Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law

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Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law

Bibliographic Details

  • Title: Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law
  • ISBN: 9781414498966
  • Author: Batten, Donna (edt)
  • Publisher: Gale Cengage
  • Author: Wilson, Jeffrey
  • Subject: Law-Legal Guides and Reference, Reference
  • Copyright: 2013
  • Series Volume: 2 Volume Set
  • Publication Date: 2013-05-31
  • Language: English

Introduction

The Gale Encyclopedia of Everyday Law is a two-volume encyclopedia of practical information on laws and issues affecting people’s everyday lives.

Readers will turn to this work for help in answering questions such as, “What is involved in estate planning?” “Do I have any recourse to noisy neighbors?” and “What are the consequences of an expired visa?” This Encyclopedia aims to educate people about their rights under the law, although it is not intended as a self-help or ‘do-it-yourself’ legal resource. It seeks to fill the niche between legal texts focusing on the theory and history behind the law and shallower, more practical guides to dealing with the law.

This encyclopedia, written for the layperson, is arranged alphabetically by broad subject categories and presents in-depth treatments of topics such as consumer issues, education, family, immigration, real estate, and retirement. Individual entries are organized in alphabetical order within these broad subject categories, and include information on state and local laws, as well as federal laws. In entries where it is not possible to include state and local information, references direct the reader to resources for further research.

The work contains approximately 200 articles of 2,000-5,000 words each, organized within 24 broad subject categories. Each article begins with a brief description of the issue’s historical background, covering important statutes and cases. The body of the article is divided into subsections profiling the various U.S. federal laws and regulations concerning the topic. A third section details variations of the laws and regulations from state to state. Each article closes with a comprehensive bibliography, covering print resources and web sites, and a list of relevant national and state organizations and agencies.

Table of Contents

Americans with Disabilities Act

  • Educational Accommodations
  • Public Facility Accommodations
  • Work Accommodations

Attorneys

  • Attorney-Client Privilege
  • How to Find an Attorney
  • Malpractice

Automobiles

  • Accident Liability
  • Buying a Car/Registration
  • Driver’s License
  • Insurance
  • Leasing a Car
  • Safety
  • Seat Belt Usage
  • Traffic Violations

Banking

  • Banking and Lending Law
  • Banks, Saving & Loans, Credit Unions
  • FDIC
  • Interest Rates

Business Law
Corporations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Limited Liability Companies . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Partnerships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
Shareholder Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Civil Rights
Affirmative Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
Age Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
Assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
Children’s Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
Firearm Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155
Free Speech/Freedom of Expression . . . . .163
Racial Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
Religious Freedom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Sexual Discrimination and Orientation . . . .183
Voting Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Consumer Issues
Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
Bankruptcy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
Contracts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207
Credit/Truth-in Lending . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Deceptive Trade Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
Defective Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
Federal Trade Commission/Regulation . . . .233
Mail-Order Purchases/Telemarketing . . . . .237
Product Safety and Consumer Protection . .243
Purchases and Returns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249
Recalls by Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255
Warranties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261
Courts and Procedures
Civil Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
Criminal Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273
Federal Courts and Jurisdictions . . . . . . . . .281
Juries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289
Small Claims Courts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301
State Courts and Procedures . .

Criminal Law
Appeals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313
Crimes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
Death Penalty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323
Double Jeopardy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
Evidence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337
Fifth Amendment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
Insanity Defense . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .353
Juveniles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
Plea Bargaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .365
Probation and Parole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369
Right to Counsel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .375
Search and Seizure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381
Sentencing and Sentencing Guidelines . . . .389
Dispute Resolution Alternatives
Arbitration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395
Mediation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .403
Mini-Trials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .411
Negotiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417
Education
Administering Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
Athletics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .429
Bilingualism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
Codes of Conduct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441
Competency Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445
Compulsory Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451
Curriculum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .459
Desegregation/Busing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .465
Discipline and Punishment . . . . . . . . . . . .471
Drug Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .477
Finance/Funding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .483
School Prayer/Pledge of Allegiance . . . . . .487
Special Education/Disability Access . . . . . .493
Student’s Rights/Free Speech . . . . . . . . . . .501
Teacher’s Unions/Collective Bargaining . . .507
Teacher’s Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .513
Truancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .521
Types of Schools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .527
Violence and Weapons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .533
Estate Planning
Estate and Gift Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .539
Guardianships and Conservatorships . . . . .543
Intestacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .549
Life Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .555
Power of Attorney . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .559
Probate and Executors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .565
Trusts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .569
Wills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .575
Family Law
Adoption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .583
Child Abuse/Child Safety/Discipline . . . . . .587
Child Support/Custody . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .591
Cohabitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .599
Divorce/Separation/Annulment . . . . . . . . .607
Domestic Violence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .619
Emancipation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .625
Family Planning/Abortion/Birth Control . . .629
Foster Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .633
Gay Couples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .637
Grandparent’s Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .641
Guardianship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .649
Marriage/Marriage Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .653
Parent Liability Child’s Act . . . . . . . . . . . . .659
Prenuptial Agreements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .663
Unmarried Parents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .667
First Amendment Law
Libel and Slander . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .671
Healthcare
Doctor-Patient Confidentiality . . . . . . . . . .675
Informed Consent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .683
Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .687
Managed Care/HMOs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .693
Medicaid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .701
Medical Malpractice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .709
Medical Records . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .717
Organ Donation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .723
Patient’s Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .729
Treatment of Minors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .737
Treatment Without Insurance . . . . . . . . . . .741
Immigration
Asylum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .745
Deportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .749
Dual Citizenship . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .753
Eligibility for Government Services . . . . . . .757
Immigration and Naturalization Service(INS) 765
Residency/Green Cards/Naturalization . . . .769
Intellectual Property
Copyright . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .773
Patents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .777
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .783
Unfair Competition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .789
Internet
Advertising . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .795
Consumer Rights and Protection . . . . . . . .801
Free Speech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .805
Internet Crime . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .811
Internet Filters in Schools and Libraries . . .819
Internet Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .825
Internet Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .833
Online Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .841
Pornography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .849

Labor Law
Benefits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .855
Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .859
Drug Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .865
Employee’s Rights/EEOC . . . . . . . . . . . . . .871
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) . . . .877
Independent Contractors/Freelancers . . . . .881
Labor Unions/Strikes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .885
Occupational Health and Safety . . . . . . . . .891
Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .897
Sexual Harassment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .903
Unemployment Insurance/Compensation . .909
Wage and Hour Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .915
Whistleblowers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .919
Worker’s Compensation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .925
Real Estate
Boundary/Property/Title Disputes . . . . . . .931
Buying and Selling/Mortgages . . . . . . . . . .935
Condominiums/Co-ops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .941
Contractors/Liens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .947
Easements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .955
Foreclosure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .961
Homeowner’s Liability/Safety . . . . . . . . . . .965
Housing Discrimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . .969
Insurance (Homeowners and Renters) . . . .975
Landlord/Tenant Rights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .983
Neighbor Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .995
Renters’ Liability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .999
Timeshares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1003
Trespassing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1007
Zoning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1011
Retirement and Aging
Assisted Living Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . .1015
Elder Abuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1023
Healthcare/Medicare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1027
Nursing Homes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1033
Retirement Pension Plans . . . . . . . . . . . .1041
Social Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1045
Taxes
Capital Gains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1053
Corporate Tax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1057
Income Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1063
IRS Audits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1069
Property Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1077
Sales Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1083
Self Employment Taxes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1089
Small Business Tax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1093
Tax Evasion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1099
Telecommunications
FCC Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1105
Satellite and Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1111
Telephone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1117
Television . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1121
Travel
Children Travelling Alone . . . . . . . . . . . .1127
Hotel Liability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1131
International Travel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1139
Passports and Visas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1147
Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1151
State and Federal Agency Contacts . . . . . .1157
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1161
General Index

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