Public Finance

Other Popular Tax Definitions in the World Legal Encyclopedia Adjusted Gross Income (sometimes, including Public Finance) Ad Valorem Tax (sometimes, including Public Finance) Alternative Minimum Tax (sometimes, including Public Finance) Big Four (audit firms) (sometimes, including Public […]


Definition Document, strictly, in law, that which can serve as evidence or proof, and is written or printed, or has an inscription or any significance that can be “read”; thus a picture, authenticated photograph, seal or the like would furnish “documentary evidence.” More generally the word […]

International Trade

International Political Economy Trends: International Trade Introduction to International Trade In the 21st century, international trade has grown to 20 percent of the world's total production of goods and services-around $6.5 trillion per year. This volume of trade is almost seven times […]

Market Access

Summary of Market Access The degree of participation in the domestic market that a nation allows to foreign suppliers. Tariffs, quotas, and similar protective devices are devices imposed to limit market access. (Main Author: William J. Miller) Market Access and National Treatment in the […]

Environmental Protection

Communities of all sizes, from townships to the national government, establish laws that govern how individuals acting within the community are to conduct themselves. The environment is arguably one of the newest considerations to be decided by and incorporated into the body of the law. The […]


Database in Legal Information RetrievalThe following is a basic concept of Database in relation to information retrieval. In addition to this, Database may be applied to legal texts, including case law, legislation and scholarly works. Database is a relatively new word for a collection of data […]

European Convention on Human Rights

Introduction The European Convention on Human Rights was a reaction against the horrific abuses of human rights that took place before and during the Second World War, followed by further abuses occurring within the newly formed Communist block. These led, in 1949, due in part to the […]

Marine Pollution

Embracing mainstream international law, this section on marine pollution explores the context, history and effect of the area of the law covered here. Resources See Also Transport Transportation Means Transport Law Transport Contract Resources Further Reading The entry "marine […]

Common Agricultural Policy

Common agricultural policy (CAP) and the Treaties of the European Union Description of Common agricultural policy (CAP) provided by the European Union Commission: The common agricultural policy is a matter reserved exclusively for the Community. Under Article 33 of the Treaty establishing the […]

Rule of Law

Rule of law Definition Rule of law means that any act of the government must be done through laws, that no one is above the law. However this principle has many controversial aspects, the core of it requires that fair laws should apply to all persons in a given jurisdiction. It also means […]

Information Technology

Literature Review on Information Technology: State Government Use and Management In the Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, [1] Paul M. Chalekian offers the following summary about the topic of Information Technology: State Government Use and Management: The effective […]

Common Foreign and Security Policy

Common Foreign And Security Policy Common Foreign and Security Policy of European Union at the United Nations Further Reading A concise encyclopedia of the United Nations (including Common Foreign and Security Policy , H Volger, KA Annan -2010) The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (TG […]


Embracing mainstream international law, this section on regionalism explores the context, history and effect of the area of the law covered here. Regionalism and Europe There is an entry on regionalism in the European legal encyclopedia. Resources See Also Further Reading Entry […]

Data Protection

Governments and regulators around the world are considering a number of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning data protection. In addition, the interpretation and application of consumer and data protection laws or regulations in the United States, Europe and elsewhere are often […]

Type of Business

Hierarchical Display of Type of business Business And Competition > Business classification
Industry > Industrial structures and policy > Industrial structures
Business And Competition > Business organisation > Company structure
Economics > Economic analysis > Economic analysis > […]


Legal Materials Arranged by subject. Articles: To find articles on Internet hardware or software, search the LexisCommunications file (CMPCOM;COMM). C/Net rates Internet hardware, software and related products and services. See also the News section, below. Browsers: […]


Joint Marketing Arrangements with Special Groups and the Electronic Commerce Joint Marketing Arrangements with Special Groups in the Online Business Law Literature Review on Ethics and Marketing In the Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, [1] Ali Besharat, Ryan J. […]

International Agreement

International Agreement in International Trade Meaning of International Agreement, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): A broad term for legally binding arrangements covered by international law between or among countries. Such arrangements are variously […]


Politics Politics From the book The Clergyman's Hand-book of Law, about Politics (1): A minister who had been expelled by his congregation for voting the Democratic ticket, had some of the members of the church arrested under the election laws for intimidating a voter. The court held that […]

UN Security Council

UN Security Council The Council is composed of fifteen member states, five of them permanent members and specified by name in the Charter. These are the United States, Russia (replacing the Soviet Union in 1991), China, the United Kingdom, and France. The rest are elected for two-year terms […]

Collective Bargaining

Collective bargaining in the International Trade Union Rights Area Definition of Collective bargaining provided by ITUC-CSI-IGB: The process of negotiating mutually acceptable terms and conditions of employment as well as regulating industrial relations between one or more workers' […]


Any unit or instrument generally accepted as having value to effect the purchase of goods or services, or to settle debts. All money enjoys three characteristics: (1) it is a unit of account in which values can be measured; (2) it is a medium of exchange; and (3) it is a store of value (i.e., a […]


Other Popular Tax Definitions in the World Legal Encyclopedia Adjusted Gross Income (sometimes, including Tax) Ad Valorem Tax (sometimes, including Tax) Alternative Minimum Tax (sometimes, including Tax) Big Four (audit firms) (sometimes, including Tax) Black Market (sometimes, including Tax) […]

State of Emergency

State of Emergency in Constitutional Law From the Comparative Constitutions Project: A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government or may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors or to order government agencies to […]

International Law

International Law consists of the rules and principles of general application dealing with the conduct of States and of international organizations in their international relations with one another and with private individuals, minority groups and transnational companies. Legal Issues […]

Civil Law

Introduction to Civil Law "Civil Law, term applied to a legal tradition originating in ancient Rome and to the contemporary legal systems based on this tradition. Modern civil law systems, which were originally developed in Western European countries, have spread throughout the world. […]


Corruption Definition Corruption, wrongdoing by those in a special position of trust. The term is commonly applied to self-benefiting conduct by public officials and others dedicated to public service. (1) Corruption is not a technical term; it is not considered a criminal offence in most […]


Zionism Historical Background: The Rise of Modern Anti-Semitism

Introduction to Anti-Semitism

Political emancipation, however, proved to be a false dawn. In the second half of the 19th century organized anti-Semitic parties emerged in Germany and Austria-Hungary. In Russia, where the…


Related Fields Related topics include: International Economic Law Find this subject in this World legal encyclopedia. Economy Find this subject in this World legal encyclopedia. Foreign Direct Investment Find this subject in this World legal encyclopedia. Economic Law Find this subject in this […]


Spanish Translation of victimThis is the legal translation of English to Spanish in relation to victim and / or a definition of this topic: Víctima (in Spanish, without translation of the dictionary entry).


The Legal History of Sudan This section provides an overview of Sudan Sudan in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): During 2011, the United States continued its bilateral and multilateral initiatives to […]


Introduction to Criminology According to Encarta, "Criminology, the scientific study of criminals and criminal behavior. Criminologists attempt to build theories that explain why crimes occur and test those theories by observing behavior. Criminological theories help shape society's […]

Maritime Law

Introduction to Maritime Law Maritime Law, branch of law relating to commerce and navigation on the high seas and on other navigable waters. Specifically, the term refers to the body of customs, legislation, international treaties, and court decisions pertaining to ownership and operation […]


Contents Philosophy and theory of Law

Special topics of philosophy and theory of law

This topic covers the following: Origin of Law Sources of Law Nature of Law Limits of law Rule of law Legal reasoning Justice and injustice Equal protection of the law […]


Government Definition Government may be defined as a political organization comprising the individuals and institutions authorized to formulate public policies and conduct affairs of state. Governments are empowered to establish and regulate the interrelationships of the people within their […]

Public Health

Introduction to Public Health Public Health, protection and improvement of the health of entire populations through community-wide action, primarily by governmental agencies. The goals of public health are to prevent human disease, injury, and disability; protect people from environmental […]

Customs Union

Summary of Customs Union

An arrangement among participating countries whereby tariffs are eliminated or virtually eliminated on products moving between members, and a common external tariff (read this and related legal terms for further details) is adopted to provide uniform treatment to […]

International Human Rights Law

Contents of International Human Rights Law Contents of this subject matter include: The concept of human rights: universalism and cultural relativism International and regional human rights systems Human rights law beyond treaties Human rights treaties and derogation State responsibility and […]


Official claims to sectors of the ice-covered continent of Antarctica were made by seven States – Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway and the United Kingdom. A sector was also claimed by Admiral Byrd on behalf of the United States, but the United States never officially […]

Proportional Representation

Introduction to Proportional Representation Proportional Representation, electoral system designed to produce legislative bodies in which the number of seats held by any group or party is proportional to the number of votes cast for members of that group during the most recent election. The […]


Introduction to Copyright Copyright, branch of law granting authors the exclusive privilege to reproduce, distribute, perform, or display their creative works. The goal of copyright law is to encourage authors to invest effort in creating new works of art and literature. Copyright is one […]


Who Becomes a Refugee? Introduction to Refugee People leave their home countries for many reasons. Sometimes they are fleeing poverty, or they hope to find a better life in another place. People who migrate for economic reasons, however, are not considered refugees. Yet economic migrants […]


Introduction to Contract Contract, in law, an agreement that creates an obligation binding upon the parties thereto. The essentials of a contract are as follows: (1) mutual assent; (2) a legal consideration, which in most instances need not be pecuniary; (3) parties who have legal capacity […]


Product Damage in the Convention on Law Applicable to Products Liability Article 1 This is the basic article concerned with the scope, or field of application, of the Convention. It provides that, subject to one exception, the Convention shall determine 'the law applicable to the liability […]

International Relations

Political Science: Fields in Political Science: International Relations Introduction to International Relations International relations is the study of the international system, which involves interactions between nations, international organizations, and multinational corporations. The two […]