Data Protection

Governments and regulators around the world are considering a number of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning data protection. In addition, the interpretation and application of consumer and data protection laws or regulations in the United States, Europe and elsewhere are often […]

Freedom of the Press

Introduction to Freedom of the Press Freedom of the Press, immunity of the communications media-including newspapers, books, magazines, radio, and television-from government control or censorship. Freedom of the press is regarded as fundamental to individual rights. Without free media, a free […]

Freedom of Association

Freedom of Association in Constitutional Law From the Comparative Constitutions Project: Freedom of association is the right to meet and interact freely, without the interference of the state or others. This is slightly different than freedom of assembly, because assembly refers to the ability […]


Culture and the Treaties of the European Union Description of Culture provided by the European Union Commission: Whilst the will to conduct cultural activities at European level was apparent as early as the 1970s, it was not until 1991 that culture was officially given a place in European […]

Right to Stand for Election

Hierarchical Display of Right to stand for election Law > Rights and freedoms > Political rights > Civil rights
European Union > European construction > Deepening of the European Union > Citizens’ Europe > European citizenship
Politics > Electoral procedure and voting > Electoral law […]

Social Rights

In relation to the social rights and constitutional law, David Landau[1] made the following observation: Social rights are the rights of people to achieve their basic human needs. In domestic constitutional orders, common social rights include the right to healthcare (right to health), […]


Introduction Censorship, supervision and control of the information and ideas that are circulated among the people within a society. In modern times, censorship refers to the examination of books, periodicals, plays, films, television and radio programs, news reports, and other […]

Trade Union

Meaning of European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC) Here is a very short concept of european trade union confederation (etuc) in the European Union framework: The principal trade union lobby group in Brussels. Resources See Also Civil Liberty Civil Right Legal Right Citizen Freedom Political […]


In relation to the universalism and constitutional law, Matthias Mahlmann[1] made the following observation: The concept of universalism is used in various contexts and with different meanings. Its use is not limited to the sphere of ethics and law. In law, universalism can have a formal […]


The Legal History of Religion This section provides an overview of Religion. Religion & Law Pages Online Legal Resources

The Islamic Law entry The Jewish Law entry U.S. Federal Religion Law Decisions Recent U.S. Supreme Court Religion Law Decisions – at the Legal […]

European Citizenship

Hierarchical Display of European citizenship European Union > European construction > Deepening of the European Union > Citizens’ Europe
Politics > Parliament > Powers of parliament > Parliamentary scrutiny > Petition
Law > Rights and freedoms > Rights of the individual > Freedom of […]

Freedom of Movement

Freedom of Movement in Election Law All citizens, except those who are minors and other specific categories of people, have the liberty to travel alone, reside in any part of the state where they please, within the limits of respect for the liberty and rights of others, and to leave that state […]


References See Also Legal Profession Duties Lawyers Concept of Confidentiality Note: explore also the meaning of this legal term in the American Ecyclopedia of Law. Resources See Also Legal Profession Duties Lawyers Resources See Also Ideology Public Opinion Media Resources See […]

Human Rights

Introduction to Human Rights "Since World War II international law has become increasingly concerned with the protection of human rights. It has provided improved procedures for that purpose within the UN. This new emphasis has also been manifested in the adoption by the UN of the […]


Introduction to Nationality Nationality, in law, condition or status of belonging to, or having legal identity with, a nation or state. In various political systems a distinction is made between nationality and citizenship; the latter represents a higher political status, usually involving […]

Equal Treatment

Resources See Also Civil Liberty Civil Right Legal Right Citizen Freedom Political Liberty Constitutional Right Political Right Freedom of Speech

Freedom of Expression

Freedom of Expression in Election Law A universal right that includes freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art or through any other media of a person's choice. This freedom […]


Strike in the International Trade Union Rights Area Definition of Strike provided by ITUC-CSI-IGB: The most common form of industrial action, a strike is a concerted stoppage of work by employees for a limited period of time. Can assume a wide variety of forms. See general strike, intermittent […]

Legal Aid

Legal Aid in Private International Law This section contain conflict of laws information and cross references related to legal aid on some major countries and additional jurisdictions. It covers key issues involved when citizens face international situations. Information on private […]

Right to Vote

Hierarchical Display of Right to vote Law > Rights and freedoms > Political rights > Civil rights
European Union > European construction > Deepening of the European Union > Citizens’ Europe > European citizenship
Politics > Electoral procedure and voting > Electoral law Right to vote […]

Political Rights of Prisoners

Suspension of the Political Rights of Prisoners In relation to the suspension of the political rights of prisoners and constitutional law, Pablo Marshall[1] made the following observation: The suspension of political rights refers to the temporary loss of rights to political participation […]


Nondiscrimination and the GATT Policy Negotiations In relation to the GATT Policy Negotiations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following explanation and/or definition of Nondiscrimination: Equal application of tariffs, quotas, or other trade restrictions to products from different […]

Right to Security

In relation to the right to security and constitutional law, Liora Lazarus[1] made the following observation: The right to security has a variety of manifestations. At the outset, it is important to distinguish the moral, political, theoretical or polemical statements made about the right […]


Deaf and Dumb The two words are common to Teutonic languages, cf. Ger. taub and dumm (only in the sense of “stupid”), Dutch doof and dom; the original meaning seems to have been dull of perception, stupid, obtuse, and the words may be ultimately related. The Gr. […]

Labor Mobility

Labour Mobility This section provides an overview of labour mobility within the legal context of Labour Mobility in international economic law (Main Regulatory Areas). Labour Mobility in International Economic Law In international economic law, labour mobility includes the following legal […]