Immigration Policy

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Immigration Policy

Immigration Policy in the United States

According to the Encyclopedia of Public Administration and Public Policy (Third Edition, Domonic A. Bearfield Melvin J. Dubnick, CRC Press 2015), the “immigration policy has internal and external dimensions. The external dimension—which involves “gatekeeping” between a host country and people who want to become immigrants living in the host country—addresses questions of how many, what kinds, and under what conditions prospective immigrants will be allowed to do so. United States immigration policy emphasizes family-based and employment-based criteria for immigrant admission, as well as admissions criteria for refugees and asylum seekers. The internal dimension of immigration policy is focused on the relationships between immigrants and their host country and its people. The United States approach to internal immigration policy is primarily laissez-faire and assimilationist, for the most part asking immigrants to take responsibility for their own adaptation to the country, and in doing so placing immigrants under considerable social and economic pressure to assimilate to the dominant culture and language of the country.”


See Also

  • Immigration
  • List of Immigration and Domicile Laws e-Journals
  • Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services
  • Encyclopedia of American Immigration
  • Immigration law research resources
  • U.S. Immigration Law Online Resources
  • Immigration Amnesty Law
  • Public Policy
  • Illegal Immigration
  • Immigration Law


Further Reading

  • Alexseev, M. (2006) Immigration Phobia and the Security Dilemma: Russia, Europe, and the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Baldwin-Edwards, M. (2006) “Between a Rock and a Hard Place”: North Africa as a Region of Emigration, Immigration and Transit Migration. Review of African Political Economy 108, 311–24.
  • Batalova, J., Mittelstadt, M., Mather, M., and Lee, M. (2008) Immigration: Data Matters. Washington: Migration Policy Institute and Population Reference Bureau.
  • Bauböck, R., Ersbøll, E., Groenendijk, K., and Waldrauch, H. (eds.) (2006) Acquisition and Loss of Nationality. Vol. 2: Country Analyses: Policies and Trends in 15 European Countries. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
  • Bertossi, C. (ed.) (2007) European Anti-Discrimination and the Politics of Citizenship: Britain and France. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Bleich, E. (2008) Immigration and Integration Studies in Western Europe and the United States: The Road Less Traveled and a Path Ahead. World Politics 60, 509–38.
  • Bommes, M., and Geddes, A. (2000) Immigration and Welfare: Challenging the Borders of the Welfare State. London: Routledge.
  • Brubaker, W.R. (ed.) (1989) Immigration and the Politics of Citizenship in Europe and North America. Lanham: University Press of America.
  • Brubaker, W.R. (1992) Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Castles, S. (1995) How Nation-States Respond to Immigration and Ethnic Diversity. New Community 21 (3), 293–308.
  • Castles, S., and Kosack, G. (1973) Immigrant Workers and Class Structure in Western Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Chebel d’Appollonia, A., and Reich, S. (2008) Immigration, Integration, and Security: America and Europe in Comparative Perspective. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Cornelius, W.A., Espenshade, T.J., and Salehyan, I. (2001) The International Migration of the Highly Skilled: Demand, Supply and Development Consequences in Sending and Receiving Countries. La Jolla: Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, University of California, San Diego.
  • Entzinger, H. (2000) The Dynamics of Integration Policies: A Multidimensional Model. In R. Koopmans and P. Statham (eds.) Challenging Immigration and Ethnic Relations Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 97–118.
  • Favell, A. (2001) Philosophies of Integration: Immigration and the Idea of Citizenship in France and Britain. New York: Palgrave, in association with the Centre for Research in Ethnic Relations, University of Warwick.
  • Findlay, A.M., Jones, H., and Davidson, G.M. (2000) Migration Transition or Migration Transformation in the Asian Dragon Economies. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 22 (4), 643–63.
  • Foot, P. (1965) Immigration and Race in British Politics. Baltimore: Penguin.
  • Freeman, G.P. (1986) Migration and the Political Economy of the Welfare State. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 485, 51–63.
  • Freeman, G.P. (2004) Immigrant Incorporation in Western Democracies. International Migration Review 38 (3), 945–69.
  • Geddes, A. (2003) The Politics of Migration and Immigration in Europe. London: Sage.
  • Givens, T.E. (2007) Immigrant Integration in Europe: Empirical Research. Annual Review of Political Science 10, 67–83.
  • Glebe, G., and O’Loughlin, J. (eds.) (1987) Foreign Minorities in Continental European Cities. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner.
  • Hammar, T. (ed.) (1985) European Immigration Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hansen, R., and Weil, P. (2001) Toward a European Nationality: Citizenship, Immigration and Nationality Law in the EU. New York: Palgrave.
  • Haus, L. (1995) Openings in the Wall: Transnational Migrants, Labor Unions, and US Immigration Policy. International Organization 49 (2), 285–324.
  • Higham, J. (1955) Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism 1860–1924. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
  • Howard, M.M. (2007) Comparative Citizenship: An Agenda for Cross-National Research. Perspectives on Politics 4 (3), 443–55.
  • Ireland, P. (1994) The Policy Challenge of Ethnic Diversity: Immigrant Politics in France and Switzerland. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Joppke, C. (2003b) Citizenship between De- and ReEthnicization. European Journal of Sociology 44 (3), 429–58.
  • Kondo, A. (ed.) (2001) Citizenship in a Global World: Comparing Citizenship Rights for Aliens. New York: Palgrave.
  • Koopmans, R., Statham, P., Giugni, M., and Passy, F. (eds.) (2005) Contested Citizenship: Immigration and Cultural Diversity in Europe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Kubat, D. (ed.) (1993) The Politics of Migration Policies, Settlement and Integration: The First World into the 1990s, 2nd edn. New York: Center for Migration Studies.
  • Layton-Henry, Z. (1985) Great Britain. In T. Hammar (ed.) European Immigration Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 89–127.
  • LeMay, M.C. (ed.) (1989) The Gatekeepers: Comparative Immigration Policy. New York: Praeger.
  • Meissner, D. (1992) Managing Migrations. Foreign Policy 86, 66–83.
  • Meyers, E. (2000) Theories of International Immigration Policy: A Comparative Analysis. International Migration Review 34 (4), 1245–82.
  • Miles, R., and Thränhardt, D. (1995) Migration and European Integration: The Dynamics of Inclusion and Exclusion. London: Pinter.
  • Money, J. (1999) Fences and Neighbors: The Political Geography of Immigration Control. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Paul, K. (1997) Whitewashing Britain: Race and Citizenship in the Postwar Era. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
  • Piore, M. (1979) Birds of Passage. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Richards, A. (1983) The Laissez-Faire Approach to International Labor Migration: The Case of the Arab Middle East. Economic Development and Cultural Change 31 (3), 455–74.
  • Rudolph, C. (2003) Security and the Political Economy of International Migration. American Political Science Review 97 (4), 603–20.
  • Sainsbury, D. (2006) Immigrants’ Social Rights in Comparative Perspective: Welfare Regimes, Forms of Immigration and Immigration Policy Regimes. Journal of European Social Policy 16 (3), 229–44.
  • Schierup, C.-U., Hansen, P., and Castles, S. (2006) Migration, Citizenship and the European Welfare State: A European Dilemma. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Seely, J. (2007) Limiting Access to Citizenship in Africa: A Cross-National Comparison. Paper presented at the International Studies Association Annual Meeting, Chicago, April.
  • Skrentny, J.D., Chan, S., Fox, J., and Kim, D. (2007) Defining Nations in Asia and Europe: A Comparative Analysis of Ethnic Return Migration Policy. International Migration Review 41 (4), 793–825.
  • Soysal, Y.N. (1994) Limits of Citizenship: Migrants and Postnational Membership in Europe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Thränhardt, D. (ed.) (1992) Europe – A New Immigration Continent: Politics and Policies in Comparative Perspective. Hamburg: Lit.
  • Tsuda, T. (ed.) (2006) Local Citizenship in Recent Countries of Immigration: Japan in Comparative Perspective. Lanham: Lexington Books.
  • Vink, M.P. (2005) Limits of European Citizenship: European Integration and Domestic Immigration Policies. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Weil, P. (1991) La France et ses étrangers: l’aventure d’une politique de l’immigration de 1938 à nos jours. Paris: Gallimard.
  • Weiner, M., and Russell, S.S. (eds.) (2001) Demography and National Security. New York: Berghahn.
  • Zolberg, A.R. (1981) International Migrations in Political Perspective. In M. Kritz, C.B. Keely, and S.M. Tomasi (eds.) Global Trends in Migration. New York: Center for Migration Studies, pp. 3–27.

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