UN Security Council

UN Security Council The Council is composed of fifteen member states, five of them permanent members and specified by name in the Charter. These are the United States, Russia (replacing the Soviet Union in 1991), China, the United Kingdom, and France. The rest are elected for two-year terms […]

Bank For International Settlements

Bank For International Settlements Summary of Bank For International Settlements An international bank owned and controlled by the central banks of twenty-four European and five non-European central banks. The BIS was formed at the Hague Conference of 1930 in response to pressures for the […]

Un Framework Convention on Climate Change

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: Conference of the Parties in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): The United States participated in the Seventeenth Session of the Conference of the […]

Group Of Ten

Also known as the Paris Club, the ten principal trading nations. The group, consisting of the United States, Great Britain, Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Canada, and Sweden, derived the name from a 1962 General Agreement to Borrow signed to make U.S. $6…

Unicef

The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) UNICEF supports governments and civil society in some 155 countries to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international standards. UNICEF’s rule of law work includes support to child rights legislative reform; justice […]

United Nations

Introduction to United Nations United Nations (UN), international organization of countries created to promote world peace and cooperation. The UN was founded after World War II ended in 1945. Its mission is to maintain world peace, develop good relations between countries, promote […]

International Energy Agency

Summary of International Energy Agency

An autonomous group within the organization for Economic Cooperation And Development (read this and related legal terms for further details) established in 1974 to coordinate the responses of the developed, oil-importing countries to the 1973 oil […]

Un General Assembly

United States Remarks at the General Assembly in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On July 27, 2011, U.S. Representative to ECOSOC Frederick D. Barton addressed the plenary meeting of the United […]

Organization For European Economic Cooperation

Organization For European Economic Cooperation Summary of Organization For European Economic Cooperation

A post-World War II organization established to coordinate the reconstruction of Europe. The OEEC arose in response to an Anglo-French declaration in 1947 calling for European […]

Group of Seven

Group of Seven (G- 7) in relation with International Trade In the context of trade organizations, Christopher Mark (1993) provided the following definition of Group of Seven (G- 7): The seven leading industrial countries of the world: the United States, Japan, Germany, France, the United […]

Un Conflict Prevention

United Nations Peacekeepers' Role in Preventing Conflict in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): See information on Nationality, Citizenship and Immigration in this legal Encyclopedia8.A.1.c.(3). […]

Un Security Council Resolutions Implementation

United States Targeted Sanctions Implementing United Nations Security Council Resolutions in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): See information on Nationality, Citizenship and Immigration in this legal […]

Canadian Court Set-aside Proceedings

United States Statement in Canadian Court Set-aside Proceedings: Cargill v United Mexican States in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On January 31, 2011, the United States submitted a brief as […]

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Background and Legal Regime The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The year 2012 marks the 30th anniversary of the opening for signature of the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (“UNCLOS” or “the Convention”), […]

United Nations Commission on International Trade Law

United Nations Commission On International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) United Nations Commission on International Trade Law Outline The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law was set up in 1966 by the General Assembly of the United Nations to deal with conflicts of national laws […]

Un Nonproliferation Sanctions

United Nations Nonproliferation Sanctions in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On April 20, 2011, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 1977, extending the mandate of the […]

Un General Assembly Resolutions on Commercial Law

United Nations General Assembly Resolutions in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On December 9, 2011, the United States joined consensus in the Sixth Committee in adopting two resolutions relating to […]

United Nations Environment Programme

UNEP – United Nations Environment Programme Further Reading A concise encyclopedia of the United Nations (including United Nations Environment Programme , H Volger, KA Annan -2010) The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (TG Weiss – 2007) International Law: A Dictionary (including […]

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

United Nations Conference On Trade And Development (UNCTAD) Introduction to the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, permanent arm of the United Nations General Assembly. The conference, established in December 1964, followed […]

United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization

United Nations Educational, Scientific And Cultural Organization United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Outline UNESCO was set up in 1945 as a specialised and independent agency of the UN. Its main task is to promote international cooperation in the areas of […]

Un Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On a number of occasions in 2011, the United States reaffirmed its support for the United Nations […]

United Nations General Assembly

Structure of the United Nations: General Assembly Introduction to United Nations General Assembly The General Assembly is made up of all 192 member countries, each with one vote. It undertakes all major discussions and decisions about UN actions. It is like a global town hall, providing a […]

United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

United Nations High Commissioner for (UNHCR) Note: see Refugees. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees The mandate of UNHCR, based on its Statute, is to provide international protection to refugees who fall within the scope of the Statute and seek durable solutions for the […]

United Nations Development Programme

United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) United Nations Development Programme (in the Human Development Area) UNDP is the UN’s global development network – an organisation advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a […]

United Nations Volunteers

UNV – United Nations Volunteers Further Reading A concise encyclopedia of the United Nations (including United Nations Volunteers , H Volger, KA Annan -2010) The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (TG Weiss – 2007) International Law: A Dictionary (including United Nations Volunteers […]

World Intellectual Property Organization

Summary of World Intellectual Property Organization A specialized agency of the United Nations charged with fostering international agreements to protect rights to intellectual property, with the object of facilitating international technology transfer. WIPO serves as the nucleus for new […]

UN Convention against Corruption

UN Convention against Corruption

Title

United Nations Convention Against Corruption

About the Convention

The purposes of the Convention are to promote and strengthen measures to prevent and combat corruption […]

United Nations Population Fund

UNFPA – United Nations Population Fund Further Reading A concise encyclopedia of the United Nations (including United Nations Population Fund , H Volger, KA Annan -2010) The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (TG Weiss – 2007) International Law: A Dictionary (including United […]

International Maritime Organization

Summary of International Maritime Organization

A specialized agency of the United Nations concerned with maritime safety and protection of the marine environment. The IMO was created as the result of the United Nations Maritime Conference of 1948; the convention creating the IMO did not, […]

Immunity of the United Nations

The United Nations: Background Note The name "United Nations" was devised by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt and was first used in the "Declaration by United Nations" of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged […]

United Nations Treaty Series

UNTS – United Nations Treaty Series Further Reading A concise encyclopedia of the United Nations (including United Nations Treaty Series , H Volger, KA Annan -2010) The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (TG Weiss – 2007) International Law: A Dictionary (including United Nations […]

United Nations University

UNU – United Nations University Further Reading A concise encyclopedia of the United Nations (including United Nations University , H Volger, KA Annan -2010) The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations (TG Weiss – 2007) International Law: A Dictionary (including United Nations University […]

Un Commission on the Status of Women

United Nations Commission on the Status of Women in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): The United States participated in the 55th Session of the United Nations Commission on the Status of Women […]

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

Hello The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees The Introduction to Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, The (UNHCR), a subsidiary organ of the United Nations (UN) General Assembly, […]

North American Free Trade Agreement

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) On January 1, 1994 the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) established a single trade zone. North American Free Trade Agreement Resources There is a great deal of research material available on this subject. The difficulty is not in […]

United Nations Industrial Development Organization

Introduction to United Nations Industrial Development Organization United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), international agency established by the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) in 1966 to promote industrialization in developing nations. The organization offers […]

Un Immunities

Plaintiff's Arguments to Limit or Disregard the UN's Immunities Under the General Convention Lack Merit in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): There is no merit to Plaintiff's contention […]

Un General Assembly on Terrorism

United Nations General Assembly on Terrorism in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On November 18, 2011, Ambassador Susan E. Rice, U.S. Permanent Representative to the U.N., addressed the General […]

Un Reform

United Nations Reform in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): On April 6, 2011, Ambassador Susan E. Rice, U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations, addressed the State and Foreign Operations […]

United Nations Actions on Women, Peace, and Security

United Nations Actions on Women, Peace, and Security in 2011 United States views on international law (based on the document "Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law"): Several meetings and events at the United Nations in the fall of 2011 focused on the issue of women, peace, […]

United Nations Development Program

Introduction to United Nations Development Program United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), permanent arm of the United Nations General Assembly. The conference, established in December 1964, followed an earlier meeting in which 120 nations participated in discussions of […]

Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act

Summary of Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act

An act of Congress passed in 1976 and having effect from January 19, 1977, clarifying the circumstances under which foreign states, their political subdivisions, and state-owned corporations may lose sovereign immunity and become subject to the […]

United Nations Relief And Works Agency For Palestine Refugees In the Near East

Introduction to United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA), organization created in 1949 by the United Nations (UN) to serve the nutrition, health, and education needs of […]

United Nations Economic and Social Council (ecosoc)

United Nations Economic and Social Council (ecosoc) (in the Human Development Area) In this context, United Nations Economic and Social Council (ecosoc) means: of the United Nations constitutes one of the six (one is not active at the moment) principal organs of the United Nations and it is […]

United Nations High Commissioner For Human Rights

United Nations High Commissioner For Human Rights (OHCHR) As the 2005 OHCHR Plan of Action emphasizes, strengthening the rule of law has long been a principal focus of OHCHR. Based on international human rights, humanitarian and criminal law standards, a set of justice sector tools and […]

Amici Curiae in NAFTA Cases

Public attention to cases brought under NAFTA Chapter Eleven has grown commensurately with the increased numbers of those cases. While media coverage has increased, most of that attention stems from particular interest groups. Many of these groups are not satisfied with newspaper reports or government-supplied information available on the internet, but wish to participate more directly in the cases as amici curiae. These petitioners have brought to the fore the question of whether amici should be permitted to participate in NAFTA Chapter Eleven cases. Answering this question in the affirmative raises various corollary questions, including what rules or procedures should govern amicus participation and what effect, if any, amicus participation should have on confidentiality in arbitration.