International Trade Centre

International Trade Centre Outline The ITC is a governmental body operating under the joint auspices of GATT and UNCTAD. It initially came into existence in 1964 as an organization supported by GATT and came under the joint auspices of GATT and UNCTAD in 1968. Its main function is to promote…

International Trade

International Political Economy Trends: International Trade Introduction to International Trade In the 21st century, international trade has grown to 20 percent of the world's total production of goods and services-around $6.5 trillion per year. This volume of trade is almost seven times […]

Certificate of Origin

A document presented to customs authorities at the time of importation to authenticate the national origin of merchandise. The certificate is customarily issued by a recognized chamber of commerce or governmental authority in the country of origin….

Delivery

Summary of Delivery

The act whereby the owner of a vessel gives operational control over to the charterer.

(Main Author: William J. Miller)

In the United States For information about Delivery in the context of international trade, click here Delivery in International Trade Meaning […]

Trade Credit

Credit granted by nonfinancial firms, usually in the form of short-term deferral of payment of invoices by customers, e.g., account open sales. Also, trade credit represents the purchase of a firm's accounts receivable or trade acceptances….

Customs

Legal Issues Customs were the original form of international commercial law. As we have seen in the history of lex mercatoria, the customs existed before any statute of commercial law was made and were often the basis for legislation.(1) Customs in International Trade Meaning of Customs, […]

International Trade Law

Outline Following an introductory overview of the principles and structure of international trade law, this entry concentrates on the substantive obligations in the agreements that form part of the World Trade Organization Agreement, including tariff and customs?related matters, […]

Free Trade Area

Summary of Free Trade Area

An association of states that seeks to overcome impediments to trade among members by reducing or eliminating tariffs among the participants. The members of a free trade area do not maintain a common external tariff nor do they (usually) provide for the free flow […]

Terms of Trade

Summary of Terms of Trade An export-import price ratio derived by dividing indices of export prices by indices of import prices. For example, when export indices are 105 percent of a base period, and import indices are 98 percent of the same base period, then the terms of trade […]

Rules of Origin

Rules of Origin and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Rules of Origin: The laws, regulations, and administrative practices that are applied to ascribe acountry of origin to […]

United Nations Commission on International Trade Law

United Nations Commission On International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Outline The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law was set up in 1966 by the General Assembly of the United Nations to deal with conflicts of national laws […]

Free Trade

Introduction Free Trade, interchange of commodities across political frontiers without restrictions such as tariffs, quotas, or foreign exchange controls. This economic policy contrasts with protectionist policies that use such restrictions to protect or stimulate domestic industries. See […]

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

United Nations Conference On Trade And Development (UNCTAD) Introduction to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, permanent arm of the United Nations General Assembly. The conference, established in December 1964, followed […]

Import Restrictions

Import Restrictions and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Import Restrictions: Measures to limit or control the volume of imports by means of tariffs ornontariff barriers […]

Free Trade Agreements

In the United States For information about Free Trade Agreements in the context of international trade, click here United States-Singapore free trade agreement The United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement has been in force since January 1, 2004. U.S. two way goods trade totaled $37 […]

Preferences

Preferences and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Preferences: Special trade advantages granted by an importing country to certain trading partners, in contrast to […]

Trade Agreements

Commercial Treaties: Trade Agreements In addition to formal agreements between modern states having important economic ties with each other, less formal and durable agreements relate to such matters as tariff rates, navigation dues, customs formalities, air-transport clearance arrangements, […]

International Chamber of Commerce

International Chamber Of Commerce International Chamber of Commerce Outline The ICC was established in 1919 as a non-governmental organization. Its main purposes are to facilitate international trade and commerce, serve the needs of the international business community (for example, in 1989 […]

Liquidated Damages

In the United States For information about Liquidated damages in the context of international trade, click here Liquidated Damages in International Trade Meaning of Liquidated Damages, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): A sum of money that a contracting […]

International Trade Organization

International Trade Organization (ITO) in relation with International Trade In the context of trade organizations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following definition of International Trade Organization (ITO): (Not to be confused with Multilateral Trade "Organization, Sec. I). An […]

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) GATT was a series of multi-lateral treaties — and an organization of the same name — designed to regulate trade between the member nations. Definition of General Agreement On Tariffs And Trade In accordance with the work A Dictionary of Law, […]

Trade Barrier

Summary of Trade Barrier

Constraints upon the exchange of goods among nations imposed by governments; such constraints are manifested in the form of tariffs, quotas, exchange controls, and a variety of so-called nontariff barriers. Barriers usually arise to protect domestic industries, […]

Goods

Flow of Goods and Services In this global economy, the flow of goods and services across borders, otherwise known as trade, is a critical factor to the health and growth of a country’s economy. Yet many developing countries struggle with legal, institutional, and operational constraints that […]

Search and Seizure

The Legal History of Search and Seizure This section provides an overview of Search and Seizure Search and Seizure Explained References See Also Criminal Law (in international or comparative law) Criminal Procedure (in international or comparative law) Resources See Also Criminal Law […]

World Trade Organization

Unlike GATT, the WTO is a permanent body but not a specialized agency of the United Nations. Introduction to World Trade Organization World Trade Organization (WTO), international body that promotes and enforces the provisions of trade laws and regulations. The World Trade Organization has […]

North American Free Trade Agreement

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) On January 1, 1994 the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) established a single trade zone. North American Free Trade Agreement Resources There is a great deal of research material available on this subject. The difficulty is not in […]

International Tax

International Tax Documents Model Tax Treaties, etc. OECD Model Tax Convention 2014 List of OECD Member Countries, and of Non-member Countries that have published their position regarding the OECD Model Tax Convention and Commentary Recommendation (1997) of the OECD Council concerning the Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital Text (2014) of the OECD … Read more

European Free Trade Association

Summary of European Free Trade Association

A free trade area consisting of seven European countries among which tariffs and quantitative restrictions on industrial imports have been eliminated. Established in 1960 by the Stockholm Convention, EFTA originally included Austria, Denmark, […]

Dictionary of International Trade

Dictionary of International Trade Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator) Contents The Dictionary of International Trade of Global Negotiator include, among others, the following terms and acronyms: Back haul Back letter Back order Back to back letter of credit Backhauling Bad faith BAF Bailee Bailment Balance of payments Balance of trade Bale Bank acceptance Bank … Read more