International Court of Justice Judges

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International Court of Justice Judges

Introduction to International Court of Justice Judges

The court has 15 judges, each elected by an absolute majority of the Security Council and the General Assembly, voting independently of each other. The judges are elected for nine years and may be reelected; no two may be nationals of the same country. A judge may be removed from the court only by unanimous vote of the other judges. They do not represent their countries but are elected on the basis of their knowledge of international law. The composition of the court is supposed at all times to reflect the main forms of civilization and the principal legal systems of the world. In any dispute, if no judge is of the nationality of a party to the case, that country may choose a judge to sit on the case. Nine judges constitute a quorum (the minimum number necessary to decide a case), and questions before the court are decided by a majority of judges present. The court elects its own officers and appoints its registrar and other officials.” (1)

International Court of Justice: List of the Judges

The Judges of the I. C. J. (1986 – 1990)

  • Roberto AGO : Judge for: Italy 6.2.1979 – (5. 2.1997)
  • Mohammed BEDJAOUI : Judge for: Algeria 19. 3.1982 – (5. 2.1997)
  • Taslim Olawale ELIAS : Judge for: Nigeria 6. 2.1976-14. 8.1991 (+) (President 1982-1985)
  • Jens EVENSON : Judge for: Norway 6. 2.1985-(5. 2.1994)
  • Gilbert GUILLAUME : Judge for: France 14. 9.1987-(5. 2.2000)
  • Sir Robert Yewdall JENNINGS : Judge for: United Kingdom 6. 2.1982-(5. 2.2000)
  • Manfred LACHS : Judge for: Poland 6. 2.1967-(5. 2.1994) (President 1973-1976)
  • Guy LADREIT DE LACHARRIERE : Judge for: France 6. 2.1982-10. 3.1987(+) (Vice-President 1985-1987)
  • Kéba MBAYE : Judge for: Senegal 6. 2.1982- 5. 2.1991 (Vice-President 1988-1991)
  • Mohammed SHAHABUDDEEN : Judge for: Guyana 6. 2.1988-(5. 2.1997)
  • NAGENDRA SINGH : Judge for: India 6. 2.1973-11.12.1988(+) (Vice-President 1976-1979, President 1985-1988)
  • NI ZHENGYU : Judge for: China 6. 2.1985-(5. 2.1994)
  • Shigeru ODA : Judge for: Japan 6. 2.1976-(5. 2.1994)
  • Raghunandan Swarup PATHAK : Judge for: India 18. 4.1989- 5. 2.1991
  • José Maria RUDA : Judge for: Argentina 6. 2.1973-(5. 2.1991) (President 1988-1991)
  • Stephen M. SCHWEBEL : Judge for: USA 15. 1.1981-(5. 2.1997)
  • José SETTE-CAMARA : Judge for: Brazil 6. 2.1979- 5. 2.1988 (Vice-President 1982-1985)
  • Nikolai Konstantinovitch TARASSOV : Judge for: USSR 9.12.1985-(5. 2.1997)
  • Georges ABI-SAAB : Judge for: Mali (Judge ad hoc) Frontier Dispute (Burkina Faso v.Republic of Mali)
  • François LUCHAIRE : Judge for: Burkina Faso (Judge ad hoc) Frontier Dispute (Burkina Faso v. Republic of Mali)
  • Claude-Albert COLLIARD : Judge for: Nicaragua (Judge ad hoc) Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v.United States of America)
  • Nicolas VALTICOS : Judge for: El Salvador (Judge ad hoc) Case concerning the Land, Island and Maritime Frontier Dispute (El Salvador v. Honduras)
  • Michel VIRALLY : Judge for: Honduras (Judge ad hoc) Case concerning the Land, Island and Maritime Frontier Dispute (El Salvador v. Honduras) (died 27. 2. 1989) (Judge ad hoc)
  • Paul Henning FISCHER : Judge for: Denmark (Judge ad hoc) Case concerning Maritime Delimitation in the Area between Greenland and Jan Mayen (Denmark v. Norway)
  • Santiago TORRES BERNARDEZ : Judge for: Honduras (Judge ad hoc) Case concerning the Land, Island and Maritime Frontier Dispute (El Salvador v. Honduras)
  • Hubert THIERRY : Judge for: Guinea-Bissau (Judge ad hoc) Arbitral Award of 31 July 1989 (Guinea-Bissau v. Senegal)

The Judges of the I. C. J. (1991 – 1995)

  • Roberto AGO : Judge for: Italy 6.2.1979 – 24.2.1995 (+)
  • Andrés AGUILAR-MAWDSLEY : Judge for: Venezuela 6.2.1991 – 24.10.1995 (+)
  • Mohammed BEDJAOUI : Judge for: Algeria 19.3.1982 – (5.2.1997) (President 1994 – 1997)
  • Taslim Olawale ELIAS : Judge for: Nigeria 6.2.1976 – 14.8.1991 (+) (President 1982 – 1985)
  • Jens EVENSEN : Judge for: Norway 6.2.1985 – 5.2.1994
  • Luigi FERRARI BRAVO : Judge for: Italy 21.6.1995 – (5.2.1997)
  • Carl-August FLEISCHHAUER : Judge for: Germany 6.2.1994 – (5.2.2003)
  • Gilbert GUILLAUME : Judge for: France 14.9.1987 – (5.2.2000)
  • Géza HERCZEGH : Judge for: Hungary 10.5.1993 – (5.2.2003)
  • Rosalyn HIGGINS : Judge for: United Kingdom 12.7.1995 – (5.2.2000)
  • Sir Robert Yewdall JENNINGS : Judge for: United Kingdom 6.2.1982 – 10.7.1995 (President 1991 – 1994)
  • Abdul G. KOROMA : Judge for: Sierra Leone 6.2.1994 – (5.2.2003)
  • Manfred LACHS : Judge for: Poland 6.2.1967 – 14.1.1993 (+) (President 1973 – 1976)
  • Kéba MBAYE : Judge for: Senegal 6.2.1982 – 5.2.1991 (Vice-President 1988 – 1991)
  • Mohammed SHAHABUDDEEN : Judge for: Guyana 6.2.1988 – (5.2.1997)
  • NI ZHENGYU : Judge for: China 6.2.1985 – 5.2.1994
  • Shigeru ODA : Judge for: Japan 6.2.1976 – (5.2.2003) (Vice-President 1991 – 1994)
  • Raghunandan Swarup PATHAK : Judge for: India 18.4.1989 – 5.2.1991
  • Raymond RANJEVA : Judge for: Madagascar 6.2.1991 – (5.2.2000)
  • José Maria RUDA : Judge for: Argentina 6.2.1973 – 5.2.1991 (President 1988 – 1991)
  • Stephen M. SCHWEBEL : Judge for: USA 15.1.1981 – (5.2.1997) (Vice-President 1994 – 1997)
  • SHI JIUYONG : Judge for: China 6.2.1994 – (5.2.2003)
  • Nikolai K. TARASSOV : Judge for: USSR 9.12.1985 – 28.9.1994 (+)
  • Vladlen S. VERESCHCHETIN : Judge for: USSR 26.1.1995 – (5.2.1997)
  • Christopher G.WEERAMANTRY : Judge for: Sri Lanka 6.2.1991 – (5.2.2000)
  • Mohsen AGHAHOSSEINI : Judge for: Islamic Republic of Iran (Judge ad hoc) Aerial Incident of 3 July 1988 (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America)
  • Bola A. AJIBOLA : Judge for: Nigeria (Judge ad hoc) Land and Maritime Boundary between Cameroon and Nigeria (Cameroon v. Nigeria)
  • Georges ABI-SAAB : Judge for: Chad (Judge ad hoc) Territorial Dispute (Lybian Arab Jamahiriya v. Chad)
  • Antonio de ARRUDA FERRER-CORREIRA : Judge for: Portugal (Judge ad hoc) East Timor (Portugal v. Australia)
  • Bengt BROMS : Judge for: Finland (Judge ad hoc) Passage through the Great Belt (Finland v. Denmark)
  • Claude-Albert COLLIARD : Judge for: Nicaragua (Judge ad hoc) Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua (Nicaragua v. United States of America)
  • Ahmed Sadek EL-KOSHERI : Judge for: Lybian Arab Jamahiriya (Judge ad hoc) Questions of Interpretation and Application of the 1971 Montreal Convention arising from the Aerial Incident at Lockerbie (Lybian Arab Jamahiriya v. United Kingdom). Lybian Arab Jamahiriya (Judge ad hoc) Questions of Interpretation and Application of the 1971 Montreal Convention arising from the Aerial Incident at Lockerbie (Lybian Arab Jamahiriya v. United States of America)
  • Paul Henning FISCHER : Judge for: Denmark (Judge ad hoc) Case concerning Maritime Delimitation in the Area between Greenland and Jan Mayen (Denmark v. Norway). Passage through the Great Belt (Denmark v. Norway)
  • Milenko KRECA : Judge for: Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) (Judge ad hoc) Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Yugoslavia [Serbia and Montenegro])
  • Marc LALONDE : Judge for: Canada (Judge ad hoc) Fisheries Jurisdiction (Spain v. Canada)
  • Elihu LAUTERPACHT : Judge for: Bosnia and Herzegovina (Judge ad hoc) Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishmen of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Yugoslavia [Serbia and Montenegro])
  • Kéba MBAYE : Judge for: Senegal 1 (Judge ad hoc) Arbitral Award of 31 July1989 (Guinea-Bissau v. Senegal). Judge for: Cameroon (Judge ad hoc) Land and Maritime Boundary between Cameroon and Nigeria (Cameroon v. Nigeria)
  • Sir Geoffey PALMER : Judge for: New Zealand (Judge ad hoc) Request for an Examination of the Situation in accordance with Paragraph 63 of the Court’s 1974 Judgment in the Nucelar Tests Case (New Zealand v. France)
  • François RIGAUX : Judge for: Islamic Republic of Iran (Judge ad hoc) Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America)
  • José Maria RUDA : Judge for: Qatar (Judge ad hoc) Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions between Qatar and Bahrain (Qatar v. Bahrain) 2 Judge ad hoc Ruda passed away 7 July 1994; Qatar then chose M. Torres-Bernárdez to sit as judge ad hoc.
  • José SETTE-CAMARA : Judge for: Lybian Arab Jamahiriya (Judge ad hoc) Territorial Dispute (Lybian Arab Jamahiriya v. Chad)
  • Krysztof SKUBISZEWSKI : Judge for: Portugal (Judge ad hoc) East Timor (Portugal v. Australia) After the resignation of judge ad hoc de Arruda Ferrer-Correira, which became effective on 14 July 1994, M. Skubiszewski was chosen by Portugal to sit as judge ad hoc. Judge for: Slovakia (Judge ad hoc) Gabcíkovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary v. Slovakia)
  • Sir Ninian STEPHEN : Judge for: Australia (Judge ad hoc) East Timor (Portugal v. Australia)
  • Hubert THIERRY : Judge for: Guinea-Bissau (Judge ad hoc) Arbitral Award of 31 July1989 (Guinea-Bissau v. Senegal)
  • Santiago TORRES BERNARDEZ : Judge for: Honduras (Judge ad hoc) Case concerning the Land, Island and Maritime Frontier Dispute (El Salvador v. Honduras). Judge for: Qatar (Judge ad hoc) Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions between Qatar and Bahrain (Qatar v. Bahrain). After the passing away of judge ad hoc Ruda on 7 July 1994, M. Torres-Bernárdez was chosen by Qatar to sit as judge ad hoc in the case. Judge for: Spain (Judge ad hoc) Fisheries Jurisdiction (Spain v. Canada)
  • Nicolas VALTICOS : Judge for: El Salvador (Judge ad hoc) Case concerning the Land, Island and Maritime Frontier Dispute (El Salvador v. Honduras). Judge for: Bahrain (Judge ad hoc) Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions between Qatar and Bahrain (Qatar v. Bahrain). Judge ad hocValticos resigned after the judgment on jurisdiction and admissibilty.

The Judges of the I. C. J. (1996 – 2000)

  • Awn Shawkat AL-KHASAWNEH : Judge for: Jordan 6.2.2000 – (5.2.2009)
  • Mohammed BEDJAOUI : Judge for: Algeria 19.3.1982 – 30.9.2001 (President 1994 – 1997)
  • Thomas BUERGENTHAL : Judge for: United States of America 2.3.2000 – (5.2.2006)
  • Luigi FERRARI-BRAVO : Judge for: Italy 21.6.1995 – 5.2.1997
  • Carl-August FLEISCHHAUER : Judge for: Germany 6.2.1994 – (5.2.2003)
  • Gilbert GUILLAUME : Judge for: France 14.9.1987 – (5.2.2009) (President 2000 – (2003))
  • Géza HERCZEGH : Judge for: Hungary 10.5.1993 – (5.2.2003)
  • Rosalyn HIGGINS : Judge for: United Kingdom 12.7.1995 – (5.2.2009)
  • Pieter H. KOOIJMANS : Judge for: Netherlands 6.2.1997 – (5.2.2006)
  • Abdul G. KOROMA : Judge for: Sierra Leone 6.2.1994 – (5.2.2003)
  • Shigeru ODA : Judge for: Japan 6.2.1976 – (5.2.2003)
  • Gonzalo PARRA-ARANGUREN : Judge for: Venezuela 28.2.1996 – (5.2.2009)
  • Raymond RANJEVA : Judge for: Madagascar 6.2.1991 – (5.2.2009)
  • Francisco REZEK : Judge for: Brazil 6.2.1997 – (5.2.2006)
  • Stephen M. SCHWEBEL : Judge for: United States of America 15.1.1981 – 29.2.2000 (President 1997 – 2000, Vice-President 1994 – 1997)
  • Mohammed SHAHABUDDEEN : Judge for: Guyana 6.2.1988 – 5.2.1997
  • SHI Jiuyong : Judge for: China 6.2.1994 – (5.2.2003) (Vice-President 2000 – (2003))
  • Vladlen S. VERESHCHETIN : Judge for: Russian Federation 26.1.1995 – (5.2.2006)
  • Christopher G. WEERAMANTRY : Judge for: Sri Lanka 6.2.1991 – 5.2.2000 (Vice-President 1997 – 2000)
  • Mohsen AGHAHOSSEINI : Judge for: Islamic Republic of Iran (Judge ad hoc) Aerial Incident of 3 July 1988 (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America)
  • Bola A. AJIBOLA : Judge for: Nigeria (Judge ad hoc) Land and Maritime Boundary between Cameroon and Nigeria (Cameroon v. Nigeria)
  • Ahmed Sadek AL-KOSHERI : Judge for: Libya (Judge ad hoc) Questions of Interpretation and Application of the 1971 Montreal Convention arising from the Aerial Incident at Lockerbie (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya v. United Kingdom, Lybian Arab Jamahiriya v. United States of America)
  • John DUGARD : Judge for: Rwanda (Judge ad hoc) Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Rwanda)
  • Patrick DUINSLAEGER : Judge for: Belgium (Judge ad hoc) Legality of Use of Force (Yugoslavia v. Belgium)
  • Yves L. FORTIER : Judge for: Bahrain (Judge ad hoc) Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions between Qatar and Bahrain (Qatar v. Bahrain)1 After Mr. Shahabuddeen had resigned, Bahrain chose Mr. Fortier to sit as a judge ad hoc.
  • Giorgio GAJA : Judge for: Italy (Judge ad hoc) Legality of Use of Force (Yugoslavia v. Italy)
  • Sir Robert JENNINGS : Judge for: United Kingdom (Judge ad hoc) Questions of Interpretation and Application of the 1971 Montreal Convention arising from the Aerial Incident at Lockerbie (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya v. United Kingdom)2 After Judge Higgins had recused herself, the United Kingdom chose Sir Robert Jennings to sit as a judge ad hoc.
  • Milenko KRECA : Judge for: Yugoslavia (Judge ad hoc) Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Yugoslavia), Legality of Use of Force (Yugoslavia v. Belgium; Yugoslavia v. Canada; Yugoslavia v.France; Yugoslavia v.Germany; Yugoslavia v. Italy; Yugoslavia v. Netherlands; Yugoslavia v. Portugal; Yugoslavia v. United Kingdom)
  • Marc LALONDE : Judge for: Canada (Judge ad hoc) Fisheries Jurisdiction (Spain v. Canada), Legality of Use of Force (Yugoslavia v. Canada)
  • Elihu LAUTERPACHT : Judge for: Bosnia and Herzegovina (Judge ad hoc) Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Yugoslavia)
  • Kéba MBAYE : Judge for: Cameroon (Judge ad hoc) Land and Maritime Boundary between Cameroon and Nigeria (Cameroon v. Nigeria)
  • Syed Sharif Uddin PIRZADA : Judge for: Pakistan (Judge ad hoc) Aerial Incident of 10 August 1999 (Pakistan v. India)
  • B.P. Jeevan REDDY : Judge for: India (Judge ad hoc) Aerial Incident of 10 August 1999 (Pakistan v. India)
  • François RIGAUX : Judge for: Iran (Judge ad hoc) Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America)
  • Jean J.A. SALMON : Judge for: Burundi (Judge ad hoc) Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Burundi)
  • Mohamed SHAHABUDDEEN : Judge for: Bahrain (Judge ad hoc) Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions between Qatar and Bahrain (Qatar v. Bahrain)3 Mr. Shahabuddeen resigned in the course of the proceedings; Bahrain then chose Mr. Fortier to sit as a judge ad hoc.. Judge for: Indonesia (Judge ad hoc) Sovereignty over Pulau Ligitan and Pulau Sipadan (Indonesia v. Malaysia)
  • Krysztof J. KUBISZEWSKI : Judge for: Slovakia (Judge ad hoc) Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary v. Slovakia)
  • Santiago TORRES BERNARDEZ : Judge for: Qatar (Judge ad hoc) Maritime Delimitation and Territorial Questions between Qatar and Bahrain (Qatar v. Bahrain)4 After the passing away of judge ad hoc Ruda on 7 July 1994, Mr. Torres Bernárdez was chosen by Qatar to sit as a judge ad hoc in the case. Judge for: Spain (Judge ad hoc) Fisheries Jurisdiction (Spain v. Canada)
  • Budislav VUKAS : Judge for: Croatia (Judge ad hoc) Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Croatia v. Yugoslavia)
  • Christopher G. WEERAMANTRY : Judge for: Malaysia (Judge ad hoc) Sovereignty over Pulau Ligitan and Pulau Sipadan (Indonesia v. Malaysia)

Resources

Notes and References

Further Reading

  • Elkind, Jerome B. Interim Protection: A Functional Approach. Boston: Nijhoff, 1981. Covers the background issues on interim protection, history and development of the rules , cases and issues arising from interim measures. Extensive bibliography.
  • Elkind, Jerome B. Non-Appearance before the International Court of Justice. Boston: Nijhoff, 1984. A comparative study of the consequences of nonappearance in different systems (civil and common law, roman law, canonical procedure, etc.) and an evaluation of the effects of default in the International Court of Justice. Covers interim protection and self-judgment.
  • Falk, Richard A. Reviving the World Court. Charlottesville, Va.: Univ. Press of Virginia, 1986.
  • Fifty Years of the International Court of Justice: Essays in Honour of Sir Robert Jennings. Vaughan Lowe & Malgosia Fitzmaurice, eds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  • Gill, Terry D. “International Court of Justice—Advisory Jurisdiction–Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations — Reservations,” 84 American University Journal of International Law & Policy 742-46 (1990).
  • Hussain, Ijaz. Dissenting and Separate Opinions at the World Court. Boston: Nijhoff, 1984.
  • International Court of Justice. The Case Against the Bomb: Marshall Islands, Samoa, and Solomon Islands Before the International Court of Justice in Advisory Proceedings on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons: Questions Posed by the General Assembly and the World Health Organization. Roger S. Clark and Madeleine Sann, eds. Camden, N.J.: Rutgers University School of law at Camden, 1996.
  • Keith, Kenneth James. The Extent of the Advisory Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice. Leyden, The Netherlands: Sijthoff, 1971. In-depth study of the advisory competence of the I.C.J.
  • Krea, Milenko. Dissenting Opinion of Judge ad hoc Krea in genocide case preliminary objections. Belgrade: BIGZ, 1997.
  • Lachs, Manfred. “Thoughts on the Recent Jurisprudence of the International Court of Justice,” 4 Emory International Law Review 77 (1990).
  • Lloyd, Lorna. Peace Through Law: Britain and the International Court in the 1920s. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: Rochester, N.Y.: Royal Historical Society/Boydell Press, 1997.
  • Merrills, J.G. Judge Sir Gerald Fitzmaurice and the Discipline of International Law: Opinions on the International Court of Justice, 1961-1973. The Hague; Boston: Kluwer, 1998.
  • Nanda, Ved P. & David Krieger. Nuclear Weapons and the World Court. Ardsley, N.Y.: Transnational, 1998.
  • New Zealand at the International Court of Justice: French Nuclear Testing in the Pacific: Nuclear Tests Case, New Zealand v. France. Wellington, N.Z.: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 1996.
  • O’Connell, Mary Ellen. “The Prospects for Enforcing Monetary Judgments of the International Court of Justice: A Study of Nicaragua’s Judgment Against the United States,” 30 Virginia Journal of International Law 891 (1990).
  • Remedies in International Law: The Institutional Dilemma. Malcolm D. Evans, ed. Oxford: Hart, 1998.
  • Ris, Martin. “Treaty Interpretation and ICJ Recourse to Travaux Preparatoires: Towards a Proposed Amendment of Articles 31 and 32 of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties,” 14 B.C. International & Comparative Law Review 111 (1990).
  • Rosenne, Shabtai. “All’s Well that Ends Well. Or is it? More on the publications of the International Court of Justice,'” 84 American Journal of International Law 586 (1990).
  • Rosenne, Shabtai. Intervention in the International Court of Justice. Boston: Nijhoff, 1993.
  • Rosenne, Shabtai. The Time Factor in the Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice. Leyden, The Netherlands: Sijthoff, 1960. A short introduction to personal and material jurisdiction of the I.C.J.
  • Schwebel, Stephen M. “The Docket and Decisionmaking Process of the International Court of Justice,” 13 Suffolk Transnational Law Journal 543 (1990).
  • Schwebel, Stephen M. Justice in International Law: Selected Writings of Judge Stephen M. Schwebel. Holmes Beach, FL: Gaunt, 1994. Written by a highly respected member of the Court. The first half of the book examines the performance and capacity of the ICJ.

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