International Trade

International Political Economy Trends: International Trade Introduction to International Trade In the 21st century, international trade has grown to 20 percent of the world's total production of goods and services-around $6.5 trillion per year. This volume of trade is almost seven times […]

Rule of Law

Rule of law Definition Rule of law means that any act of the government must be done through laws, that no one is above the law. However this principle has many controversial aspects, the core of it requires that fair laws should apply to all persons in a given jurisdiction. It also means […]


Legal Materials Arranged by subject. Articles: To find articles on Internet hardware or software, search the LexisCommunications file (CMPCOM;COMM). C/Net rates Internet hardware, software and related products and services. See also the News section, below. Browsers: […]

Hong Kong

Hong Kong was a somewhat autonomous city-state under British control until July 1, 1997, when the city was returned to China. Legal Materials Company Information: Profiles of Hong Kong companies are available through Lexis (COMPNY;WBCHHK) and SkyMinder and Tolfin. You can obtain […]

State of Emergency

State of Emergency in Constitutional Law From the Comparative Constitutions Project: A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government or may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors or to order government agencies to […]


Legal Materials For an introduction to the Israeli legal system see A Guide to Legal Research in Israelby Michal Tamir, Legal Research Guide: Israel and/or the Israeli Law Guide by Ruth Levush. For more information on Israeli legal materials, see Esther Snyder's Israel: A Legal Research […]

International Law

International Law consists of the rules and principles of general application dealing with the conduct of States and of international organizations in their international relations with one another and with private individuals, minority groups and transnational companies. Legal Issues […]

Bank For International Settlements

Bank For International Settlements Summary of Bank For International Settlements An international bank owned and controlled by the central banks of twenty-four European and five non-European central banks. The BIS was formed at the Hague Conference of 1930 in response to pressures for the […]


Zionism Historical Background: The Rise of Modern Anti-Semitism

Introduction to Anti-Semitism

Political emancipation, however, proved to be a false dawn. In the second half of the 19th century organized anti-Semitic parties emerged in Germany and Austria-Hungary. In Russia, where the…

International Human Rights Law

Contents of International Human Rights Law Contents of this subject matter include: The concept of human rights: universalism and cultural relativism International and regional human rights systems Human rights law beyond treaties Human rights treaties and derogation State responsibility and […]

Proportional Representation

Introduction to Proportional Representation Proportional Representation, electoral system designed to produce legislative bodies in which the number of seats held by any group or party is proportional to the number of votes cast for members of that group during the most recent election. The […]


Introduction to Copyright Copyright, branch of law granting authors the exclusive privilege to reproduce, distribute, perform, or display their creative works. The goal of copyright law is to encourage authors to invest effort in creating new works of art and literature. Copyright is one […]


Legal Materials This entry discusses sources for French: Business Information Legal Materials News

Business Information

You can look up French company registration records (for free) and retrieve filings (for a fee) from Infogreff. The Union of French Chambers of […]


Product Damage in the Convention on Law Applicable to Products Liability Article 1 This is the basic article concerned with the scope, or field of application, of the Convention. It provides that, subject to one exception, the Convention shall determine 'the law applicable to the liability […]

International Relations

Political Science: Fields in Political Science: International Relations Introduction to International Relations International relations is the study of the international system, which involves interactions between nations, international organizations, and multinational corporations. The two […]

Legal System

International Legal System Scholars and judicial decisions have characterized the international legal system as a system of equal and sovereign nation states whose actions are limited only by rules freely accepted as legally binding. [1] Brierly defines international law as ‘the body […]

Trade Policy

Diplomacy and International Trade (London, 1994) "Today, the generally accepted view (at least on the part of most states) is that trade, and particularly free trade, is good, notwithstanding the conflicts (and bouts of protectionism) that arise between individual states and between […]

Intellectual Property

Summary of Intellectual Property Intellectual Property is, according withWilliam J. Miller, a general term covering industrial property such as patents, trademarks, and trade names, as well as literary and artistic property, including copyrights. Consideration of the meaning of the word […]

International Commercial Arbitration

See also International business arbitration in this international legal encyclopedia.

International Commercial Arbitration Resources
Treaties and Conventions on Arbitration

See also Treaties in this legal […]


The Mercosur treaty creates something of a free trade zone among countries in the southern part of South America. The related Mercosur organization posts materials in Spanish. For information about Mercosur materials, see A Guide to MERCOSUR Legal Research: Sources and Documents. […]

Islamic Law

The Legal History of Islamic Law Law and Dogma Islamic law —ShariÂ’a— evolved over time in response to the Muslim communityÂ’s need for a legal system. The most important source of law was the traditions of the Prophet (sunna) as revealed in reports […]

Diplomatic Immunity

An immunity from local laws and regulations accorded by host states to accredited foreign diplomats. It is recognized in international law that diplomatic officers are the personal representatives of sovereign states and, as such, are themselves inviolable on the same basis as the states they […]

Gender Equality

Gender Equality and the United Nations The United Nations has the responsibility to ensure that all its actions promote and protect gender equality and women’s empowerment. UN efforts to help establish the rule of law for all on the basis of equality are essential to this end. Advancing […]


Introduction Censorship, supervision and control of the information and ideas that are circulated among the people within a society. In modern times, censorship refers to the examination of books, periodicals, plays, films, television and radio programs, news reports, and other […]


A codification of terms used in foreign trade contracts. Local customs and usage imported variations in meaning for such common terms as F.A.S., C.I.F., et cetera, often resulting in disputes between buyer and seller as to the respective obligations of each. In 1936 the Paris-based […]

International Arbitration

International arbitration is the settlement by a mutually acceptable third party of disputes between sovereign states. Modern international arbitration began with the conclusion of Jay's Treaty (1794) by Great Britain and the United States. Numerous disputes were arbitrated during the 19th […]

Carriage of Passengers

Comparative Analysis International Overview The International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to Carriage of Passengers by Sea (the "Passenger Convention 1961") was adopted in Brussels on 29 April 1961 and came into force on 4 June 1965. It was in force in […]

Lome Convention

Introduction to Lome Convention Lomé Convention, trade and aid agreement between the European Union (EU) and 70 African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries, first signed in February 1975 in Lomé, Togo. The Lomé Convention provided a framework of cooperation between […]

International Telecommunication Union

International Telecommunication Union Outline The ITU was established in 1865 in Paris. It became a specialized agency of the UN in 1947. Its main function is to coordinate international cooperation in the area of telecommunications. It promotes international cooperation through various […]

United Kingdom

Legal Materials For purposes of this section, the United Kingdom includes England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The following is a compilation of some information concerning any of these jurisdictions into the topics discussed below. For more information, see the U.K. legal […]


Legal Materials For information, call the National Committee on United States-China Relations(NCUSCR) at 212-645-9677. Other possibilities: the Chinese embassy (202-495-2266) or the U.S. State Department. Legal: The National People's Congress posts a free Database of Laws and […]


Legal Materials Business Information: Matthew Bender publishes a guide to Doing Business in Japanthat is available through Lexis (MATBEN;DBJAPN). Deloitte posts a Tax and Investment guide for Japan. See also the sources listed in "Doing Business in Foreign Countries." […]

Competition Policy

Competition Policy and International Trade Economy In relation to international trade economy, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following definition of Competition Policy: A broad category encompassing antitrust and other policies to remedy the imperfectly competitive nature of key […]

Chemical Weapon

Traditionally, a chemical weapon (CW) is thought of as a toxic chemical loaded into a delivery system such as a munition (i.e., a complete device for exposing a population to a substance that can cause death or other injuries through its chemical action). The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) […]

International Humanitarian Law Treaties

International Humanitarian Law Treaties and Conventions Sources of international humanitarian law The sources are: International Humanitarian Law treaties. International Humanitarian Law is based on a number of treaties, in particular the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional […]

Trade Dispute

Legal Definition of Trade Dispute The term "labor dispute"is a broad one and can refer to, at least, two different groups of conflicts. The first one includes any controversy concerning terms or conditions of employment, or concerning the association or representation of persons in […]

UN Environment Programme

UN Environment Programme in 2013 United States views on international law [1] in relation to UN Environment Programme: In December 2012, the UN General Assembly adopted resolution 67/213, establishing universal membership in the UN Environment Programme (“UNEP”) Governing Council […]


The India Code is posted by the Ministry of Law, Justice, and Company Affairs. Decisions of the Supreme Court of India are available on Lexis (INDIA;INDCAS). Business laws concerning corporations, partnerships, antitrust, securities, etc., are posted on the Ministry of Corporate Affairs' Acts […]


Disputed Fisheries: International Incident In the book "International Incidents for Discussion in Conversation Classes", in relation to this subject, L. Oppenheim wrote in 1909: An island rises in the open sea three and a half miles from the shore of state A and is acquired through […]

GATT Accession

GATT Accession Summary of GATT Detais can be found in General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade). Accession Process The process was described by Christopher Mark in 1993: "Joining the GENERAL AGREEMENT ON TARIFFS AND TRADE is rarely a simple or straightforward matter –especially if the […]

United Nations

Introduction to United Nations United Nations (UN), international organization of countries created to promote world peace and cooperation. The UN was founded after World War II ended in 1945. Its mission is to maintain world peace, develop good relations between countries, promote […]


Legal Materials: The blue pages of the Bluebook provide an overview of key primary legal materials. Also check out German Business and Commercial Laws: Guide to Translations into English and Select Auxiliary Sources by Martina Kammer and Anne Scharrenberg and/or Legal Research […]


Summary of Embassy The highest level of political mission that one nation may accredit to another. An embassy is a permanent mission charged with maintaining direct political liaison with the government of the host country. The chief officer of an embassy is the ambassador, who is regarded […]


The Liberals While the adjetive of the term means "Marked by generosity", a used definition of liberal regards the person who is open-minded or not strict in the observance of orthodox, traditional, or established forms or ways. Earl Killian thinks that a liberal is the person […]

Wassenaar Arrangement

The Wassenaar Arrangement has been established in order to contribute to regional and international security and stability, by promoting transparency and greater responsibility in transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies. The aim is also to prevent the acquisition of […]

Precautionary Principle

Precautionary Principle and the Treaties of the European Union Description of Precautionary Principle provided by the European Union Commission: The concept of the precautionary principle was first set out in a Commission communication adopted in February 2000 on recourse to the precautionary […]

Territorial Jurisdiction

Territorial Units treatment in the Convention on Law Applicable to Products Liability Articles 12-14 (of the Convention on Law Applicable to Products Liability) are directed to the peculiar problems of States which are composed of territorial units, each with its own rules of law on the […]