Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

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Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

Agreement With Russia For Cooperation on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy in 2011

United States views on international law (based on the document “Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law”): The bilateral agreements for cooperation on peaceful uses of nuclear energy that the United States negotiates are frequently referred to as “123 agreements” because the United States enters into them pursuant to § 123 of the Atomic Energy Act, 42 U.S.C. § 2153.

On January 12, 2011, the governments of the United States and Russia exchanged diplomatic notes bringing into force the Agreement between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of the Russian Federation for Cooperation in the Field of Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy, referred to as the U.S.-Russia 123 Agreement. A State Department fact sheet issued that day identified the following benefits of the agreement to the United States: “a solid foundation for long-term U.S.-Russia civil nuclear cooperation; commercial opportunities for U.S. industry; and enhanced cooperation on important global nonproliferation goals.” The agreement is discussed in World Encyclopedia of Law 2010 at 796-98. Excerpts from the January 12 fact sheet below describe nonproliferation and commercial goals advanced by the entry into force of the U.S.-Russia 123 Agreement. The full text of the fact sheet is available at (internet link)


Nuclear Nonproliferation Cooperation: The 123 Agreement will create the conditions for improved cooperation on joint technology development to support arms control and nonproliferation activities. It will also provide the necessary legal framework for joint efforts to convert research reactors from highly-enriched uranium to low enriched uranium fuel. The 123 Agreement will aid cooperation on forensic analysis, allowing us to better identify nuclear material and prevent it from getting into the hands of terrorists, and it will set the stage for expanded joint technical cooperation on next generation international safeguards.

Civil Nuclear Energy Cooperation: The 123 Agreement will facilitate cooperative work on reactor designs that result in reduced proliferation risk. It will create the conditions for advanced research and development projects that partner U.S. national laboratories and industry with Russian partners to explore new areas for collaboration, including fuel fabrication, innovative fuel types, and advanced reactor design.

Commercial Opportunities: The 123 Agreement will support commercial interests by allowing U.S. and Russian firms to team up more easily in joint ventures and by permitting U.S. sales of nuclear material and equipment to Russia. This will put the United States and Russia's nuclear relationship on a stronger commercial footing. Russian and U.S. firms will be able to develop advanced nuclear reactors, fuel-cycle approaches, and cutting-edge technology that are safe, secure, and reliable.

Civil Nuclear Energy Cooperation Action Plan: The 123 Agreement will allow long-term civil nuclear cooperation to proceed under the U.S.-Russian Presidential Commission Working Group on Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Security, specifically activities in the Civil Nuclear Energy Cooperation Action Plan which relate to reactor design, innovative nuclear energy technology options, and developing the global civil nuclear energy framework.

Agreement With Russia For Cooperation on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy

In relation to the international law practice and Agreement With Russia For Cooperation on Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy in this world legal Encyclopedia, please see the following section:

Use of Force, Arms Control, Disarmament, Nonproliferation

About this subject:

Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and Disarmament

Under this topic, in the Encyclopedia, find out information on:

  • Nuclear Nonproliferation
  • Country-specific issues

. Note: there is detailed information and resources, in relation with these topics during the year 2011, covered by the entry, in this law Encyclopedia, about Agreement with Russia for cooperation on peaceful uses of nuclear energy


See Also

  • Use Of Force
  • Arms Control
  • Disarmament
  • Nonproliferation
  • Nuclear Nonproliferation

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