International Trade

International Political Economy Trends: International Trade Introduction to International Trade In the 21st century, international trade has grown to 20 percent of the world's total production of goods and services-around $6.5 trillion per year. This volume of trade is almost seven times […]

Merger Control

Hierarchical Display of Merger control Business And Competition > Competition > Competition law
Business And Competition > Business organisation > Economic concentration
Business And Competition > Legal form of organisations > Organisation > Consortium Merger control Concept of Merger […]

Anti-subsidy Proceeding

Hierarchical Display of Anti-subsidy proceeding Business And Competition > Competition > Competition law
European Union > European Union law > EU law > Application of EU law > Infringement of EU law > Complaint to the Commission
European Union > European Union law > EU law > Common […]

Dumping

Dumping in International Trade Meaning of Dumping, according to the Dictionary of International Trade (Global Negotiator): The practice of selling a product in a foreign market at an unfairly low price (a price that is lower than the cost in the home market, or which is lower than the cost of […]

State Aid

Resources See Also Social Security Financing Social Insurance Social Security System

Common Commercial Policy

Common commercial policy and the Treaties of the European Union Description of Common commercial policy provided by the European Union Commission: The Community has exclusive responsibility for the common commercial policy (Article 133 of the EC Treaty, formerly Article 113). Under the policy […]

Trust

Trust: Main Elements The coverage of Trust includes the following element(s): Trust For detailed information on this issue, please read the corresponding entry. References See Also Business Law (in international or comparative law) Business Organizations (in international or comparative law) […]

Anti-trust Legislation

Hierarchical Display of Anti-trust legislation Business And Competition > Competition > Competition law
Business And Competition > Business organisation > Economic concentration > Conglomerate
Business And Competition > Competition > Restrictive trade practice > Trust Anti-trust […]

Restrictive Trade Practice

Hierarchical Display of Restrictive trade practice Business And Competition > Competition
Finance > Prices > Prices > Discriminatory price
Business And Competition > Business organisation > Economic concentration
Business And Competition > Business organisation > Economic […]

Jurisdiction

Criminal Procedure: Jurisdiction Introduction to Jurisdiction For a criminal conviction to be valid, both the sovereign power (the state or federal government) and the specific court that tries the accused must have jurisdiction (authority) over the crime charged. Jurisdiction refers to a […]

Restrictive-practice Authorisation

Hierarchical Display of Restrictive-practice authorisation Business And Competition > Competition > Competition law > Control of restrictive practices
Business And Competition > Competition > Restrictive trade practice > Unlawful agreement Restrictive-practice authorisation Concept of […]

Competition Policy

Competition Policy and International Trade Economy In relation to international trade economy, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following definition of Competition Policy: A broad category encompassing antitrust and other policies to remedy the imperfectly competitive nature of key […]

Competition Law

Anti-Dumping and Competition Law and the World Trade Organization Anti-Dumping and Competition Law in relation to the World Trade Organization (WTO) covers several issues. Competition Law in a Global Context Contents of Competition Law in a Global Context Contents of this subject matter […]

Innovation

Innovation and the Laws of International Trade The relationship between antitrust law and intellectual property Intellectual Property and Competition Law Three general principles When antitrust concerns arise The three markets The horizontal/vertical distinction Rule of […]

Countertrade

A commercial arrangement in which the buyer pays for his purchases, wholly or partly, with something other than money. Very often countertrade deals include some cash, but a significant portion of the transaction is settled with commodities or services. Countertrade has been employed heavily […]

Unlawful Agreement

Hierarchical Display of Unlawful agreement Business And Competition > Competition > Restrictive trade practice
Business And Competition > Competition > Competition law > Control of restrictive practices > Restrictive-practice authorisation Unlawful agreement Concept of Unlawful agreement […]

International Trade Law

Outline Following an introductory overview of the principles and structure of international trade law, this entry concentrates on the substantive obligations in the agreements that form part of the World Trade Organization Agreement, including tariff and customs?related matters, […]

Exemption From Restrictive-practice Authorisation

Hierarchical Display of Exemption from restrictive-practice authorisation Business And Competition > Competition > Competition law > Control of restrictive practices
Exemption from restrictive-practice authorisation Concept of Exemption from restrictive-practice authorisation See the […]

Control of State Aid

Hierarchical Display of Control of State aid Business And Competition > Competition > Competition law
Economics > Economic policy > Economic support > State aid
European Union > European Union law > EU law > Application of EU law > Infringement of EU law > Complaint to the Commission […]

Complaint to the Commission

Hierarchical Display of Complaint to the Commission European Union > European Union law > EU law > Application of EU law > Infringement of EU law
European Union > European Union law > EU law > Restriction on competition
European Union > European Union law > EU law > Competition law > […]

Consortium

Summary of Consortium

A multiparty commercial undertaking, differing from a joint venture by virtue of the comparatively large number of participants.

(Main Author: William J. Miller)

Consortium and International Trade Economy In relation to international trade economy, […]

Economic Concentration

Resources See Also Business Company Corporation Enterprise

Choice of Law

Europe Financial Law: Choice of Law Regulation on the on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations (2006) The proposed Regulation text (article 8.3) would override the United Kingdom's derogation from article 7.1 of the Rome Convention and would create significant uncertainty and […]

Political Question Doctrine

In the United States For information about Political question doctrine in the context of international trade, click here Alaska v. Kerry: Act of State and Political Question Doctrines in 2013 United States views on international law [1] in relation to Alaska v. Kerry: Act of State and […]

International Enforcement

Enforcement Jurisdiction Jurisdiction to Enforce in General This include the following: National Practice with Respect to Jurisdiction to Enforce International Law Governing Jurisdiction to Enforce Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments in a Country This covers the […]

Intellectual Property Rights

Introduction Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) protection is one of the most important and current legal issues in the international trade arena. As international trade and investment increases around the world, copyrights, trademarks, patents and trade secrets need to be subjects of a […]

Intellectual Property Competition

Intellectual Property Competition How do Patent and Copyright Protection restrict Competitors Both patent and copyright protection, though particularly the former, may be excessive. To evaluate optimal patent protection for an invention, one has to consider both the cost of inventing and the cost of copying; the higher the ratio of the former to the latter, … Read more

Commerce

In the United States For information about Commerce in the context of international trade, click here Stream of commerce analysis The Department of Commerce The U.S. Department of Commerce is the government agency tasked with improving living standards for all Americans by promoting […]

Acquisitions

In the United States For information about Acquisitions in the context of international trade, click here Tax Issues in Mergers and Acquisitions Export Control in Merger and Acquisitions Acquisitions Intellectual Property and Competition Law Resources See Also Library Law Library Legal […]

General Jurisdiction

In the United States For information about General jurisdiction in the context of international trade, click here Resources See Also Jurisdiction Resources See Also Further Reading Information about General Jurisdiction in the Encyclopedia of World Trade: from Ancient Times to the Present […]

Animal

In the United States For information about Animal in the context of international trade, click here Introduction This entry provides an overview of the legal framework of animal, with a description of the most significant features of animal at international level. Related Work and Conclusions […]

Preferential Trade Agreements

Impact of Preferential Trade Agreements on Competition Law and Policy This section provides an overview of impact of preferential trade agreements on competition law and policy within the legal context of Competition Law and Policy in international economic law (Main Regulatory Areas). […]

Anti-Trust Rules

This section provides an overview of anti-trust rules within the legal context of Competition Law and Policy in international economic law (Main Regulatory Areas). Relation of IPRs to Trade, Investment and Anti-Trust Rules This section provides an overview of relation of iprs to trade, […]

International Trade Organization

International Trade Organization (ITO) in relation with International Trade In the context of trade organizations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following definition of International Trade Organization (ITO): (Not to be confused with Multilateral Trade "Organization, Sec. I). An […]

Personal Jurisdiction

In the United States For information about Personal jurisdiction in the context of international trade, click here Personal jurisdiction Comparisons of U.S. and European approaches to personal jurisdiction Civil Jurisdiction and Litigation in the Context of Internet Law Read, in this legal […]

Antitrust Laws

In the United States For information about Antitrust laws in the context of international trade, click here Antitrust laws in the Americas Global Corporate Competition Compliance for Entities Operating Abroad   Antitrust Laws: Summary In this entry, Antitrust Laws covers: The […]

Jurisdictional Limits

In the United States For information about Jurisdictional Limits in the context of international trade, click here Resources See Also Jurisdictional amount Resources See Also Further Reading Information about Jurisdictional Limits in the Encyclopedia of World Trade: from Ancient Times to […]

Mergers

In the United States For information about Mergers in the context of international trade, click here Mergers and acquisitions Competition Implications of Doing Business Overseas Legal Issues in Mergers and Acquisitions Export Control in Merger and Acquisitions Mergers and the European Union […]