Public Health

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Public Health

Introduction to Public Health

Public Health, protection and improvement of the health of entire populations through community-wide action, primarily by governmental agencies. The goals of public health are to prevent human disease, injury, and disability; protect people from environmental health hazards; promote behaviors that lead to good physical and mental health; educate the public about health; and assure availability of high-quality health services.

Public health systems vary in different parts of the world, depending upon the prevalent health problems. In the developing world, where sanitation problems and limited medical resources persist, infectious diseases are the most significant threat to public health. Public health officials devote resources to establish sanitation systems and immunization programs to curb the spread of infectious diseases, and provide routine medical care to rural and isolated populations. In industrialized nations, sanitary food and water supplies and excellent medical resources have reduced rates of infectious disease. Instead, accidents and diseases such as lung cancer, heart attacks, and strokes are among the leading causes of death. In these areas, public health goals include education programs to teach people how to prevent accidents and lessen their risk for disease, and the maintenance of the excellent disease prevention systems already established.

Public health workers may engage in activities outside the scope of ordinary medical practice. These include inspecting and licensing restaurants; conducting rodent and insect control programs; and checking the safety of housing, water, and food supplies. In assuring overall community health, public health officials also act as advocates for laws and regulations-such as drug licensing or product labeling requirements. Some public health officials are epidemiologists, who use sophisticated computer and mathematical models to track the incidence of communicable diseases and to identify new diseases and health trends. Others conduct state-of-the-art medical research to find new prevention and treatment methods.

Most people think of public health workers as physicians and nurses, but a wide variety of other professionals work in public health, including veterinarians, sanitary engineers, microbiologists, laboratory technicians, statisticians, economists, administrators, attorneys, industrial safety and hygiene specialists, psychologists, sociologists, and educators.” (1)

Nuisance, Public Health, Disease

From the book The Clergyman’s Hand-book of Law, about Nuisance, Public Health, Disease (1): A cemetery is not a nuisance per se, but if it is proved that the burial of dead bodies in a certain cemetery does injure the public health and is a fruitful source of transmission of disease, the State may prohibit such burial at certain places within cities or adjacent to dwellings. But unless authorized by the Legislature a council has no right by ordinance to provide that no one shall be buried within half a mile of any habitation or public thoroughfare (Wygant v. McLaughlin, 39 Or., 429; 64 Pac., 867; 54 L. R. A., 636; 53 Cen. L. J., 48). And where the Legislature authorized a city to remove the bodies interred and allow streets through the land, it had authority to do so (Trustees v. Manning, 72 Md., 116; 19 At., 599; Close v. Glenwood, 107 U. S., 466; 2 Sup. Ct. R., 267; 27 L. Ed., 408; Matter of Bd. of Street Opening, 133 N. Y., 329; 31 N. E., 102; 28 Am. St. R., 640; 16 L. R. A., 180).

Public Health (in the Human Development Area)

In this context, Public Health means:

is a social and political concept aimed at the improving health, prolonging life and improving the quality of life among whole populations through health promotion, disease prevention through the organized efforts of society.

Public Health

This section provides an overview of public health within the legal context of Recognised Policies Protecting Domestic Policy Space in international economic law, with coverage of Protecting Domestic Policy Space (Principles).

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See Also

  • Social Protection
  • Social Security
  • Employment Affairs
  • Welfare State
  • Health

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Further Reading

  • Lawrence O Gostin, “Public Health,” Elgar Encyclopedia of International Economic Law, Cheltenham Glos (United Kingdom), Northampton, MA (United States)

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Notes and References

  1. Charles M. Scanlan, The Clergyman’s Hand-book of Law. The Law of Church and Grave (1909), Benziger Brothers, New York, Cincinnati, Chicago

See Also

  • Religion
  • Church

Resources

Notes and References

Guide to Public Health

Public Health Public Health Programs Rural and Urban Health Clinics

Introduction to Public Health

Public health agencies operate local clinics that provide free or reduced-cost medical services to individuals, especially infants and children, pregnant and nursing women, migrant farm workers, and people with drug abuse problems, physical disabilities, and other conditions. These clinics provide prenatal and pediatric care for children who have no regular access to medical care. The clinics may provide visiting nurse and other home health care services for the elderly. Public health clinics may also offer rehabilitation programs for people addicted to drugs or alcohol.

In developing countries and in rural and low-income communities in industrialized nations, public health clinics may be the only source of routine medical care. Members of the community go to clinics for regular exams or for treatment when they are injured or ill, as well as for immunizations and other public health services. Clinics may provide free or low-cost medications, such as antibiotics or birth control pills. Often, community members may obtain counseling on health matters, such as proper infant nutrition, safe food handling procedures, or family planning advice.

Public health clinics routinely screen patients for a number of infectious diseases, such as sexually transmitted infections, and may provide free treatment if patients test positive. Each clinic tracks the incidence of certain communicable diseases in its area, and reports this information to national and international public health offices. Public health clinics may also track down past sexual partners of STI patients, inform them that they may have been infected with an STI, and urge them to come in to a clinic to be tested. ” (1)

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Notes and References

Guide to Public Health

Public health and the Treaties of the European Union

Description of Public health provided by the European Union Commission: Public health is covered by Article 152 of the EC Treaty (former Article 129), which was introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht. This article states that Community action is to focus on the prevention of illnesses, including drug addiction, by promoting research into their causes and their transmission, as well as health information and education. The Treaty of Amsterdam reinforces these objectives by requiring that the definition and implementation of all Community policies and activities ensures a high level of human health protection. Under Article 152 action towards these ends may involve Community measures, complementing action by the Member States. But the main approach should be to encourage cooperation between the Member States, in line with the subsidiarity principle. The institutional arrangements are that the Council adopts incentive actions on the basis of the codecision procedure, while recommendations are adopted by qualified majority on a Commission proposal. The Treaty of Amsterdam extends the scope of actions covered by the codecisionprocedure to include measures setting high standards of quality and safety of organs and substances of human origin, as well as measures in the veterinary and phytosanitary fields.

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See Also

Popular Treaties Topics

  • Treaties of the United Nations (UN)
  • Types of Treaties
  • International Treaties
  • Famous Treaties
  • Law of Treaties
  • Numbered Treaties

Public health and the Treaties of the European Union

Description of Public health provided by the European Union Commission: Public health is covered by Article 152 of the EC Treaty (former Article 129), which was introduced by the Treaty of Maastricht. This article states that Community action is to focus on the prevention of illnesses, including drug addiction, by promoting research into their causes and their transmission, as well as health information and education. The Treaty of Amsterdam reinforces these objectives by requiring that the definition and implementation of all Community policies and activities ensures a high level of human health protection. Under Article 152 action towards these ends may involve Community measures, complementing action by the Member States. But the main approach should be to encourage cooperation between the Member States, in line with the subsidiarity principle. The institutional arrangements are that the Council adopts incentive actions on the basis of the codecision procedure, while recommendations are adopted by qualified majority on a Commission proposal. The Treaty of Amsterdam extends the scope of actions covered by the codecisionprocedure to include measures setting high standards of quality and safety of organs and substances of human origin, as well as measures in the veterinary and phytosanitary fields.

Resources

See Also

Popular Treaties Topics

  • Treaties of the United Nations (UN)
  • Types of Treaties
  • International Treaties
  • Famous Treaties
  • Law of Treaties
  • Numbered Treaties

Hierarchical Display of Public health

Social Questions > Health > Health policy > Organisation of health care
Trade > Consumption > Consumer > Consumer protection
Employment And Working Conditions > Organisation of work and working conditions > Working conditions > Occupational safety > Occupational health
Social Questions > Health > Health policy > Organisation of health care > Public health > Health control > EU reference laboratory

Public health

Concept of Public health

See the dictionary definition of Public health.

Characteristics of Public health

Resources

Translation of Public health

Thesaurus of Public health

Social Questions > Health > Health policy > Organisation of health care > Public health
Trade > Consumption > Consumer > Consumer protection > Public health
Employment And Working Conditions > Organisation of work and working conditions > Working conditions > Occupational safety > Occupational health > Public health
Social Questions > Health > Health policy > Organisation of health care > Public health > Health control > EU reference laboratory > Public health

See also

  • Health of the population

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