corporations, must abide by non-U.S. jurisdictions privacy laws when they launch products in those jurisdictions. There were a storm of protest and outrage in 2009-2010 over alleged privacy violations and several authorities also had questions about how Google Buzz has met the requirements of privacy law in … Read more


Twitter Legal Proceedings Twitter is “currently involved in, and may in the future be involved in, legal proceedings, claims and government investigations in the ordinary course of business. (Twitter is) involved in litigation, and may in the future be involved in litigation, with third parties asserting, among other things, infringement of their intellectual property rights. … Read more

Legal Ontologies

Legal Ontologies Note: for more information about legal ontologies, read the legal metadata website here. Legal Ontologies are the expression of the metadata section of legal documents according to a formalized ontology language such as OWL. They have proved crucial for representing, processing and retrieving legal information, “Legal ontologies differ from ontologies in other fields … Read more


EnAct Introduction to EnAct EnAct is a comprehensive intelligent legislation drafting, management solution, web-based electronic repository and delivery system that has been built to enable the Tasmanian Government (Australia) to produce, distribute and enable public access to reliable, up-to-date, searchable consolidated Tasmanian legislation (1). At the core of the EnAct system is an SGML database, … Read more


Legifrance Legifrance is the official French online legislation database. It is an in depth resource for French, European and International laws, norms and regulations Legifrance was created in 1998 and completed in 2002, when also changed its name, becoming “the Public Service of Dissemination of the French Law on the Internet”(1). In january 2008 a … Read more


LexFind LexFind is an enterprise search tool designed for legal information. It is, basically, a versatile, robust search engine for legal documents. It is able to deal with large sets of documents with variable structures. “LexFind is a project developed by the Institute for federalism of the University of Fribourg. The focus of the project … Read more


AKOMA NTOSO Introduction to AKOMA NTOSO AKOMA NTOSO (Architecture for Knowledge-Oriented Management of African Normative Texts using Open Standards and Ontologies) is an open legal XML standard for parliamentary, legislative and judiciary documents. It means “linked hearts” in Akan language of West Africa. The role of Akoma Ntoso is “to mark up legal and legislative … Read more


Hello NormeinRete Introduction to NormeinRete Normeinrete or “Norme in rete” means “norms, laws and regulations put online” and it started in 1999. One of its resuslts, the web portal and content aggregator “”was an official websitee of the Italian Government that was first announced in 1999 and offered for years semantic legislative information online services … Read more