Market Access

Summary of Market Access The degree of participation in the domestic market that a nation allows to foreign suppliers. Tariffs, quotas, and similar protective devices are devices imposed to limit market access. (Main Author: William J. Miller) Market Access and National Treatment in the […]

International Monetary Fund

International Monetary Fund Outline The UN Monetary and Financial Conference met in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, from 1 to 20 July 1944. The Bretton Woods Agreement announced the establishment of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for […]

Tax Law

Other Popular Tax Definitions in the World Legal Encyclopedia Adjusted Gross Income (sometimes, including Tax Law) Ad Valorem Tax (sometimes, including Tax Law) Alternative Minimum Tax (sometimes, including Tax Law) Big Four (audit firms) (sometimes, including Tax Law) Black Market […]

Financial Regulation

Financial Regulation in International Economic Law In international economic law, financial regulation includes the following legal areas, with coverage in this world legal encyclopedia: li> International Standards Banking Core Principles Insurance Core Principles Standards for Market Actors

Investment Protection

Investment Protection in International Economic Law In international economic law, investment protection includes the following legal areas, with coverage in this world legal encyclopedia: li> Coverage in Investment Protection Right to Use and Direct Expropriation Indirect Expropriation

Financial Services

Financial Services and the World Trade Organization Financial Services in relation to the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers several issues. European Passport and Europe There is an entry on european passport in the European legal encyclopedia. This section provides an overview of financial […]

Competition Policy

Competition Policy and International Trade Economy In relation to international trade economy, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following definition of Competition Policy: A broad category encompassing antitrust and other policies to remedy the imperfectly competitive nature of key […]

Competition Law

Anti-Dumping and Competition Law and the World Trade Organization Anti-Dumping and Competition Law in relation to the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers several issues. Competition Law in a Global Context Contents of Competition Law in a Global Context Contents of this subject matter […]

Tax Evasion

Tax evasion is when someone has deliberately misled us about their activities to reduce their tax liability, or have not paid tax that is due. tax evasion is escaping payment by illegal means. This is obviously unlawful and is usually a criminal offence Tax evasion is when a person or a […]

Counterfeiting

Introduction to Counterfeiting Counterfeiting, criminal offense of making an imitation of an article with intent to defraud others into accepting it as the genuine item. The term counterfeit is used most frequently to denote imitations of coined money or of the paper currency of a government […]

Trade

In the United States For information about Trade in the context of international trade, click here Trade and the Laws of International Trade Prohibited actions Export Administration System Trade and the Laws of International Trade Intent Export Administration System American Coasting Trade: […]

Customs Valuation

For importers, the process of estimating the value of a product at customs presents problems that can be just as serious as the actual duty rate charged. The WTO agreement on customs valuation aims for a fair, uniform and neutral system for the valuation of goods for customs purposes — a system that conforms to commercial realities, and which outlaws the use of arbitrary or fictitious customs values. The Committee on Customs Valuation of the Council for Trade in Goods (CGT) carries out work in the WTO on customs valuation.

International Intellectual Property Protection

The Impact of Preferential Trade Agreements on IPR Protection This section provides an overview of the impact of preferential trade agreements on ipr protection within the legal context of Intellectual Property Protection in international economic law, with coverage of The Protection of […]

Cooperation Agreements

Readmission and Cooperation Agreements This section provides an overview of readmission and cooperation agreements within the legal context of Mode 4 Commitments in international economic law, with coverage of Labour Mobility (Main Regulatory Areas). Resources Further Reading Rosa Maria […]

Government Procurement Agreement Procedures

Procedures under the GPA This section provides an overview of procedures under the gpa within the legal context of The Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) in international economic law, with coverage of Government Procurement (Main Regulatory Areas). Resources Further Reading Robert D […]

Preferential Trade in Services Agreements

This section provides an overview of preferential trade in services agreements within the legal context of Preferential Trade in Services Agreements in international economic law, with coverage of Trades in Services and Specific Sectors (Main Regulatory Areas).

Government Procurement in Preferential Trade Agreements

This section provides an overview of government procurement in preferential trade agreements within the legal context of Government Procurement in Preferential Trade Agreements in international economic law, with coverage of Government Procurement (Main Regulatory Areas).

Insurance Core Principles

This section provides an overview of insurance core principles within the legal context of Financial Regulation in international economic law, with coverage of Monetary and Financial Regulation (Main Regulatory Areas). Resources Further Reading Rekha Oleschak-Pillai, "Insurance Core […]

Impact of Preferential Trade Agreements

The Impact of Preferential Trade Agreements This section provides an overview of the impact of preferential trade agreements within the legal context of Market Access (Quantitative Restrictions in Goods and Services) in international economic law (Main Regulatory Areas). Resources Further […]

Rules of Origin

Rules of Origin and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Rules of Origin: The laws, regulations, and administrative practices that are applied to ascribe acountry of origin to […]

Sectorial Agreements

Sectorial Agreements in International Economic Law In international economic law, sectorial agreements includes the following legal areas, with coverage in this world legal encyclopedia: li> The WTO Agreements on Agriculture (AoA) The Decision on LLDCs and Food Importing Developing Countries […]

Intellectual Property Rights

Introduction Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) protection is one of the most important and current legal issues in the international trade arena. As international trade and investment increases around the world, copyrights, trademarks, patents and trade secrets need to be subjects of a […]

Quantitative Restrictions in Services

This section provides an overview of quantitative restrictions in services within the legal context of Market Access (Quantitative Restrictions in Goods and Services) in international economic law (Main Regulatory Areas). Resources Further Reading Panagiotis Delimatsis, "Quantitative […]

Economic Sectors

Specific Sectors in International Economic Law In international economic law, specific sectors includes the following legal areas, with coverage in this world legal encyclopedia: li> Financial Services Health Services Recreation, Cultural and Sporting Services Air Transport Services […]

Regulatory Barriers to Trade

Regulatory Barriers to Trade: Private Standards This section provides an overview of regulatory barriers to trade: private standards within the legal context of Harmonization, Equivalence and Mutual Recognition in international economic law, with coverage of Domestic Regulation (Behind the […]

Trade in Services

The General Agreement on Trade in Services and the World Trade Organization The General Agreement on Trade in Services in relation to the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers several issues. Trade in Services: Preferential Trade Agreements This section provides an overview of trade in […]

Cooperation in Migration

International Fora on Cooperation in Migration This section provides an overview of international fora on cooperation in migration within the legal context of Trade, Investment and Migration in international economic law, with coverage of Labour Mobility (Main Regulatory Areas). Resources […]

Trade in Services Agreement

The Trade in Services Agreement (TiSA) This section provides an overview of the trade in services agreement (tisa) within the legal context of Preferential Trade in Services Agreements in international economic law, with coverage of Trades in Services and Specific Sectors (Main Regulatory […]

Property Rights

Spanish Translation of property rights This is the legal translation of English to Spanish in relation to property rights and / or a definition of this topic: Derecho Real (in Spanish, without translation of the dictionary entry). Property Rights and the Environment Contents of Property […]

Coverage in Investment Protection

This section provides an overview of coverage in investment protection within the legal context of Investment Protection in international economic law, with coverage of The Protection of Property (Main Regulatory Areas). Resources Further Reading Andrew Mitchell and Jacky Mandelbaum, […]

Health Services

This section provides an overview of health services within the legal context of Specific Sectors in international economic law, with coverage of Trades in Services and Specific Sectors (Main Regulatory Areas). Resources See Also Social Protection Social Security Employment Affairs Welfare […]

Banking Core Principles

This section provides an overview of banking core principles within the legal context of Financial Regulation in international economic law, with coverage of Monetary and Financial Regulation (Main Regulatory Areas). Resources Further Reading Xavier-Yves Zanota, "Banking Core […]

Countervailing Duties

Summary of Countervailing Duties

Special duties, over and above ordinary duties, imposed upon imported merchandise to counteract the economic advantage provided to the foreign supplier by his government in the form of export subsidies. The object of countervailing duties is to protect […]

Border Tax Adjustment

Border Tax Adjustment (BTA) in International Trade Meaning of Border Tax Adjustment (BTA), according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): A tax to which domestically produced goods and imports are subject but from which exports are exempt. Border tax adjustments are […]

Rules on Safeguard Measures

This section provides an overview of rules on safeguard measures within the legal context of Trade Remedies and Countervailing Duties in international economic law (Main Regulatory Areas). Resources Further Reading Fernando Piérola and Nathalie Diaz, "Rules on Safeguard Measures," […]

Monetary Policies

The Role of Law in Monetary Policies This section provides an overview of the role of law in monetary policies within the legal context of Law and Economics in Monetary Affairs in international economic law, with coverage of Monetary and Financial Regulation (Main Regulatory Areas). Monetary […]

Compulsory Licensing

Compulsory Licensing and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Compulsory Licensing: A term used in the context of intellectual property rights, primarily with regard to […]

Government Procurement Agreement Thresholds

Thresholds and Non-Discrimination under the GPA This section provides an overview of thresholds and non-discrimination under the gpa within the legal context of The Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) in international economic law, with coverage of Government Procurement (Main Regulatory […]

Investment Regulation

Impact of Domestic Regulation on Trade in Goods, Services and on Investment in International Economic Law In international economic law, impact of domestic regulation on trade in goods, services and on investment includes the following legal areas, with coverage in this world legal […]

Monetary Affairs

Law and Economics in Monetary Affairs in International Economic Law In international economic law, law and economics in monetary affairs includes the following legal areas, with coverage in this world legal encyclopedia: li> Allocation of Powers and Jurisdiction in Monetary Law The Role of […]

Government Procurement Agreement

The Government Procurement Agreement (GPA) in International Economic Law In international economic law, the government procurement agreement (gpa) includes the following legal areas, with coverage in this world legal encyclopedia: li> Thresholds and Non-Discrimination under the GPA Procedures […]

Indirect Expropriation

This section provides an overview of indirect expropriation within the legal context of Investment Protection in international economic law, with coverage of The Protection of Property (Main Regulatory Areas). Resources Further Reading Diego Brian Gosis, "Indirect Expropriation," […]

Domestic Regulation Relating to Services

Rules on Domestic Regulation Relating to Services This section provides an overview of rules on domestic regulation relating to services within the legal context of Impact of Domestic Regulation on Trade in Goods, Services and on Investment in international economic law, with coverage of […]

Impact of Preferential Trade Agreements on Standards

Impact of Preferential Trade Agreements on Regulation and Standards This section provides an overview of impact of preferential trade agreements on regulation and standards within the legal context of Harmonization, Equivalence and Mutual Recognition in international economic law, with […]

Recreation Services

Recreation, Cultural and Sporting Services This section provides an overview of recreation, cultural and sporting services within the legal context of Specific Sectors in international economic law, with coverage of Trades in Services and Specific Sectors (Main Regulatory Areas). Resources […]

Voluntary Export Restraints

Summary of Voluntary Export Restraints

Synonymous with Orderly Marketing Agreement (q.v. See Bilateral Restraints Agreement.

(Main Author: William J. Miller)

Voluntary Export Restraints (VERs) and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, […]