Restatements of the Laws

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See Codifications, studies and other ALI projects and American Law Institute Bibliography

The American Law Institute (made up of 4000 lawyers, judges, and law professors of the highest qualifications) drafts, discusses, revises, and publishes Restatements of the Law, model statutes, and principles of law that are enormously influential in the courts and legislatures, as well as in legal scholarship and Education .

By participating in the Institute’s work, its distinguished members have the opportunity to influence the development of the law in both existing and emerging areas, to work with other eminent lawyers, judges, and academics, to give back to a profession to which they are deeply dedicated, and to contribute to the public good.

The Institute’s mission, as set out in its charter, is to “to promote the clarification and simplification of the law and its better adaptation to social needs, to secure the better administration of justice, and to encourage and carry on scholarly and scientific legal work.”


Restatements Projects

The founding Committee had recommended that the first undertaking of the Institute should address uncertainty in the law through a restatement of basic Legal subjects that would tell judges and lawyers what the law was. The formulation of such a restatement thus became ALI’s first endeavor.

Between 1923 and 1944, Restatements of the Law were developed for Agency, Conflict of Laws, Contracts, Judgments, Property, Restitution, Security, Torts, and Trusts. In 1952, the Institute started the Restatement Second – works that covered subjects not included in the first Restatement, as well as new editions of the original Restatements that updated them and reflected new analyses and concepts.

A third series of Restatements was inaugurated in 1987; work on that series continues today. In addition to the initial subjects, the Restatements now include Foreign Relations Law of the United States, The Law Governing Lawyers, Suretyship and Guaranty, and Unfair Competition.

Restatements of the law include


Concise Restatements
•Concise Restatements

Conflict of Laws
•Conflict of Laws


Employment Law
•Employment Law

Foreign Relations Law of the United States
•Foreign Relations Law of the United States

International commercial arbitration
International commercial arbitration


Pocket Part Sets / Interim Citation Pamphlets
•Pocket Parts / Interim Citations

•Property (Landlord & Tenant)
•Property (Mortgages)
•Property (Servitudes)
•Property (Wills and Other Donative Transfers)

•Complete Restatement Sets

Restitution and Unjust Enrichment
•Restitution and Unjust Enrichment


Suretyship and Guaranty
•Suretyship and Guaranty

The Law Governing Lawyers
•The Law Governing Lawyers

•Torts: Apportionment of Liability
•Torts: Liability for Economic Harm
•Torts: Liability for Physical and Emotional Harm
•Torts: Products Liability


Unfair Competition
•Unfair Competition

Bibliograpy about Restatements of the Law

Abraham, What Is A Tort Claim? An Interpretation of Contemporary Tort Reform, 51 Md. L. Rev.
172 (1992).
American Law Institute, Interim Case Citations to the Restatements of the Law (updated
American Law Institute, Restatement in the Courts, Permanent Edition 19321944
Arnold, The Restatement of the Law of Trusts, 31 Colum. L. Rev. 800 (1931).
Banks and O’Connor, Restating the Restatement (Second), Section 402A-Design Defect, 72 Or.
L. Rev. 411 (1993).
Book Review (Casad), Restatement of the Law Second: Judgments 2d, 80 Mich. L. Rev. 664
Book Review (Klug), Restatement of the Law Third: Restatement of the Foreign Relations Law on
the United States, 12 Hastings Int’l & Comp. L. Rev. 761 (1989).
Boston, Apportionment of Harm in Tort Law: A Proposed Restatement, 21 U. Dayton L. Rev. 267
Braucher, Impromptu Remarks [re Restatement of the Law, Second, Conflict of Laws], 76 Harv.
L. Rev. 1718 (1963).
Braucher, Offer and Acceptance in the Second Restatement, 74 Yale L.J. 302 (1964).
Brousseau, A Reader’s Guide to the Proposed Change in the Preclusion Provisions of the
Restatement of Judgments, 11 Tulsa L.J. 305 (1976).
Bryne, Reevaluation of the Restatement as a Source of Law in Arizona, 15 Ariz L. Rev. 1021
Cantu, Reflections on Section 402A of the Restatement (Second) of Torts: A Mirror Crack’d, 25
Gonz. L. Rev. 205 (1989/1990).
Casner, Restatement (Second) of Property as an Instrument of Law Reform, 67 Iowa L. Rev. 87
Chessman, On Treaties and Custom: A Commentary on the Draft Restatement, 18 Int’l Law. 421
Clark, The American Law Institute’s Law of Real Covenant, 52 Yale L.J. 699 (1943).
Clark, More About the “Law”of Real Covenants and Its Restatement, 30 Cornell L.Q. 378 (1945).
Clark, A Note on Professor Rundell’s Comment, 53 Yale L.J. 327 (1944).
Clark, The Restatement of the Law of Contracts, 42 Yale L.J. 643 (1933).
Cohen, Product Design and Restatement (Second) of Torts, Section 402A, 61 Mass. L.Q. 103
Corbin, The Restatement of the Common law by The American Law Institute, 15 Iowa L. Rev. 19
Corbin, The Restatement of the Law of Contracts, 14 A.B.A. J. 602 (1928).
Corbin, SixtyEight
Years at Law, 13 Kan. L. Rev. 183 (1964).
Corbin, Some Problems in the Restatement of the Law of Contracts, 14 A.B.A. J. 652 (1928).
Davis, Product Liability Under Section 402A of the Restatement (Second) of Torts and the Model
Uniform Product Liability Act, 16 Wake Forest L. Rev. 513 (1980).
Dickerson, Products Liability: Dean Wade and the Constitutionality of Section 402A, 44 Tenn. L.
Rev. 205 (1977).
Ehrenzweig, The Second Conflicts Restatement: A Last Appeal for Its Withdrawal, 113 U. Pa. L.
Rev. 1230 (1965).
Fisher, Foreign Relations Law of the United States: A Preface, 41 N.Y.U.L. Rev. 2 (1966).
Freedman, The LifeSaving
Exception to Confidentiality: Restating Law Without the Was, the Will
Be, or the Ought To Be (Symposium: Executing the Wrong Person: The Professionals’ Ethical
Dilemmas), 29 Loy. L.A. L. Rev. 1631 (1996).
French, Design Proposal for the New Restatement of the Law of Property-Servitudes, 21 U.C.
Davis L. Rev. 1213 (1988).
French, Servitudes Reform and the New Restatement of Property: Creation Doctrines and
Structural Simplification, 73 Cornell L. Rev. 928 (1988).
French, Tradition and Innovation in the New Restatement of Servitudes: A Report from Midpoint,
27 Conn. L. Rev. 119 (1994).
Frey, Restating Law of Business Associations, 15 A.B.A. J. 503 (1929).
Goodrich, Conflict of Laws and Its Restatement, 14 A.B.A. J. 307 (Part I) & 14 A.B.A. J. 395 (Part
II) (1928).
Goodrich, Conflict of Laws Since the Restatement, 23 A.B.A. J. 119 (1937).
Goodrich, The Restatements Locally Annotated, 14 A.B.A. J. 538 (1928).
Green, Strict Liability Under Sections 402A and 402B: Decade of Litigation, 54 Texas L. Rev.
1185; 11 Int’l Soc’y Barristers Q. 299 (1976).
Green, The Torts Restatement, 29 Ill. L. Rev. 582 (1933).
Halbach, Trust Investment Law in the Third Restatement, 77 Iowa L. Rev. 1151 (1992).
Havighurst, The Restatement of the Law of Contracts, 27 Ill. L. Rev. 910 (1933).
Helms, The Restatements: Existing Law or Prophecy, 56 A.B.A. J. 152 (1970).
Henderson, Restatement Third, Torts: Products Liability: What Hath the ALI Wrought? 64 Def.
Couns. J. 501 (1997).
Henderson and Twerski, A Proposed Revision of Section 402A of the Restatement (Second) of
Torts, 77 Cornell L. Rev. 1512 (1992).
Henderson and Twerski, Stargazing: The Future of American Products Liability Law, 66 N.Y.U. L.
Rev. 1332 (1991).
Henderson and Twerski, Will a New Restatement Help Settle Troubled Waters?: Reflections, 42
Am. U. L. Rev. 1257 (1993).
Henkin, Restatement of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States (Revised), 74 Am. J. Int’l
L. 954 (1980).
Hershberger, Fiduciary Investing in the 90’s-Restatement Third of Trusts: Panacea or Placebo?,
27 Inst. on Est. Plan. 5 (1993).
Houck, Restatement of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States (Revised): Issues and
Resolutions, 20 Int’l Law. 1361 (1986).
Jacobs, Legal Realism or Legal Fiction? Impracticability Under the Restatement (Second) of
Contracts, 87 Com. L.J. 289 (1982).
Kelly, The Codification of Contract Law in the Twentieth Century, 88 Dick. L. Rev. 289 (1984).
Keyes, The Restatement (Second): Its Misleading Quality and a Proposal for Its Amelioration, 13
Pepp. L. Rev. 23 (1985).
King and Neville, The Bystander’s Right Under Strict Liability Does Exist: A Call for Reform of the
Restatement, 25 St. Louis U.L.J. 543 (1981).
Klau, What Price Certainty? Corbin, Williston, and the Restatement of Contracts, 70 B.U. L. Rev.
511 (1990).
Lawrence, Cure After Breach of Contract Under the Restatement (Second) of Contracts: An
Analytical Comparison with the Uniform Commercial Code, 70 Minn. L. Rev. 713 (1986).
Leach, The Restatements as They Were in the Beginning, Are Now, and Perhaps Henceforth Shall
Be, 23 A.B.A. J. 517 (1937).
Lorenzen and Heilman, The Restatement of the Conflict of Laws, 83 U. Pa. L. Rev. 555 (1935).
Lundmark, The Restatement of Torts (Third) and the European Product Liability Directive, 5 J.
Int’l L. & Prac. 239 (1996).
Madden, Recent Federal and American Law Institute Products Liability Reform Initiatives, 29 Tort
& Ins. L.J. 569 (1994).
Martyn, Judicial Reliance on the Restatement (3d) of the Law Governing Lawyers, 6 Prof. Law. 8
Massey, How the American Law Institute Influences Customary Law: The Reasonableness
Requirement of the Restatement of Foreign Relations Law, 22 Yale J. Int’l L. 419 (1997).
McClintock, Beale on the Conflict of Laws, 84 U. Pa. L. Rev. 309 (1936).
Meyers, The Covenant of Habitability and The American Law Institute, 27 Stan. L. Rev. 879
Morrison, I Imply What You Infer Unless You Are a Court: Reporter’s Note to Restatement
(Second) of Contracts § 19 (1980), 35 Okla. L. Rev. 707 (1982).
Milner, Restatement: The Failure of a Legal Experiment, 20 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 795 (1959).
Oliver, The American Law Institute’s Draft Restatement of the Foreign Relations Law of the
United States, 55 Am. J. Int’l L. 428 (1961).
Panel: The Draft Restatement of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States (Revised), 76
Am. Soc. Int’l Law Proceedings 184 (1982).
Patterson, The Citadel Reburied-Restatement of the Law Third Torts: Products Liability, 63 Def.
Couns. J. 191 (1996).
Patterson, The Restatement of the Law: Restitution, 47 Yale L.J. 1420 (1938).
Pearson, Thoughts for a Restatement of the Law of Products Liability, 4 Prod. Liab. L.J. 61
Pepper, The American Law Institute Restatements and Pennsylvania Annotations , 2 Pa. B. Ass’n
Q. 25 (1930).
Phillips, Chasing Down the Devil: Standards of Prudent Investment Under the Restatement
(Third) of Trusts, 54 Wash. & Lee L. Rev. 335 (1997).
Powell, The Restatement of the Law of Property, 16 A.B.A. J. 197 (1930).
William L. Prosser, et al., Cases and Materials on Torts (6th ed. 1976).
Rapson, History and Background of the Restatement of Suretyship, 34 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 989
Reese, Conflict of Laws and the Restatement Second, 28 Law & Contemp. Prob. 679 (1963).
Reese, Contracts and the Restatement of Conflict of Laws, Second, 9 Int’l & Comp. L.Q. 531
Root, The Origin of the Restatement of the Law, 3 Okl. St. B.J. 308 (1932).
Rundell, Judge Clark on The American Law Institute’s Law of Real Covenants: A Comment, 53
Yale L.J. 312 (1944).
Rutherford, Changes in the Landscape of Products Liability Law: An Analysis of the Restatement
(Third) of Torts, 63 J. Air L. & Com. 209 (1997).
Schwartz, The Death of “Super Strict Liability”: Common Sense Returns to Tort Law, 27 Gonz. L.
Rev. 179 (19911992).
Scott, Reception by the Courts of the Restatement of Trusts, 23 A.B.A. J. 443 (1937).
Scott, The Restatement of the Law of Trusts, 16 A.B.A. J. 496 (1930).
Seavey, Agency: Highlights and Sidelights, 2 Prac. Law., May 1956, at 15.
Seidelson, Interest Analysis or the Restatement Second of Conflicts: Which Is the Preferable
Approach to Resolving ChoiceofLaw
Problems?, 27 Duq. L. Rev. 73 (1988).
Shaman, The Vicissitudes of Choice of Law: The Restatement (First, Second) and Interest
Analysis, 45 Buff. L. Rev. 329 (1997).
Shapo, In Search of the Law of Products Liability: The ALI Restatement Project, 48 Vand. L. Rev.
631 (1995).
Sims, Restatement of Law by The American Law Institute, 3 Ala. Law. 383 (1942).
Special Products Liability Issue Dedicated to Roger J. Traynor and Celebrating the Tenth
Anniversary of § 402A of the Restatement (Second) of Torts, 2 Hofstra L. Rev. (No. 2, Summer
Special Review Essays: The Restatement (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law on the United
States, 14 Yale J. Int’l L. 433 (1989).
Sweeney, The Restatement of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States and the
Responsibility of States for Injuries to Aliens, 16 Syracuse L. Rev. 762 (1965).
Swisher, Products Liability Tort Reform: Why Virginia Should Adopt the HendersonTwerski
Proposed Revision of Section 402A, Restatement (Second) of Torts, 27 U. Rich. L. Rev. 857
Symposium: Commentaries on the Restatement of the Foreign Relations Law of the United
States, 22 Int’l Law. 1 (1988).
Symposium: Conflict of Laws Round Table, 57 Iowa L. Rev. 1219 (1972).
Symposium: The Evolving Restatement of the Law Governing Lawyers, 46 Okla. L. Rev. 1
Symposium: Gallivan Conference [on the Restatement of Servitudes], 27 Conn. L. Rev. 119
Symposium: In Honor of Dean John W. Wade: Current Developments in the Law of Torts, 33
Vand. L. Rev. 549 (1980).
Symposium: Products Liability, 30 U. Mich. J.L. Ref. 197 (1997).
Symposium: Proposed Restatement (Third) of Torts: Products Liability, 21 Wm. Mitchell L. Rev.
361 (1995).
Symposium: The Restatement of Foreign Relations Law of the United States (Revised), 25 Va. J.
Int’l L. 1 (1984).
Symposium: The Restatement (Second) of Contracts, 81 Colum. L. Rev. 1 (1981).
Symposium: The Restatement (Second) of Contracts, 67 Cornell L. Rev. 631 (1982).
Symposium: The Restatement (Second) of Judgments, 66 Cornell L. Rev. 401 (1981).
Symposium: The Restatement of Suretyship, 34 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 985 (1993).
Symposium: Restatement (Third) of Unfair Competition, 47 S.C. L. Rev. 629 (1996).
Symposium: The Revised Restatement [of Foreign Relations Law], 19 Int’l Law. 431 (1985).
Symposium: The Revision of Section 402A of the Restatement (Second) of Torts: Occasion for
Reform of Product Liability Law?, 10 Touro L. Rev. 1 (1993).
Symposium: Surety or Security? The New Restatement of Suretyship, 34 Wm. & Mary L. Rev.
985 (1993).
Symposium: A Symposium on the ALI’s Proposed Restatement (Third) of Torts: Products
Liability, 61 Tenn L. Rev. 1043 (1994).
Twerski, From a Reporter’s Perspective: A Proposed Agenda, 10 Touro L. Rev. 5 (1993).
Twerski, Inside the Restatement, 24 Pepperdine L. Rev. 839 (1997).
Twerski, National Product Liability Legislation: In Search for the Best of All Possible Worlds, 18
Idaho L. Rev. 411 (1982).
Vargo, The Emperor’s New Clothes: The American Law Institute Adorns a “New Cloth”for Section
402A Products Liability Design DefectsA
Survey of the States Reveals a Different Weave, 26 U.
Mem. L. Rev. 493 (1996).
Vestal, Preclusion/Res Judicata Variables: Nature of the Controversy, 1965 Wash. U.L.Q. 158
Wade, Is Section 402A of the Second Restatement of Torts Preempted by the UCC and Therefore
Unconstitutional?, 42 Tenn. L. Rev. 123 (1974).
Wade, The Restatement (Second): A Tribute to Its Increasingly Advantageous Quality, and an
Encouragement to Continue the Trend, 13 Pepp. L. Rev. 59 (1985).
Wade, Second Restatement of Torts Completed, 65 A.B.A. J. 366 (1979).
Wechsler, The Course of the Restatements, 55 A.B.A. J. 147 (1969).
Wechsler, Restatements and Legal Change: Problems of Policy in the Restatement Work of The
American Law Institute, 13 St. Loius U. L.J. 185 (1968).
Williston, The Law of Contracts Since the Restatement, 23 A.B.A. J. 172 (1937).
Williston, The Restatement of Contracts, 9 Temp. L.Q. 292 (1935).
Winchester, Section 8(c) of the Proposed Restatement (Third) of Torts: Is It Really What the
Doctor Ordered? 82 Cornell L. Rev. 644 (1997).
Wolfram, The Concept of a Restatement of the Law Governing Lawyers, 1 Geo. J. Legal Ethics
195 (1987).
Worthington and Timmins, Empirical Effects of Restatement (Second) and Other Versions of
Modern Product Liability Doctrine, 15 J. Prod. & Toxics Liab. 315 (1993).
Wunsch, The Definition of a Product for the Purposes of Section 402A, 50 Ins. Couns. J. 344



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American Legal Institute General Bibliography, Annotations, Codification, Codifications, studies and other ALI projects, Common law, Education, International commercial arbitration, Legal subjects, Treaties.

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