International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family

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International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family

Bibliographic Details

Publisher: Macmillan Reference USA
Copyright: 2002 (2nd edition (November 27, 2002)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0028656725
ISBN-13: 978-0028656724
Pages: 2000

Table of Contents

  • Abortion
  • Abstinence
  • Academic Achievement
  • Acculturation
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  • Adolescent Parenthood
  • Adoption
  • Adulthood
  • Affection
  • Afghanistan
  • African-American Families
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
  • American Indian Families
  • Anabaptists (Amish, Mennonite)
  • Ancestor Worship
  • Annulment
  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Argentina
  • Asian-American Families
  • Assisted Reproductive Technologies
  • Attachment: Couple Relationships
  • Attachment: Parent-Child Relationships
  • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Attraction
  • Attribution in Relationships
  • Aunt
  • Australia
  • Austria
  • Basque Families
  • Bedouin-Arab Families
  • Birth Control: Contraceptive Methods
  • Birth Control: Sociocultural and Historical Aspects
  • Birth Order
  • Boundary Ambiguity
  • Boundary Dissolution
  • Brazil
  • Bride-Price
  • Buddhism
  • Bundling
  • Canada
  • Canada First Nations Families
  • Caregiving: Formal
  • Caregiving: Informal)
  • Caribbean Families
  • Catholicism
  • Child Abuse: Physical Abuse and Neglect
  • Child Abuse: Psychological Maltreatment
  • Child Abuse: Sexual Abuse
  • Child Custody
  • Childcare
  • Childhood
  • Childhood, Stages of: Adolescence
  • Childhood, Stages of: Infancy
  • Childhood, Stages of: Middle Childhood
  • Childhood, Stages of: Preschool
  • Childhood, Stages of: Toddlerhood
  • Childlessness
  • Children of Alcoholics
  • Children’s Rights
  • China
  • Chronic Illness
  • Circumcision
  • Clan
  • Codependency
  • Cohabitation
  • Colic
  • Communication: Couple Relationships
  • Communication: Family Relationships
  • Commuter Marriages
  • Comparative Analysis
  • Computers and Family
  • Conduct Disorder
  • Conflict: Couple Relationships
  • Conflict: Family Relationships
  • Conflict: Parent-Child Relationships
  • Confucianism
  • Coparenting
  • Cousins
  • Czech Republic
  • Dating
  • Death and Dying
  • Decision Making
  • Dementia
  • Depression: Adults
  • Depression: Children and Adolescents
  • Development: Cognitive
  • Development: Emotional
  • Development: Moral
  • Development: Self
  • Developmental Disabilities
  • Developmental Psychopathology
  • Dialectical Theory
  • Disabilities
  • Discipline
  • Division of Labor
  • Divorce Mediation
  • Divorce: Effects on Children
  • Divorce: Effects on Couple
  • Divorce: Effects on Parents
  • Dowry
  • Dual-Earner Families
  • Eating Disorders
  • Egypt
  • Elder Abuse
  • Elders
  • Equity
  • Ethnic Variation/Ethnicity
  • Euthanasia
  • Evangelical Christianity
  • Extended Families
  • Failure to Thrive
  • Familism
  • Family and Relational Rules
  • Family Assessment
  • Family Business
  • Family Development Theory
  • Family Diagnosis/DSM-IV
  • Family Diagrammatic Assessment: Ecomap
  • Family Diagrammatic Assessment: Genogram
  • Family Folklore
  • Family Law
  • Family Life Education
  • Family Literacy
  • Family Loyalty
  • Family Ministry
  • Family Planning
  • Family Policy
  • Family Rituals
  • Family Roles
  • Family Science
  • Family Stories and Myths
  • Family Strengths
  • Family Systems Theory
  • Family Theory
  • Family Values
  • Family, Definition of
  • Family, History of
  • Fatherhood
  • Favoritism/Differential Treatment
  • Fertility
  • Fictive Kinship
  • Filial Responsibility
  • Food
  • Forgiveness
  • Foster Parenting
  • France
  • French Canadian Families
  • Friendship
  • Gangs
  • Gay Parents
  • Gender
  • Gender Identity
  • Genealogy
  • Genetic Counseling
  • Germany
  • Ghana
  • Gifted and Talented Children
  • Global Citizenship
  • Godparents
  • Grandparenthood
  • Grandparents’ Rights
  • Great Britain
  • Greece
  • Greenland
  • Grief, Loss, and Bereavement
  • Guardianship
  • Health and Families
  • Hinduism
  • Hispanic-American Families
  • Home
  • Home Economics
  • Homeless Families
  • Homeschooling
  • Honeymoon
  • Hospice
  • Housework
  • Housing
  • Human Ecology Theory
  • Hungary
  • Husband
  • Hutterite Families
  • Immigration
  • Incest
  • Incest/Inbreeding Taboos
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Industrialization
  • Infanticide
  • Infidelity
  • In-Law Relationships
  • Intentional Communities
  • Interfaith Marriage
  • Intergenerational Programming
  • Intergenerational Relations
  • Intergenerational Transmission
  • Interparental Conflict — Effects on Children
  • Interparental Violence — Effects on Children
  • Interracial Marriage
  • Intimacy
  • Iran
  • Ireland
  • Islam
  • Israel
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Jealousy
  • Judaism
  • Juvenile Delinquency
  • Kenya
  • Kinship
  • Korea
  • Kurdish Families
  • Kyrgyzstan
  • Later Life Families
  • Latin America
  • Latvia
  • Learning Disorders
  • Leisure
  • Lesbian Parents
  • Life Course Theory
  • Love
  • Malaysia
  • Marital Quality
  • Marital Sex
  • Marital Typologies
  • Marriage Ceremonies
  • Marriage Enrichment
  • Marriage Preparation
  • Marriage Squeeze
  • Marriage, Definition of
  • Mate Selection
  • Menarche
  • Menopause
  • Menstrual Taboo
  • Mexico
  • Migration
  • Missing Children
  • Mormonism
  • Motherhood
  • Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy
  • Nagging and Complaining
  • Names for Children
  • Neighborhood
  • New Zealand
  • Nigeria
  • Nonmarital Childbearing
  • Nuclear Families
  • Only Children
  • Oppositionality
  • Orphans
  • Parenting Education
  • Parenting Styles
  • Peer Influence
  • Peru
  • Phenomenology
  • Philippines, The
  • Play
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Postpartum Depression
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Poverty
  • Power: Family Relationships
  • Power: Marital Relationships
  • Pregnancy and Birth
  • Premarital Agreements
  • Primogeniture
  • Problem Solving
  • Protestantism
  • Rape
  • Relationship Dissolution
  • Relationship Initiation
  • Relationship Maintenance
  • Relationship Metaphors
  • Relationship Theories — Self-Other Relationship
  • Religion
  • Remarriage
  • Renewal of Wedding Vows
  • Research: Family Measurement
  • Research: Methodology
  • Resource Management
  • Respite Care: Adult
  • Respite Care: Child
  • Retirement
  • Rich/Wealthy Families
  • Rites of Passage
  • Role Theory
  • Romania
  • Runaway Youths
  • Rural Families
  • Russia
  • Sandwich Generation
  • Scandinavia
  • Schizophrenia
  • School
  • School Phobia and School Refusal
  • Self-Disclosure
  • Self-Esteem
  • Senegal
  • Separation Anxiety
  • Separation-Individuation
  • Sexual Communication: Couple Relationships
  • Sexual Communication: Parent-Child Relationships
  • Sexual Dysfunction
  • Sexual Orientation
  • Sexuality
  • Sexuality Education
  • Sexuality in Adolescence
  • Sexuality in Adulthood
  • Sexuality in Childhood
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Shyness
  • Sibling Relationships
  • Sikhism
  • Single-Parent Families
  • Singles/Never Married Persons
  • Slovakia
  • Social Exchange Theory
  • Social Networks
  • Socialization
  • Socioeconomic Status
  • South Africa
  • Spain
  • Spanking
  • Spouse Abuse: Prevalence
  • Spouse Abuse: Theoretical Explanations
  • Stepfamilies
  • Stress
  • Structural-Functional Theory
  • Substance Abuse
  • Substitute Caregivers
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
  • Suicide
  • Surrogacy
  • Switzerland
  • Symbolic Interactionism
  • Television and Family
  • Temperament
  • Therapy: Couple Relationships
  • Therapy: Family Relationships
  • Therapy: Parent-Child Relationships
  • Time Use
  • Togo
  • Transition to Parenthood
  • Triangulation
  • Trust
  • Turkey
  • Uncle
  • Unemployment
  • United States
  • Urbanization
  • Venezuela
  • Vietnam
  • War/Political Violence
  • Wedding Ring
  • Widowhood
  • Wife
  • Women’s Movements
  • Work and Family
  • Yoruba Families
  • Zambia

Review

Reviewed by Steven Mintz (Department of History, University of Houston)
Published on H-Women (May, 2003)

The State of Social Science Research on the Family

The State of Social Science Research on the Family

Twice the length of Macmillan’s 1995 Encyclopedia of Marriage and the Family and much more ambitious, the International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family contains nearly four hundred entries that place such topics as adolescent parenthood, child abuse and neglect, cohabitation, gay and lesbian parenting, and widowhood in cross-cultural perspective. In 1,838 double-columned pages within four volumes, the encyclopedia contains fifty entries that describe family life in specific countries, eleven entries on religion, and twelve entries on ethnic groups, ranging from the Basques and Canada’s First Nations to the Yoruba. Contributors include leading authorities on divorce, domestic violence, fatherhood, and gender, such as Scott Coltrane, David H. Demo, Mark A. Fine, Richard J. Gelles, Ross D. Parke, Barbara Risman, Dorothy G. Singer, and Arlene Skolnick.

Apparently targeted at family professionals, especially clinical psychologists, guidance counselors, and social workers, the encyclopedia is heavily weighted toward entries dealing with couple and parent-child relationships; children’s cognitive, emotional, moral, and sexual development; and psychological and sexual disorders. Assessment, therapies, and marital and parenting education programs also receive substantial attention. Curiously few entries focus on the economics of the family, family law, governmental welfare and family policies, or the politics of the family.

The volumes contain a wealth of information that women’s historians and historians of the family and of childhood are sure to find fascinating:

  • in France, Ireland, and Italy, women’s participation in the labor force peaks in the twenties, while in Sweden, women’s paid economic activity increases into the fifties;
  • reliance on immigrant workers in developed countries varies widely, from 25 percent in Australia to nearly none in Italy and Japan;
  • in Germany and Switzerland the majority of mothers of two or more children are full-time housewives;
  • in Scandinavia, the unmarried cohabitating couple with children has become the most common family structure; in Italy and in southern Europe, in stark contrast, there is practically no cohabitation; and
  • the incidence of polygyny varies from 20 to 50 percent across sub-Saharan Africa, as migration and migratory labor systems have led to the reinvention of polygyny in new forms.

Yet while the entries are highly attentive to gender and encompass a vast range of societies, certain crucial questions go unaddressed. Why, for example, does Italy have the lowest birth rate and the most pronounced shift to a “post-modern” pattern of delayed exit from the natal home and late marriage (27 for women, 30 for men), while having lower rates of female employment outside the home than many other developed countries? The heavy reliance on entries on specific countries, as opposed to broader comparative entries, makes it difficult for readers to identify or understand the causes of national differences.

Nevertheless, the encyclopedia’s cross-cultural, if not comparative, approach does suggest that public policy can be formulated in ways quite different from those followed in the United States:

  • in the United Kingdom, a stepparent has the option of applying for a residence order, providing virtually the same legal status as a parent. In the United States, in contrast, a child can only have a concurrent legal relationship with a maximum of two adults;
  • Russia’s family code makes adults financially responsible not only for their children but for their parents, siblings, grandparents, and grandchildren; and
  • Swedish policy seeks to promote the self-sufficiency of the custodial parent after divorce, while U.S. law is divided between the goals of promoting self-sufficiency and of encouraging joint legal custody.

The International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family also provides a valuable compendium of demographic and socio-economic information especially about American families. Readers will learn that:

  • two-fifths of American widows fall into poverty within five years of their husband’s death;
  • three-quarters of divorced spouses remarry, usually within four years; remarriages end in divorce as often as first marriages (about 60 percent of the time); and about half of women in remarriages give birth to at least one child;
  • 40 percent of American children will live in a cohabitational household sometime during childhood;
  • one American child in seven runs away from home at least once;
  • between 1970 and 1999, the teenage contribution to non-marital births fell from 50 to 29 percent;
  • 77 percent of American lawyers and 52 percent of doctors give their names to their first-born sons;
  • interracial marriage rates range from 54 percent for Native Americans and 41 percent for Japanese Americans to 1.2 percent for African American women and 3.6 percent for African American men;
  • half of cohabiting couples separate within two years;
  • as early as two years, 10 percent of children’s time is spent with peers and from 7 to 11, the amount increases to 40 percent; and
  • 12 percent of American households report inadequate access to food at some time during the year.

The encyclopedia also includes a great deal of information about the construction of social science knowledge about families. One can learn about the genesis and evolution of such concepts as ancestor worship (coined by Herbert Spencer in 1885), the modern usage of the term “gender” (beginning with John Money in 1955), the identification of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (in 1969), and recognition of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (by Roy Meadow in 1977).

Many entries refute widespread myths about the family. Particularly effective are entries that rebut popular misimpressions about the exaggerated effects of divorce on children, and inflated claims that impoverished unwed fathers are irresponsible and uncaring about the mother or infant. The entry on child abuse does a particularly effective job of discussing the incidence and variety of abuses and the perpetrators of abuse.

Given the highly fragmented, multidisciplinary character of the literature on marital and family relations, this encyclopedia meets a real need. Non-specialists can quickly review recent findings on such topics as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, circumcision, colic, stepparenting, and predictors of suicide, and read succinct, accessible discussions of sociological and psychological theories about the family. The encyclopedia also provides a valuable guide to social science terminology (e.g., boundary ambiguity).

Yet women’s historians and historians of the family and of childhood will be dismayed to discover that the entries regard history as largely irrelevant to an understanding of contemporary families. Only one entry specifically examines history (“Family, History of”), and only two leading historians (Vern L. Bullough and Stephanie Coontz) contributed to the encyclopedia. I must confess that I was surprised not only by the exclusion of historians from this venture, but also the striking absence of historical sociologists and of history books from the bibliographies. The omission of references to books by Joan Jacobs Brumberg on eating disorders; E. Wayne Carp and Barbara Melosh on adoption; Linda Gordon and Elizabeth Pleck on child and spouse abuse; Robert Griswold on fatherhood; Michael Grossberg and Peter Bardaglio on family law; Elaine Tyler May on fertility; and John Gillis and Pleck on family rituals make the bibliographies far less useful than they might be.

To be sure, history is not entirely missing from the encyclopedia. Along with a few entries of historical interest (e.g., bundling), a number of entries contextualize contemporary behavior through brief historical prefaces, while others present a history of sociological and psychological thinking on a particular topic (e.g., gangs). The history the encyclopedia contains tends to take one of two forms: historicism–highly generalized long-term historical narratives and contemporary history–or a history that often goes back no further than the 1970s. Essential points made by recent historical scholarship–about the social and cultural construction of contemporary family issues and the inadequacy of modernization theories–have had far less impact than I would have assumed.

The absence of history exacts a cost of which the authors are apparently unaware. One cost involves a largely uncritical acceptance of various assumptions drawn from modernization theories, implying a uni-directional conception of change that many historians have challenged.

Another cost is a blindness to the way that knowledge and social problems are constructed. For example, the encyclopedia alludes to the early twentieth-century emergence of status offenses, but does not discuss later changes either in the definition and enforcement of status offenses or of recent changes in juvenile law.

The failure to think “fourth-dimensionally” also makes it difficult for readers to identify relevant historical trends. For example, the entry on single-parenthood does not sufficiently discuss changes in the class composition of single mothers over time. The entry on adolescent pregnancy might have explained in greater depth the reasons for the recent decline in teen pregnancy (which would have required an examination of the significant decline in the incidence of intercourse among teenage boys).

Certainly the most striking cost exacted by the omission of history is the absence of contestation and politics from most entries. While many entries list alternative interpretive and therapeutic approaches to family-related issues, only rarely do the authors explain why certain theories gained ascendance at particular times; nor do they describe the political and religious battles that family issues, such as toilet training or spanking, have generated.

Some essays do a better job than others in providing readers with a diachronic sense of historical transformation, especially the entries on naming patterns, sex education, and Protestantism. Despite the omission of history, historians of the family and of childhood will find the encyclopedia a valuable resource. Especially useful are the entry’s summaries of current scholarship, such as the findings that migration does not necessarily increase marital conflict but often increases spousal solidarity, and that the birth of a child prompts many couples to reassert a more “traditional” division of familial roles while producing a sharp decline in reported marital happiness. Also suggestive is the discussion of divorce as a process rather than as a discrete event and of resilience not as something within children but as a product of particular interactions.

Most historians, however, will come away from this work with a profound sense of disappointment that our scholarship has not had a greater impact on the thinking of many social scientists as well as those who provide care to children, couples, and families.

(Steven Mintz. Review of Ponzetti, James J. Jr.., ed., International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family. H-Women, H-Net Reviews. May, 2003.)

List of First Contributors per Entry

Note: there is only the first contributor in the following list

  • Abortion
    (Entry by: Warren Hern)
  • Abstinence
    (Entry by: Terrance D. Olson)
  • Academic Achievement
    (Entry by: Kevin Marjoribanks)
  • Acculturation
    (Entry by: Bilge Ataca)
  • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
    (Entry by: Hope Haslam Straughan)
  • Adolescent Parenthood
    (Entry by: Ted G. Futris)
  • Adoption
    (Entry by: David S. Rosettenstein)
  • Adulthood
    (Entry by: Judith G. Gonyea)
  • Affection
    (Entry by: Jennifer M. Keithley)
  • Afghanistan
    (Entry by: Shahin Gerami)
  • African-American Families
    (Entry by: Oscar A. Barbarin)
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
    (Entry by: Jon C. Stuckey)
  • American Indian Families
    (Entry by: Le Anne E. Silvey)
  • Anabaptists (Amish, Mennonite)
    (Entry by: Thomas J. Meyers)
  • Ancestor Worship
    (Entry by: Masako Ishii-Kuntz)
  • Annulment
    (Entry by: Warren Schumacher)
  • Anxiety Disorders
    (Entry by: Wendy K. Silverman)
  • Argentina
    (Entry by: Alicia Itatí Palermo)
  • Asian-American Families
    (Entry by: Susan Matoba Adler)
  • Assisted Reproductive Technologies
    (Entry by: Carl H. Coleman)
  • Attachment: Couple Relationships
    (Entry by: Brooke C. Feeney)
  • Attachment: Parent-Child Relationships
    (Entry by: Karen S. Rosen)
  • Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
    (Entry by: Stephen P. Hinshaw)
  • Attraction
    (Entry by: Michael R. Cunningham)
  • Attribution in Relationships
    (Entry by: Hyungshim Jang)
  • Aunt
    (Entry by: Nijole V. Benokraitis)
  • Australia
    (Entry by: Ruth E. Weston)
  • Austria
    (Entry by: Josef Hörl)
  • Basque Families
    (Entry by: Linda White)
  • Bedouin-Arab Families
    (Entry by: Alean Al-Krenawi)
  • Birth Control: Contraceptive Methods
    (Entry by: Stephanie Teal)
  • Birth Control: Sociocultural and Historical Aspects
    (Entry by: Vern L. Bullough)
  • Birth Order
    (Entry by: Gloria M. Montes de Oca)
  • Boundary Ambiguity
    (Entry by: Carla M. Dahl)
  • Boundary Dissolution
    (Entry by: Patricia K. Kerig)
  • Brazil
    (Entry by: Glucia Diniz)
  • Bride-Price
    (Entry by: Usher Fleising)
  • Buddhism
    (Entry by: F. Matthew Schobert, Jr.)
  • Bundling
    (Entry by: Bron B. Ingoldsby)
  • Canada
    (Entry by: Tracy Matsuo)
  • Canada First Nations Families
    (Entry by: Charles R. Menzies)
  • Caregiving: Formal
    (Entry by: Ellie Brubaker)
  • Caregiving: Informal)
  • (Entry by: David E. Biegel)
  • Caribbean Families
    (Entry by: Winston Seegobin)
  • Catholicism
    (Entry by: David Michael Thomas)
  • Child Abuse: Physical Abuse and Neglect
    (Entry by: Beth M. Schwartz-Kenney)
  • (Entry by: Michelle McCauley
    Child Abuse: Psychological Maltreatment
    (Entry by: Stuart N. Hart)
  • (Entry by: Marla R. Brassard
    Child Abuse: Sexual Abuse
    (Entry by: Kathleen Kendall-Tackett)
  • Childcare
    (Entry by: Alice M. Atkinson)
  • Child Custody
    (Entry by: Marygold S. Melli)
  • Childhood
    (Entry by: Stevi Jackson)
  • Childhood, Stages of: Adolescence
    (Entry by: Ronda Copher)
  • Childhood, Stages of: Infancy
    (Entry by: Grazia Carelli)
  • Childhood, Stages of: Middle Childhood
    (Entry by: Mario Cusinato)
  • Childhood, Stages of: Preschool
    Childhood, Stages of: Toddlerhood Childlessness
    (Entry by: D. T. Rowland)
  • Children of Alcoholics
    (Entry by: Tony D. Crespi)
  • Children’s Rights
    (Entry by: Virginia Murphy-Berman)
  • China
    (Entry by: Hsiang-Ming Kung)
  • Chronic Illness
    (Entry by: Shirley A. Hill)
  • Circumcision
    (Entry by: Paul J. Ford)
  • Clan
    (Entry by: John Barker)
  • Codependency
    (Entry by: Douglas J. Scaturo)
  • Cohabitation
    (Entry by: Zheng Wu)
  • Colic
    (Entry by: Ian St. James-Roberts)
  • Communication: Couple Relationships
    (Entry by: Tara M. Emmers-Sommer)
  • Communication: Family Relationships
    (Entry by: Kathleen M. Galvin)
  • Commuter Marriages
    (Entry by: Elaine A. Anderson)
  • Comparative Analysis
    (Entry by: William H. McKellin)
  • Computers and Family
    (Entry by: James M. White)
  • Conduct Disorder
    (Entry by: Bernadette Marie Bullock)
  • Conflict: Couple Relationships
    (Entry by: William R. Cupach)
  • Conflict: Family Relationships
    (Entry by: Sam Vuchinich)
  • Conflict: Parent-Child Relationships
    (Entry by: Susan J. Messman)
  • Confucianism
    (Entry by: Douglas K. Chung)
  • Coparenting
    (Entry by: Melanie C. McConnell)
  • Cousins
    Czech Republic
    (Entry by: Marie ?ermáková)
  • Dating
    (Entry by: Mary Riege Laner)
  • Death and Dying
    (Entry by: Kathleen R. Gilbert)
  • Decision Making
    (Entry by: Lynn H. Turner)
  • Dementia
    (Entry by: Rona J. Karasik)
  • Depression: Adults
    (Entry by: Ian H. Gotlib)
  • Depression: Children and Adolescents
    (Entry by: Judith Semon Dubas)
  • Development: Cognitive
    (Entry by: Usha Goswami)
  • Development: Emotional
    (Entry by: Susanne A. Denham)
  • Development: Moral
    (Entry by: Silvia Koller)
  • Development: Self
    (Entry by: Susan Harter)
  • Developmental Disabilities
    (Entry by: Cordelia Robinson)
  • Developmental Psychopathology
    (Entry by: Patrick T. Davies)
  • Dialectical Theory
    (Entry by: Leslie A. Baxter)
  • Disabilities
    (Entry by: Joän M. Patterson)
  • Discipline
    (Entry by: Robert E. Larzelere)
  • Division of Labor
    (Entry by: Scott Coltrane)
  • Divorce: Effects on Children
    (Entry by: David H. Demo)
  • Divorce: Effects on Couple
    (Entry by: Kari Henley)
  • Divorce: Effects on Parents
    (Entry by: Colleen L. Johnson)
  • Divorce Mediation
    (Entry by: David M. Kleist)
  • Dowry
    Dual-Earner Families
    (Entry by: Shannon N. Davis)
  • Eating Disorders
    (Entry by: Bryan Lask)
  • Egypt
    (Entry by: Bahira Sherif)
  • Elder Abuse
    (Entry by: Rosalie S. Wolf)
  • Elders
    (Entry by: Enid Opal Cox)
  • Equity
    (Entry by: Alaina M. Winters)
  • Ethnic Variation/Ethnicity
    (Entry by: Deborale Richardson-Bouie)
  • Euthanasia
    (Entry by: Robert Kastenbaum)
  • Evangelical Christianity
    (Entry by: Les Parrott)
  • Extended Families
    (Entry by: Amy E. Wagner)
  • Failure to Thrive
    (Entry by: Peter Dawson)
  • Familism
    (Entry by: Adela Garzón Pérez)
  • Family, Definition of
    (Entry by: Brenda Munro)
  • Family, History of
    (Entry by: Cynthia Comacchio)
  • Family and Relational Rules
    (Entry by: Yvonne Kellar-Guenther)
  • Family Assessment
    (Entry by: Gary E. Stollak)
  • Family Business
    (Entry by: Michael A. Gross)
  • Family Development Theory
    Family Diagnosis/DSM-IV
    (Entry by: Lynelle Yingling)
  • Family Diagrammatic Assessment: Ecomap
    (Entry by: T. Laine Scales)
  • Family Diagrammatic Assessment: Genogram
    (Entry by: J. Phillip Stanberry)
  • Family Folklore
    (Entry by: Jill Terry Rudy)
  • Family Law
    (Entry by: John Dewar)
  • Family Life Education
    (Entry by: Margaret Edwards Arcus)
  • Family Literacy
    (Entry by: Jim Anderson)
  • Family Loyalty
    (Entry by: Karen M. Kobayashi)
  • Family Ministry
    (Entry by: Diana R. Garland)
  • Family Planning
    Family Policy
    (Entry by: Maureen Baker)
  • Family Rituals
    (Entry by: Barbara H. Fiese)
  • Family Roles
    (Entry by: Laurence L. Falk)
  • Family Science
    (Entry by: Mary Ann Hollinger)
  • Family Stories and Myths
    (Entry by: James J. Ponzetti, Jr. )
  • Family Strengths
    (Entry by: John DeFrain)
  • Family Systems Theory
    (Entry by: William M. Fleming)
  • Family Theory
    (Entry by: David M. Klein)
  • Family Values
    (Entry by: Barbara A. Arrighi)
  • Fatherhood
    (Entry by: Ross D. Parke)
  • Favoritism/Differential Treatment
    (Entry by: Shirley McGuire)
  • Fertility
    (Entry by: Maili Malin)
  • Fictive Kinship
    (Entry by: Richard A. Wagner)
  • Filial Responsibility
    (Entry by: Raeann R. Hamon)
  • Food
    (Entry by: Renee A. Oscarson)
  • Forgiveness
    (Entry by: Susan D. Boon)
  • Foster Parenting
    (Entry by: Elisabeth Kenny)
  • France
    (Entry by: Didier Le Gall)
  • French Canadian Families
    (Entry by: Évelyne Lapierre-Adamcyk)
  • Friendship
    (Entry by: Paul H. Wright)
  • Gangs
    (Entry by: Bill McCarthy)
  • Gay Parents
    (Entry by: Todd A. Savage)
  • (Entry by: Sharon Scales Rostosky
    Gender
    (Entry by: Kelly Rice Wood)
  • Gender Identity
    (Entry by: Gregory K. Lehne)
  • Genealogy
    (Entry by: Alice Eichholz)
  • Genetic Counseling
    (Entry by: Alicia Craffey)
  • Germany
    (Entry by: Klaus Peter Strohmeier)
  • Ghana
    (Entry by: Baffour K. Takyi)
  • Gifted and Talented Children
    (Entry by: Miraca U. M. Gross)
  • Global Citizenship
    (Entry by: Judith A. Myers-Walls)
  • Godparents
    (Entry by: Rozzana Sánchez Aragón)
  • Grandparenthood
    (Entry by: Yoshinori Kamo)
  • Grandparents’ Rights
    (Entry by: Tammy L. Henderson)
  • Great Britain
    (Entry by: Jane Millar)
  • Greece
    (Entry by: Aphrodite Teperoglou)
  • Greenland
    (Entry by: Mark Nuttall)
  • Grief, Loss, and Bereavement
    (Entry by: Colleen I. Murray)
  • Guardianship
    (Entry by: David M. English)
  • Health and Families
    Hinduism
    (Entry by: Laju M. Balani)
  • Hispanic-American Families
    (Entry by: Graciela M. Castex)
  • Home
    (Entry by: Sheila K. Marshall)
  • Home Economics
    (Entry by: Virginia Vincenti)
  • Homeless Families
    (Entry by: Irene Glasser)
  • Homeschooling
    (Entry by: Brian D. Ray)
  • Honeymoon
    (Entry by: Kris Bulcroft)
  • Hospice
    Housework
    (Entry by: Michele Adams)
  • Housing
    Human Ecology Theory
    (Entry by: Ruth E. Berry)
  • Hungary
    (Entry by: Olga Tóth)
  • Husband
    Hutterite Families
    Immigration
    (Entry by: Phyllis J. Johnson)
  • Incest
    (Entry by: Jennifer L. Matheson)
  • Incest/Inbreeding Taboos
    (Entry by: Gregory C. Leavitt)
  • India
    (Entry by: Nilufer P. Medora)
  • Indonesia
    (Entry by: Clark E. Cunningham)
  • Industrialization
    (Entry by: Elinor Accampo)
  • Infanticide
    (Entry by: Leigh Minturn)
  • Infidelity
    (Entry by: Judith Treas)
  • In-Law Relationships
    (Entry by: Rhonda J. V. Montgomery)
  • Intentional Communities
    (Entry by: William L. Smith)
  • Interfaith Marriage
    (Entry by: Mary Heléne Rosenbaum)
  • Intergenerational Programming
    (Entry by: Sally Newman)
  • Intergenerational Relations
    (Entry by: Adam Davey)
  • Intergenerational Transmission
    Interparental Conflict — Effects on Children
    (Entry by: Kristin Lindahl)
  • Interparental Violence — Effects on Children
    (Entry by: B. B. Robbie Rossman)
  • Interracial Marriage
    (Entry by: Richard C. Henriksen, Jr.)
  • Intimacy
    (Entry by: Karen Jean Prager)
  • Iran
    (Entry by: Mohammadreza Hojat)
  • Ireland
    (Entry by: Gabriel Kiely)
  • Islam
    (Entry by: Marsha T. Carolan)
  • Israel
    (Entry by: Orna Cohen)
  • Italy
    (Entry by: Luisa Leonini)
  • Japan
    (Entry by: Junko Kuninobu)
  • Jealousy
    (Entry by: Gary L. Hansen)
  • Judaism
    (Entry by: Steven Weiland)
  • Juvenile Delinquency
    (Entry by: Joan McCord)
  • Kenya
    (Entry by: Salome Nasiroli Wawire)
  • Kinship
    (Entry by: Gwen J. Broude)
  • Korea
    (Entry by: Hyunsook Chung)
  • Kurdish Families
    (Entry by: Mihri Inal Çakir)
  • Kyrgyzstan
    (Entry by: Kunduz Asanova)
  • Later Life Families
    (Entry by: Laura Hurd Clarke)
  • Latin America
    Latvia
    (Entry by: Parsla Eglite)
  • Learning Disorders
    (Entry by: Margaret Semrud-Clikeman)
  • Leisure
    (Entry by: Valeria J. Freysinger)
  • Lesbian Parents
    (Entry by: Gina Owens)
  • Life Course Theory
    (Entry by: Barbara A. Mitchell)
  • Love
    (Entry by: Clyde Hendrick)
  • Malaysia
    (Entry by: Sunil Kukreja)
  • Marital Quality
    (Entry by: Norval D. Glenn)
  • Marital Sex
    (Entry by: Pamela C. Regan)
  • Marital Typologies
    (Entry by: Edgar C. J. Long)
  • Marriage Ceremonies
    (Entry by: Marilyn Ihinger-Tallman)
  • Marriage, Definition of
    Marriage Enrichment
    (Entry by: Britton Wood)
  • Marriage Preparation
    (Entry by: Benjamin Silliman)
  • Marriage Squeeze
    (Entry by: Jean E. Veevers)
  • Mate Selection
    (Entry by: Douglas T. Kenrick)
  • Menarche
    (Entry by: Lana Thompson)
  • Menopause
    (Entry by: Marcia K. Spira)
  • Menstrual Taboo
    (Entry by: Elizabeth Arveda Kissling)
  • Mexico
    Migration
    Missing Children
    (Entry by: Tillman Rodabough)
  • Mormonism
    (Entry by: Dennis T. Haynes)
  • Motherhood
    Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy
    (Entry by: Christopher N. Bools)
  • Nagging and Complaining
    (Entry by: Jess K. Alberts)
  • Names for Children
    (Entry by: Richard Alford)
  • Neighborhood
    (Entry by: Robyn Bateman Driskell)
  • New Zealand
    Nigeria
    (Entry by: Julia O. Omokhodion)
  • Nonmarital Childbearing
    (Entry by: Brent C. Miller)
  • Nuclear Families
    (Entry by: Arlene Skolnick)
  • Only Children
    (Entry by: Toni Falbo)
  • Oppositionality
    (Entry by: Joseph M. Rey)
  • Orphans
    (Entry by: Kim MacLean)
  • Parenting Education
    (Entry by: H. Wallace Goddard)
  • Parenting Styles
    (Entry by: Judith G. Smetana)
  • Peer Influence
    (Entry by: Peter T. Haugen)
  • Peru
    (Entry by: Myrian Carbajal Mendoza)
  • Phenomenology
    (Entry by: Stan J. Knapp)
  • Philippines, The
    (Entry by: Kathy Nadeau)
  • Play
    (Entry by: Dorothy G. Singer)
  • Poland
    (Entry by: Barbara Lobodzinska)
  • Portugal
    (Entry by: Shawn S. Parkhurst)
  • Postpartum Depression
    (Entry by: Peter J. Cooper)
  • Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    (Entry by: Betty Pfefferbaum)
  • Poverty
    (Entry by: Gaynor Yancey)
  • Power: Family Relationships
    (Entry by: Brian Jory)
  • Power: Marital Relationships
    (Entry by: Carrie L. Yodanis)
  • Pregnancy and Birth
    (Entry by: Jacqueline Fawcett)
  • Premarital Agreements
    (Entry by: Judith T. Younger)
  • Primogeniture
    Problem Solving
    Protestantism
    (Entry by: John Witte Jr. )
  • Rape
    (Entry by: Zoë D. Peterson)
  • Relationship Dissolution
    (Entry by: Steve Duck)
  • Relationship Initiation
    (Entry by: Anita L. Vangelisti)
  • Relationship Maintenance
    (Entry by: Daniel J. Canary)
  • Relationship Metaphors
    Relationship Theories — Self-Other Relationship
    (Entry by: William W. Wilmot)
  • Religion
    (Entry by: Ruth Cordle Hatch)
  • Remarriage
    (Entry by: Margaret Crosbie-Burnett)
  • Renewal of Wedding Vows
    (Entry by: Dawn O. Braithwaite)
  • Research: Family Measurement
    (Entry by: Murray A. Straus)
  • Research: Methodology
    (Entry by: Alan Acock)
  • Resource Management
    (Entry by: Elizabeth Beard Goldsmith)
  • Respite Care: Adult
    (Entry by: Karen A. Roberto)
  • Respite Care: Child
    (Entry by: Stephen R. Block)
  • Retirement
    (Entry by: Maximiliane E. Szinovacz)
  • Rich/Wealthy Families
    (Entry by: Frank S. Pittman III)
  • Rites of Passage
    (Entry by: Bruce Freeman)
  • Role Theory
    Romania
    (Entry by: Mihaela Robila)
  • Runaway Youths
    (Entry by: Sarah Michelle Stohlman)
  • Rural Families
    (Entry by: Linda B. Morales)
  • Russia
    (Entry by: Jean M. Ispa)
  • Sandwich Generation
    (Entry by: Christine A. Price)
  • Scandinavia
    (Entry by: Jan Trost)
  • Schizophrenia
    (Entry by: Monica E. Calkins)
  • School
    (Entry by: Mitzi A. Lowe)
  • School Phobia and School Refusal
    Self-Disclosure
    (Entry by: Sandra Petronio)
  • Self-Esteem
    (Entry by: Viktor Gecas)
  • Senegal
    (Entry by: Pierre Ngom)
  • Separation Anxiety
    (Entry by: Diane E. Wille)
  • Separation-Individuation
    (Entry by: Meryl J. Botkin)
  • Sexual Communication: Couple Relationships
    (Entry by: Sandra Metts)
  • Sexual Communication: Parent-Child Relationships
    (Entry by: James Jaccard)
  • Sexual Dysfunction
    (Entry by: A. R. Allgeier)
  • Sexuality
    (Entry by: John DeLamater)
  • Sexuality Education
    (Entry by: Elias J. Duryea)
  • Sexuality in Adolescence
    Sexuality in Adulthood
    (Entry by: Phyllis A. Greenberg)
  • Sexuality in Childhood
    (Entry by: Sara Moorhead Phillips)
  • Sexually Transmitted Diseases
    (Entry by: Ronald R. Fichtner)
  • Sexual Orientation
    (Entry by: Barbara Ryan)
  • Shyness
    (Entry by: Warren H. Jones)
  • Sibling Relationships
    Sikhism
    (Entry by: Pashaura Singh)
  • Single-Parent Families
    (Entry by: Kathryn M. Feltey)
  • Singles/Never Married Persons
    (Entry by: Lori D. Campbell)
  • Slovakia
    (Entry by: Bernardína Bodnárová)
  • Social Exchange Theory
    (Entry by: Ronald M. Sabatelli)
  • Socialization
    (Entry by: Hilary A. Rose)
  • Social Networks
    (Entry by: Catherine H. Stein)
  • Socioeconomic Status
    (Entry by: Neil Guppy)
  • South Africa
    (Entry by: Abraham P. Greeff)
  • Spain
    (Entry by: J. Roberto Reyes)
  • Spanking
    (Entry by: John A. Addleman)
  • Spouse Abuse: Prevalence
    (Entry by: Orsolya Magyar)
  • Spouse Abuse: Theoretical Explanations
    (Entry by: Richard J. Gelles)
  • Stepfamilies
    (Entry by: Mark A. Fine)
  • Stress
    (Entry by: Elizabeth G. Menaghan)
  • Structural-Functional Theory
    (Entry by: John Scanzoni)
  • Substance Abuse
    (Entry by: Mark J. Macgowan)
  • Substitute Caregivers
    (Entry by: Theodore N. Greenstein)
  • Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
    (Entry by: Marianne Arnestad)
  • Suicide
    (Entry by: David Lester)
  • Surrogacy
    (Entry by: Heléna Ragoné)
  • Switzerland
    (Entry by: Beat Fux)
  • Symbolic Interactionism
    Television and Family
    (Entry by: Alison Alexander)
  • Temperament
    (Entry by: Mary K. Rothbart)
  • Therapy: Couple Relationships
    (Entry by: Lorelei E. Simpson)
  • Therapy: Family Relationships
    (Entry by: Linda Berg-Cross)
  • Therapy: Parent-Child Relationships
    (Entry by: Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg)
  • Time Use
    (Entry by: Kerry J. Daly)
  • Togo
    (Entry by: Koffi Ekouevi)
  • Transition to Parenthood
    (Entry by: Glen H. Stamp)
  • Triangulation
    Trust
    (Entry by: John K. Rempel)
  • Turkey
    (Entry by: Akile Gursoy)
  • Uncle
    Unemployment
    (Entry by: Anh T. Le)
  • United States
    (Entry by: Stephanie Coontz)
  • Urbanization
    (Entry by: Larry S. Bourne)
  • Venezuela
    (Entry by: Samuel Hurtado Salazar)
  • Vietnam
    (Entry by: Steven K. Wisensale)
  • War/Political Violence
    (Entry by: Karen S. Myers-Bowman)
  • Wedding Ring
    Widowhood
    (Entry by: Felix M. Berardo)
  • Wife
  • Women’s Movements
    (Entry by: Lynn Walter)
  • Work and Family
    (Entry by: Debra L. Berke)
  • Yoruba Families
    (Entry by: Emmanuel D. Babatunde)
  • Zambia
    (Entry by: Vijayan K. Pillai)

See Also

  • Trials of the Century: An Encyclopedia of Popular Culture and the Law
  • Encyclopedia of Social Welfare History in North America
  • Encyclopedia of American Immigration
  • Transracial Adoptions
  • Adoption Legal Issues
  • Adoption And Foster Care
  • Open And Closed Adoptions
  • Agency And Private-Placement Adoptions
  • Birth Control
  • Family Law Contents

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