Common Foreign and Security Policy

Common Foreign And Security Policy Common Foreign and Security Policy of European Union at the United Nations Further Reading A concise encyclopedia of the United Nations (including Common Foreign and Security Policy , H Volger, KA Annan -2010) The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (TG […]

Foreign Policy

COREU (CORespondance EUropéenne) and the Treaties of the European Union Description of COREU (CORespondance EUropéenne) provided by the European Union Commission: Coreu is an EU communication network between the Member States and the Commission for cooperation in the fields of […]

Protocol

Protocol and the Treaties of the European Union Description of Protocol provided by the European Union Commission: The term "protocol" is used for agreements less formal than those entitled "treaty" or "convention". The term could be used to cover the following […]

International Relations

Political Science: Fields in Political Science: International Relations Introduction to International Relations International relations is the study of the international system, which involves interactions between nations, international organizations, and multinational corporations. The two […]

Neutrality

Neutrality Definition Neutrality may be defined, in international law, as a legal status of a state that adheres to a policy of nonengagement during war. See more about the definition of neutrality here. Introduction The rules covering wartime relations between a neutral and a […]

International Conflict

Hierarchical Display of International conflict International Relations > International security
Law > International law > Public international law
International Relations > International security > Foreign policy > Neutrality
European Union > European construction > European Union > […]

Civil Service

Civil Service, name generally given to paid nonmilitary service in nonelective office in the executive branch of government. The term does not apply properly to service in the legislative branch or judicial branch, although in the United States some employees of these branches are subject to […]

International Security

Hierarchical Display of International security International Relations > International security
International Relations > International affairs > International affairs > International sanctions
International Relations > International security > Foreign policy > […]

Embassy

Summary of Embassy The highest level of political mission that one nation may accredit to another. An embassy is a permanent mission charged with maintaining direct political liaison with the government of the host country. The chief officer of an embassy is the ambassador, who is regarded […]

Taiwan

Note: there is more information on the Asian/Chinese legal Encyclopedia. Notion of of Taiwan: Also known as the Republic of China (ROC). In 1949, after the end of the Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists, led by Chiang Kai-shek, and the Chinese Communist Party, led by Mao Zedong, the […]

Public Opinion

Public Opinion and the United Nations Further Reading A concise encyclopedia of the United Nations (including Public Opinion, H Volger, KA Annan -2010) The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (TG Weiss – 2007) International Law: A Dictionary (including Public Opinion, Boczek, Boleslaw Adam […]

Humanitarian Occupation

Embracing mainstream international law, this section on humanitarian occupation explores the context, history and effect of the area of the law covered here. Resources Further Reading The entry "humanitarian occupation" in the Parry and Grant Encyclopaedic Dictionary of […]

Crisis Situations

Literature Review on Ethics and Crisis Situations In the Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy, [1] Carole L. Jurkiewicz offers the following summary about the topic of Ethics and Crisis Situations: organizational concerns in times of crisis are necessarily focused on […]

Commitment to Humanitarian Law

Affirmation of us Commitment to Humanitarian Law at Red Cross Conference in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On November 28, 2011, Mr. Koh delivered remarks at the 31st International Conference of […]

Xi Jinping

Note: there is more information on the Asian/Chinese legal Encyclopedia. Notion of of Xi Jinping: Secretary General of the Communist Party of China since November 2012 and President of the PRC since March 2013. As paramount leader of China, Xi has publically campaigned against corruption, […]

Trade Organizations

World Trade Organization (WTO) Notion of of World Trade Organization (WTO): An international organization founded in 1995 to provide conciliation mechanisms to resolve trade conflicts between members and, if necessary, adjudicate disputes. The WTO provides a forum for ongoing negotiations in […]

Customary International Humanitarian Law

Customary International Humanitarian Law Sources of international humanitarian law The sources are: International Humanitarian Law treaties. International Humanitarian Law is based on a number of treaties, in particular the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols, and a series of other instruments. See a list of International Humanitarian Law treaties here. Customary International Humanitarian … Read more

Jiang Zemin

Note: there is more information on the Asian/Chinese legal Encyclopedia. Notion of of Jiang Zemin: Paramount leader of China between 1992 and 2004. Jiang continued in the spirit of Deng Xiaoping's reforms and oversaw a generally prosperous period in Chinese history.[1] Resources See […]

Diplomacy

Diplomacy Definition Diplomacy (Fr. diplomatie), the art of conducting international negotiations. The word, borrowed from the French, has the same derivation as Diplomatic (q.v.), and, according to the New English Dictionary, was first used in England so late as 1796 by Burke. Yet there is […]

Islands

Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands Note: there is more information on the Asian/Chinese legal Encyclopedia. Notion of of Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands: Known by both their Japanese name, the Senkaku, and by their Chinese name, the Diaoyu, these uninhabited islands are located in the East China Sea and are […]

Qian Qichen

Note: there is more information on the Asian/Chinese legal Encyclopedia. Notion of of Qian Qichen: Foreign Minister of the PRC from 1988 to 1998. During his term, China expanded its influence in Asia by cooperating with ASEAN.[1] Resources See Also Foreign Policy China Biographies […]

Oil

Union Oil Company of California (UNOCAL) Note: there is more information on the Asian/Chinese legal Encyclopedia. Notion of of Union Oil Company of California (UNOCAL): A major petroleum explorer and marketer until 2005 when, after a failed offer by the Chinese National Offshore Oil […]

Parties

Suits, Parties From the book The Clergyman's Hand-book of Law, about Suits, Parties (1): Where a number of persons have contributed to the erection of a church, it is not necessary for all who contribute to join in an action to restrain a sale of the property for mercantile purposes.386 […]

Foreign Service

The Foreign Service Introduction to the Foreign Service Today, most nations staff their foreign services with career civil servants who are selected on the basis of competitive examinations. Until recent times, however, foreign service personnel were political appointees, often from noble […]

Fundamental Rules of International Humanitarian Law in Armed Conflicts

Embracing mainstream international law, this section on fundamental rules of international humanitarian law in armed conflicts explores the context, history and effect of the area of the law covered here. Resources Further Reading The entry "fundamental rules of international […]

East China Sea

Note: there is more information on the Asian/Chinese legal Encyclopedia. Notion of of East China Sea: The East China Sea is a part of the Pacific Ocean that occupies the area between mainland Asia and the Ryukyu Islands of Japan, bounded in the north by the Yellow sea and in the south by the […]

Andrew Scobell

Note: there is more information on the Asian/Chinese legal Encyclopedia. Notion of of Andrew Scobell: Senior political scientist at the RAND Corporation and former associate professor of international affairs at the George H. W. Bush School of Government.[1] Resources See Also Foreign […]

Deng Xiaoping

Note: there is more information on the Asian/Chinese legal Encyclopedia. Notion of of Deng Xiaoping: Reformist leader of China from 1978 to 1992 and successor to Mao Zedong. Deng Xiaoping was responsible for redirecting China toward a market economy and turning away from certain hardline […]

Content of Passports

Authority to Determine Content of Passports to Implement Foreign Policy in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): See information on Diplomatic Relations, Succession, Continuity of States and Statehood […]

Asian Financial Crisis

Asian Financial Crisis (1997–98) Note: there is more information on the Asian/Chinese legal Encyclopedia. Notion of of Asian Financial Crisis (1997–98): Triggered by the collapse of the Thai baht, the crisis threatened to lead to global economic meltdown, but was ultimately limited […]

Economic Dialogue

Strategic and Economic Dialogue (S&ED) Note: there is more information on the Asian/Chinese legal Encyclopedia. Notion of of Strategic and Economic Dialogue (S&ED): An initiative established by President Obama and former Chinese President Hu in 2009 to discuss major issues like cybersecurity […]

Trade Treaties

Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP) Note: there is more information on the Asian/Chinese legal Encyclopedia. Notion of of Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP): The TPP is a free-trade agreement among Brunei, Chile, New Zealand and Singapore. Since 2010, eight other countries, including the U.S., have […]

Liberation Army

People's Liberation Army (PLA) Note: there is more information on the Asian/Chinese legal Encyclopedia. Notion of of People's Liberation Army (PLA): The military arm of the Communist Party of China and the de facto armed forces of the PRC. It is headed by the Central Military […]

Zhu Rongji

Note: there is more information on the Asian/Chinese legal Encyclopedia. Notion of of Zhu Rongji: Premier of the PRC from 1998 and 2003. Zhu was known as a tough administrator. During his during his term China's economy experienced double-digit growth.[1] Resources See Also Foreign […]

International Alliances

International Alliances ALLIANCES AND SUPERPOWER DOMINANCE, 1964-1968 The second half of the 1960s was a time of parallel crises for the two military alliances, NATO and the Warsaw Pact, in both of which superpower dominance was at issue. For the first time since the onset of the Cold War, the loosening of the Kremlin leadership … Read more

Nuclear Strategy

Nuclear Strategy A review of Lawrence Freedman’s book “The Evolution of Nuclear Strategy” (New York, 1981), the classic sober and sobering account by Britain’s leading expert, by Kirkus Reviews (a Magazine): “In an accessible historical narrative: the essence of the nuclear-strategy debates, and the essence of the nuclear-arms-control problem. Development of atomic weapons, Freedman (King’s … Read more

War Doctrines

War Doctrines William Graham Sumner (1874-1910) wrote, in 1903, about the role of doctrines as a road map to foreign affairs: “If you want war, nourish a doctrine. Doctrines are the most frightful tyrants to which men ever are subject, because doctrines get inside a man’s own reason and betray him against himself. Civilized men … Read more

Politburo

Politburo Standing Committee Note: there is more information on the Asian/Chinese legal Encyclopedia. Notion of of Politburo Standing Committee: A committee within the broader Politburo that consists of between five and eleven of the top members of the Communist Party of China. As China's […]

Humanitarian Law

Affirmation of U.S. Commitment to Humanitarian Law at Red Cross Conference In relation to the international law practice and Affirmation of U.S. Commitment to Humanitarian Law at Red Cross Conference in this world legal Encyclopedia, please see the following section: Use of Force, Arms […]

Reparations

Reparations Defining the Goals of Reparations The quest for protecting individuals from mass atrocities is as old as the UN Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. The larger part of the Principles and Guidelines, with strong domestic law implications, sets out the status and the rights of victims, and corresponds to the title … Read more