Collectivism

Collectivism Definition Collectivism is a term used to denote a political or economic system in which the means of production and the distribution of goods and services are controlled by the people as a group. Generally this refers to the state. Opposite of Free Enterprise Collectivism […]

Gold Standard

Summary of Gold Standard

A system under which a nation's currency is freely convertible into gold. The quantity of gold per unit of currency is fixed by law. Most major trading nations, however, abandoned the gold standard because of the constraints it imposes upon liquidity, although […]

Socialism

Socialist Law The inclusion of "Socialist law", in the past, was unavoidable in certain legal classifications. Marxist-Leninist thought still plays a sometimes significant role in the legal organization of certain countries. The criterion which governed the creation of a category […]

Medieval History

Hierarchical Display of Medieval history Science > Humanities > Social sciences > History
Social Questions > Culture and religion > Cultural policy > Cultural heritage > Heraldry Medieval history Concept of Medieval history See the dictionary definition of Medieval history. Characteristics […]

Turkey

The Legal History of Ottoman Empire: Islamic Law in Asia Minor (Turkey) and the Ottoman Empire This section provides an overview of Ottoman Empire: Islamic Law in Asia Minor (Turkey) and the Ottoman Empire The Fall of Abdul Hamid: International Incident In the book "International […]

China

Legal Materials For information, call the National Committee on United States-China Relations(NCUSCR) at 212-645-9677. Other possibilities: the Chinese embassy (202-495-2266) or the U.S. State Department. Legal: The National People's Congress posts a free Database of Laws and […]

Prehistory

Hierarchical Display of Prehistory Science > Humanities > Social sciences > History
Concept of Prehistory See the dictionary definition of Prehistory. Characteristics of Prehistory [rtbs name="xxx-xxx"] Resources Translation of Prehistory Spanish: Prehistoria French: Préhistoire German: […]

South Africa

The Legal History of South Africa This section provides an overview of South Africa Resources See Also Legal System Country Jurisdiction Immigration Consulate Resources See Also Legal Biography Legal Traditions Historical Laws History of Law Further Reading South Africa in the Oxford […]

Ancient History

Hierarchical Display of Ancient history Science > Humanities > Social sciences > History
Ancient history Concept of Ancient history See the dictionary definition of Ancient history. Characteristics of Ancient history [rtbs name="xxx-xxx"] Resources Translation of Ancient history Spanish: […]

Political Figure

Hierarchical Display of Political figure Politics > Politics and public safety > Politics
Politics > Political framework > Political institution > Head of State
Science > Humanities > Social sciences > History > Historical figure Political figure Concept of Political figure See the […]

Classification of Nationalism

Classification of Nationalism Some Views Nationalism is an enormous subject. […] Below are listed the varieties of nationalism now flourishing among English intellectuals, with such comments as seem to be needed. It is convenient to use three headings, Positive, Transferred, and Negative, though some varieties will fit into more than one category: Positive Nationalism Neo-toryism … Read more

Jones Act

Summary of Jones Act

A provision of the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 designed to clarify the law by which a seaman could recover for injuries sustained in the course of employment. An earlier act (38 Stat. 1164 [1915]) had permitted seamen to recover more than cure and maintenance for […]

Ma’at

Ma’at The ancient Egyptian goddess of truth, justice, harmony, and balance Historian Margaret Bunson notes: “She maintained a vital role in the mortuary rituals of Egypt where she weighed the hearts of the deceased. This mortuary role evolved over the decades into the principle of ma’at, the desired right attitude, which remained the ethical and … Read more

League of Nations

The League of Nations was the ill-fated predecessor of the United Nations. Origins To Alexander of Russia's scheme of a Holy Alliance we need only briefly allude. Though admirable in intention it was rejected as "sublime nonsense and mysticism” by Castlereagh, and it eventually […]

League of Nations History

League of Nations History The founding of the League of Nations in 1919 marked a radical departure from previous methods of diplomacy. Prior to August 1914, traditional diplomacy, or, as it was often called after the First World War, “Old Diplomacy,” was a system of intercourse between the governments of sovereign states. This system relied … Read more

Janissaries

Janissaries History Janissaries (corrupted from Turkish yeni chéri, new troops), an organized military force constituting until 1826 the standing army of the Ottoman empire. At the outset of her history, Turkey possessed no standing army. All Moslems capable of bearing arms served as a kind of volunteer yeomanry known as akinjis; they were summoned by … Read more

José Manuel Balmaceda

José Manuel Balmaceda José Manuel Balmaceda (1838-1891), president of the republic of Chile, was born in Santiago in 1838. His parents were wealthy, and in his early days he was chiefly concerned in industrial and agricultural enterprise. In 1865 he was one of the representatives of the Chilean government at the general South American congress … Read more

Anthropology

Anthropology History Anthropology (Gr. ἄνθρωπος man, and λόγος, theory or science), the science which, in its strictest sense, has as its object the study of man as a unit in the animal kingdom. It is distinguished from ethnology, which is devoted to the study of man as a racial unit, and from ethnography, which deals … Read more

Reichstag

History of the Reichstag The following commentary about Reichstag in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): The German parliament. Its building in Berlin was a symbol of parliamentary government in Germany, so that its destruction by fire in 1933 was a major […]

Paymaster General

History of the Paymaster General The following commentary about Paymaster General in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): The Government Minister in the Treasury with the responsibility for payments to the civil service and armed forces.

Marshal Joseph Joffre

History of the Marshal Joseph Joffre (1852-1931) The following commentary about Marshal Joseph Joffre (1852-1931) in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): French General. He commanded the French forces in their successful 1914 stand at the Battle of the Marne, and […]

German Law

History of the Anglo-German Naval Agreement, 1935 The following commentary about Anglo-German Naval Agreement, 1935 in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): Agreement signed on 18 June 1935, fixing the size in tonnage of the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) as 35 […]

Chanak Crisis

History of the Chanak Crisis, 1922 The following commentary about Chanak Crisis, 1922 in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): British and French troops stationed near Chanak (later called Canakkale) to guard the neutral area of the Dardanelles were threatened […]

Munich Agreement

History of the Munich Agreement, 1938 The following commentary about Munich Agreement, 1938 in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): Agreement signed at a conference in Munich, Germany, between the major European powers in September 1938. Czechoslovakia was […]

Western Front

History of the Western Front The following commentary about Western Front in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): The battlefront in the First World War which, from late 1914, ran in a single line of trenches from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. The […]

Unionist

History of the Unionist The following commentary about Unionist in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): i.e. Conservative. The Conservative Party was also known as the Unionist Party to stress its support for the Union with Northern Ireland.

Marshal Henri-Philippe Pétain

History of the Marshal Henri-Philippe Pétain (1856-1951) The following commentary about Marshal Henri-Philippe Pétain (1856-1951) in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): French General. Pétain oversaw the successful defence of Verdun and was […]

Battle of Somme

History of the Battle of Somme The following commentary about Battle of Somme in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): A major British offensive against the German front line launched on 1st July, 1916. Enormous hopes were built up before the assault, which was […]

Moroccan Crisis

History of the Moroccan Crisis, 1905 The following commentary about Moroccan Crisis, 1905 in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): In 1905 Kaiser Wilhelm II visited the Moroccan port of Tangier and denounced French influence in Morocco. The move was probably […]

Anschluss

History of the Anschluss, 1938 The following commentary about Anschluss, 1938 in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): Union between Austria and Germany in March 1938. In February 1938 Hitler had met the Austrian Chancellor, Kurt von Schuschnigg, in order to […]

Constantinople

History of the Constantinople The following commentary about Constantinople in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): Now Istanbul, capital city of Turkey, located at the entrance to the Black Sea.

Naval Policy

History of the Two Power Standard The following commentary about Two Power Standard in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): The British naval policy adopted in 1889 whereby the Royal Navy was to be maintained at a size at least equal to those of the next two […]

Salient

History of the Salient The following commentary about Salient in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): An outward bulge in a line of military attack or defence.

Juvenile Justice

The Legal History of Juvenile Justice in United States LawThis section provides an overview of Juvenile Justice in United States Law ResourcesSee AlsoLegal Biography Legal Traditions Historical Laws History of Law Further Reading Juvenile Justice in United States Law in the Oxford […]

British Expeditionary Force

History of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) The following commentary about British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): That part of the British army which was made available for operations on the Continent of Europe. The term […]

National Government

History of the National Government The following commentary about National Government in the Churchill Era is produced by the Churchill College (Cambridge): A Government with Ministers drawn from all the major political parties, normally formed in time of war or national emergency.