List of Pre Earth Charter Treaties

List of Pre Earth Charter International Instruments

Note: for a list of Post Earth Charter International Instruments, see here.

The Geneva Gas Protocol 1925
Slavery Convention 1926
C029 – Forced Labour Convention (No. 29) 1930
Charter of the United Nations 1945
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948
C087 – Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise Convention (No. 87) 1948
Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining Convention (No. 98) 1949
C100 – Equal Remuneration Convention (No. 100) 1951
Convention relating to the Status of Refugees 1951
Convención sobre Derechos Políticos de la Mujer 1953
Convention against Discrimination in Education 1960
C122 – Employment Policy Convention (No. 122) 1964
International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination 1965
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966
Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies 1967
The treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons 1968
Proclamation of Teheran 1968
Declaration on Social Progress and Development 1969
Treaty on the Prohibition of the Emplacement of Nuclear Weapons and Other Weapons of Mass Destruction on the Seabed and Ocean Floor and in the Subsoil Thereof (Seabed Treaty) 1971
Convention on Wetlands of International Importance Especially as Waterfowl Habitat 1971
Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage 1972
Stockholm Declaration on the Human Environment 1972
The Biological Weapons Convention 1972
CITES 1973
C138 – Minimum Age Convention (No. 138) 1973
Universal Declaration on the Eradication of Hunger and Malnutrition 1974
Declaration on the Use of Scientific and Technological Progress in the Interests of Peace and for the Benefit of Mankind 1975
Convention on the Prohibition of Military or Any Other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques 1976
Universal Declaration of Animal Rights (UNESCO and UN)
The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals 1979
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 1979
World Charter for Nature 1982
Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982
The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment 1984
Declaration on the Right of Peoples to Peace
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer 1985
Declaration on the Right to Development 1986
Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal 1989
C169 – Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention (No. 169) 1989
International Convention against the Recruitment, Use, Financing and Training of Mercenaries 1989
International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families 1990
Rio Declaration on Environment and Development 1992
UN Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992
Convention on Biological Diversity 1992
The Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable Development 1992
Vienna Declaration of Human Rights 1993
Chemical Weapons Convention 1993
United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in Countries Experiencing Serious Drought and/or Desertification, Particularly in Africa 1994
Beijing Declaration on Women 1995
Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development 1995
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty 1996
Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights 1997
Declaration on the Responsibilities of the Present Generations Towards Future Generations 1997
Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for certain hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in international trade 1998
Declaration on the Right and Responsibility of Individuals, Groups and Organs of Society to Promote and Protect Universally Recognized Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 1999

Notes on the List

Regarding methodology and scope it is important to make the following clarifications:

  • Global international legal instruments were included in addition to European Union and European Council legal instruments.
  • Hard law instruments were included (covenants, conventions, protocols) as well as soft law instruments (declarations and similar). Nevertheless, only the normative part (articles) of these instruments was included, meaning that preambles were excluded.
  • Regarding the European Union instruments, Treaties were prioritized, followed by directives and regulations of secondary sources. Other instruments were included such as preparatory acts and international agreements of the European Union.
  • Instruments that are commonly used in environmental law and sustainable development studies were revised, as well as instruments of other specific fields (human rights, anticorruption, and labor, for example), which are present in the Earth Charter principles.
  • It is worth mentioning that the inclusion of particular covenants or instruments does not necessarily imply that the whole instrument is in agreement with the Earth Charter vision but that there is a connection with certain themes or specific approaches. In this respect, coincidences are presented between extracts of specific international instruments and the Earth Charter principles and sub principles. Additionally, not only exact coincidences were analyzed in this research, but linkages between Earth Charter principles with similar or related ideas, which could be derivation, consequence, or application of the principles.


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