European Convention on Human Rights

Introduction The European Convention on Human Rights was a reaction against the horrific abuses of human rights that took place before and during the Second World War, followed by further abuses occurring within the newly formed Communist block. These led, in 1949, due in part to the […]

Rule of Law

Rule of law Definition Rule of law means that any act of the government must be done through laws, that no one is above the law. However this principle has many controversial aspects, the core of it requires that fair laws should apply to all persons in a given jurisdiction. It also means […]

Health Care

Health Care in the CEDAW Article 12: of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) stipulates, in relation to Health Care, that all countries are required to eliminate discrimination in the field of health care. Women should be ensured equal access […]

Governance

Governance in Election Law Manner of understanding and implementing authority. Characteristics of good governance are a high level of organisation and efficiency. It is measured by many different criteria: delivery, transparency, participation and sharing of responsibilities. Literature Review […]

International Human Rights Law

Contents of International Human Rights Law Contents of this subject matter include: The concept of human rights: universalism and cultural relativism International and regional human rights systems Human rights law beyond treaties Human rights treaties and derogation State responsibility and […]

Economic Rights

Economic Rights, Social Rights, Cultural Rights in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On March 24, 2011, Michael H. Posner, Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, […]

Right to Development

Right to Development in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On December 19, 2011, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution on the right to development by a vote of 154 in favor, 6 […]

Refugee

Who Becomes a Refugee? Introduction to Refugee People leave their home countries for many reasons. Sometimes they are fleeing poverty, or they hope to find a better life in another place. People who migrate for economic reasons, however, are not considered refugees. Yet economic migrants […]

Freedom of Association

Freedom of Association in Constitutional Law From the Comparative Constitutions Project: Freedom of association is the right to meet and interact freely, without the interference of the state or others. This is slightly different than freedom of assembly, because assembly refers to the ability […]

Family

The Legal History of Family This section provides an overview of Family Family (in the Human Development Area) In this context, Family means: the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution 44/82 of 8 December 1989, proclaimed 1994 as the International Year of the Family (IYF) with its […]

International Affairs

International Affairs in the CEDAW Article 8 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) stipulates, in relation to International Affairs, that all countries are required to ensure women the equal opportunity to represent their governments at the […]

Social Rights

In relation to the social rights and constitutional law, David Landau[1] made the following observation: Social rights are the rights of people to achieve their basic human needs. In domestic constitutional orders, common social rights include the right to healthcare (right to health), […]

War Victim

Hierarchical Display of War victim International Relations > International security
Law > Rights and freedoms > Human rights > International human rights law
Politics > Politics and public safety > Public safety > Political violence > Concentration camp
Law > Criminal law > Criminal […]

Constitutional Law

Introduction to Constitutional Law Constitutional Law, system of fundamental principles on the organization of a country's government and the limitations of its powers. In the United States, constitutional law refers to legal rights that are directly addressed in the Constitution of the […]

Civil Society

Civil Society in Election Law Associations, organisations and unions that are active in public affairs and constitute an independent counterforce to the powers that be. In democracies, all persons have a right to participate in public affairs, including in civil society activities and, through […]

Protection of Freedoms

Hierarchical Display of Protection of freedoms Law > Rights and freedoms > Human rights
Protection of freedoms Concept of Protection of freedoms See the dictionary definition of Protection of freedoms. Characteristics of Protection of freedoms [rtbs name="xxx-xxx"] Resources Translation of […]

War Crime

Embracing mainstream international law, this section on war crime explores the context, history and effect of the area of the law covered here. Resources Further Reading The entry "crime, war" in the Parry and Grant Encyclopaedic Dictionary of International Law (currently, the […]

African Court of Justice and Human Rights

Embracing mainstream international law, this section on african court of justice and human rights explores the context, history and effect of the area of the law covered here. Resources Further Reading The entry "african court of justice and human rights" in the Parry and Grant […]

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights

Embracing mainstream international law, this section on african charter on human and peoples' rights explores the context, history and effect of the area of the law covered here. Resources Further Reading The entry "african charter on human and peoples' rights" in the Parry […]

Crime Against Humanity

Crime(s) Against Humanity Embracing mainstream international law, this section on crime(s) against humanity explores the context, history and effect of the area of the law covered here. Resources Further Reading The entry "crime(s) against humanity" in the Parry and Grant […]

Employment

Employment Law The Legal History of Employment and Labor Law This section provides an overview of Employment and Labor Law Employment in the CEDAW Article 11 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) stipulates, in relation to Employment, that […]

War

Introduction to War War, in international law, armed conflict between two or more governments or states. When such conflicts assume global proportions, they are known as world wars. War between different parts or factions of the same nation is called civil war. A rebellion is not legally […]

Democracy

Introduction to Democracy Democracy (Greek demos,"the people"; kratein, "to rule"), political system in which the people of a country rule through any form of government they choose to establish. In modern democracies, supreme authority is exercised for the most part by […]

International Humanitarian Law Treaties

International Humanitarian Law Treaties and Conventions Sources of international humanitarian law The sources are: International Humanitarian Law treaties. International Humanitarian Law is based on a number of treaties, in particular the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional […]

Economic Discrimination

Economic Discrimination Definition Economic Discrimination, refusal to do business on equal terms with members of a disfavored group. Information For information on: * legality of economic discrimination, see Discrimination * motives for economic discrimination, see Prejudice; […]

Inter-American Court of Human Rights

Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHPR) This entry includes background information and links to the American Convention on Human Rights, the Statute of the court, the Rules of Procedure, and decisions and judgments. Description In a manner similar to the European Court of Human Rights […]

Marriage

Disasters and the law Marriage, Sexual Behaviour and the Law Further Reading Marriage in the Encyclopedia of Sexual Behavior and the Law The Legal History of Marriage This section provides an overview of Marriage Marriage and Family Life in the CEDAW Article 16: of the Convention on the […]

Commission on Human Rights

Introduction to the Commission on Human Rights The Commission on Human Rights is a subsidiary body of the Economic and Social Council. The Charter of the United Nations specifies that the Council “shall set up Commissions in the economic and social field and for the promotion of human […]

Education

"The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn." — Alvin Toffler See Education links History of Education In the following treatment of this subject, the theory and early history of education is […]

Concentration Camp

Hierarchical Display of Concentration camp Politics > Politics and public safety > Public safety > Political violence
Law > Rights and freedoms > Rights of the individual > Slavery
International Relations > International security > War victim
Law > Rights and freedoms > Human rights > […]

Torture

Introduction to Torture Torture, the infliction of bodily pain or mental suffering either as punishment, to compel a person to confess to a crime or provide information, or to intimidate, coerce, discriminate against, or repress a person or group of people for political purposes. The methods […]

Human Rights

Introduction to Human Rights "Since World War II international law has become increasingly concerned with the protection of human rights. It has provided improved procedures for that purpose within the UN. This new emphasis has also been manifested in the adoption by the UN of the […]

Nationality

Introduction to Nationality Nationality, in law, condition or status of belonging to, or having legal identity with, a nation or state. In various political systems a distinction is made between nationality and citizenship; the latter represents a higher political status, usually involving […]

Freedom of Expression

Freedom of Expression in Election Law A universal right that includes freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art or through any other media of a person's choice. This freedom […]

Freedom of Assembly

Introduction to Freedom of Assembly Freedom of Assembly, the right of people to gather together peaceably. Freedom of assembly is related to freedom of religion and freedom of speech, as well as the right to petition (formally request) the government to change its policies. Together these […]

Age Discrimination

UN Working Group on Age Discrimination in 2013 United States views on international law [1] in relation to UN Working Group on Age Discrimination: On August 12, 2013, Laurie Phipps, U.S. Adviser for Economic and Social Affairs, addressed a session of the UN's Open-Ended Working Group […]

Prostitution

Criminal Law: Crimes Against Sexual Morality: Prostitution Introduction to Prostitution The crime of prostitution involves the exchange of sexual contact or favors for money or its equivalent. The crime of pandering involves the promotion of prostitution by enticing or procuring persons to […]

Charter on Human Rights

Hierarchical Display of Charter on human rights Law > Rights and freedoms > Human rights
International Relations > International affairs > International instrument > International convention > European convention > European Convention on Human Rights Charter on human rights Concept of […]

Legal Rights

Main source: Campbell, Kenneth, "Legal Rights", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2011 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = . Legal rights are, clearly, rights which exist under the rules of legal systems. They raise a number of different philosophical issues. (1) […]

Inhuman Punishment

Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment in 2013 (Continuation) United States views on international law [1] in relation to Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment or Punishment: 6. In the spirit of cooperation, the United States has provided […]

Discrimination

Summary of Discrimination Unequal treatment in the duties, quotas, or administrative controls accorded to the products of one or more nations. Generally speaking, any nation which does not enjoy most FAVORED NATION (read this and related legal terms for further details) status is the subject […]

Property Rights

Spanish Translation of property rights This is the legal translation of English to Spanish in relation to property rights and / or a definition of this topic: Derecho Real (in Spanish, without translation of the dictionary entry). Property Rights and the Environment Contents of Property […]

Putative Father Rights

Putative Rights In relation to the international law practice and putative rights in this world legal Encyclopedia, please see the following section: Human Rights About this subject:

Right to Development Resolution at the Human Rights Council

Note: there is detailed information and […]

Istanbul Process

The "istanbul Process" to Implement Resolution 16/18 in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On July 15, 2011, Secretary Clinton met with Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic […]