Food Safety

International Legal Research

Information about Food Safety in free legal resources:

Treaties & Agreements

International Organizations

Jurisprudence $ Commentary

European Union

IP Law

Food Safety

Note: Food safety is not to be equated with the broader phenomenon of food security, meaning the ability to access sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food.

Food safety and the Treaties of the European Union

Description of Food safety provided by the European Union Commission: The European Union has made food safety one of the main priorities of its policy agenda. It is a horizontal objective to be taken into account in several areas of Community competence: the CAP and its rural development pillar, the environment, public health, consumer protection and the internal market. In response to the food scares of the 1990s (BSE, foot-and-mouth disease), in January 2000 the European Commission published a White Paper on food safety, which marks an important step in the recasting of European legislation in this area. It heralds the development of a legal framework covering the entire food chain – “from farm to fork” – using a global, integrated approach. This approach sees food safety as covering animal feed and animal health, animal protection and welfare, veterinary checks, animal health measures, plant health checks, and the preparation and hygiene of foodstuffs. The White Paper also stresses the need to launch an ongoing dialogue with consumers in order to inform and educate them. Adopted in February 2002, the Regulation forming the basis of the new food safety legislation defines six fundamental general principles:

  • an affirmation of the integrated nature of the food chain;
  • risk analysis as the cornerstone of food safety policy;
  • a clear dividing-line between the analysis and management of risks;
  • the responsibility of operators in the sector;
  • the traceability of products at every stage of the food chain;
  • the citizen’s right to clear and accurate information.

The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has been set up. Its main tasks are to provide independent scientific opinions on food safety issues, to collect and analyse data on any potential or emerging risks and to maintain an ongoing dialogue with the public. In particular, it issues scientific opinions on certain foodstuffs or ingredients (additives, GMOs). The Brussels European Council held in December 2003 established the EFSA’sheadquarters in Parma, Italy.

Food safety Policy in Other Jurisdictions

Resources

See Also

Popular Treaties Topics

  • Treaties of the United Nations (UN)
  • Types of Treaties
  • International Treaties
  • Famous Treaties
  • Law of Treaties
  • Numbered Treaties

Further Reading

  • Abels, G., & Kobusch, A. (2015). Regulation of food safety in the EU: Explaining organizational diversity among member states. In T. Havinga, F. van Waarden, & D. Casey (Eds.), The changing landscape of food governance: Public and private encounters (pp. 39–56). Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar.
  • Abels, G., Kobusch, A., & Träsch, J. (2016). Scientific regulatory cooperation within the EU: On the relationship between EFSA and national food authorities. In A. Alemanno & S. Gabbi (Eds.), Foundations of EU food law and policy: Ten years of the European food safety authority (pp. 73–92). London: Routledge.
  • Alink, S., Barlow, S., & Cockburn, A. et al. (2008). Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: The role of animal feeding trials. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(Suppl. 1), S2–S70.
  • Ansell, C. K., & Vogel, D. (Eds.). (2006). What’s the beef? The contested governance of European food safety. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Antle, J. M. (1999). Benefits and costs of food safety regulation. Food Policy, 24, 605–623.
  • Barling, D., Lang, T., & Caraher, M. (2002). Joined-up food policy? The trials of governance, public policy and the food system. Social Policy & Administration, 36, 556–574.
  • Barlow, S., & Schlatter, J. (2010). Risk assessment of carcinogens in food. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 243(2), 180–190.
  • Bazzan, G. (2017). Effective governance of food safety regulation across EU Member States: Towards operationalization. European Journal of Risk Regulation, 8(3), 565–572.
  • Buzby, J. C., & Frenzen, P. D. (1999). Food safety and product liability. Food Policy, 24, 637–651.
  • Cafaggi, F. (2012). Transnational governance by contract: Private regulation and contractual networks in food safety. In A. Marx, M. Maertens, J. Swinnen, & J. Wouters (Eds.), Private standards and global governance: Economic, legal and political perspectives (pp. 195–234). Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar.
  • Daugbjerg, C., & Feindt, P. H. (2017, May 4). Post-exceptionalism in public policy: Transforming food and agricultural policy. Journal of European Public Policy. Advance online publication.
  • Davies, P. (2011). Intensive swine production and pork safety. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, 8(2), 189–201.
  • Deshpande, S. S. (2002). Handbook of food toxicology. New York: Marcel Dekker.
  • DeWaal, C. (2007). Food safety and security: What tragedy teaches us about our 100-year-old food laws. Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 40, 921–935.
  • Doyle, M. P., & Erickson, M. C. (Eds.). (2008). Imported foods: Microbiological issues and challenges. Washington, DC: ASM.
  • Figuié, M. (2014). Towards a global governance of risks: International health organisations and the surveillance of emerging infectious diseases. Journal of Risk Research, 17, 469–483.
  • Fleckenstein, J., Bartels, S., Drevets, P., Bronze, M., & Drevets, D. (2010). Infectious agents of food and waterborne illnesses. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 340(3), 238–246.
  • Forsythe, S. J. (2010). The microbiology of safe food (2d ed.). Chichester, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Fuchs, D., & Kalfagianni, A. (2010). The causes and consequences of private food governance. Business and Politics, 12(3), 5–42.
  • Fulponi, L. (2006). Private voluntary standards in the food system: The perspective of major food retailers in OECD countries. Food Policy, 31, 1–13.
  • Griffiths, M. (2005). Understanding pathogen behaviour: Virulence, stress response, and resistance. Cambridge, U.K.: Woodhead.
  • Hamm, M. W. (2009). Principles for framing a healthy food system. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, 4(3–4), 241–250.
  • Havinga, T. (2006). Private regulation of food safety by supermarkets. Law & Policy, 28, 515–533.
  • Havinga, T. (2014). National variations in the implementation and enforcement of European food hygiene regulations: Comparing the structure of food controls and regulations between Scotland and the Netherlands. Recht der Werkelijkheid, 3, 32–53.
  • Havinga, T. (2015). Conceptualizing regulatory arrangements: Complex networks and regulatory roles. In T. Havinga, F. van Waarden, & D. Casey (Eds.), The changing landscape of food governance: Public and private encounters (pp. 19–36). Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar.
  • Havinga, T., van Waarden, F., & Casey, D. (Eds.). (2015). The changing landscape of food governance: Public and private encounters. Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar.
  • Hayaski, Y. (2009). Scientific basis for risk analysis of food-related substances with particular reference to health effects on children. Journal of Toxicological Sciences, 34(Suppl. 2), SP201–SP207.
  • Head, B. W. (2008). Wicked problems in public policy. Public Policy, 3(2), 101–118.
  • Head, B. W., & Alford, J. (2015). Wicked problems: Implications for public policy and management. Administration & Society, 47, 711–739.
  • Henson, S., & Humphrey, J. (2010). Understanding the complexities of private standards in global agri-food chains as they impact developing countries. Journal of Development Studies, 46, 1628–1646.
  • Henson, S., & Jaffee, S. (2008). Understanding developing country strategic responses to the enhancement of food safety standards. World Economy, 31, 548–568.
  • Holleran, E., Bredahl, M. E., & Zaibet, L. (1999). Private incentives for adopting food safety and quality assurance. Food Policy, 24, 669–683.
  • Hui, Y. H. (Ed.). (1994). Foodborne disease handbook. New York: Marcel Dekker.
  • Jackson, L. (2009). Chemical food safety issues in the United States: Past, present, and future. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 57, 8161–8170.
  • Juneja, V., & Sofos, J. (Eds.). (2010). Pathogens and toxins in foods: Challenges and interventions. Washington, DC: ASM.
  • Kobusch, A. (2015). Mehrebenensystem EU: Risikobewertung im Europäischen Verwaltungsraum. In Europäisches Zentrum für Föderalismus-Forschung Tübingen (EZFF) (Ed.), Jahrbuch des Föderalismus (pp. 445–457). Tübingen, Germany: Nomos.
  • Labbé, R. G., & García, S. (Eds.). (2001). Guide to foodborne pathogens. New York: Wiley.
  • Li, Y., Qi, R., & Liu, H. (2010). Designing independent regulatory system of food safety in China. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 1, 288–295.
  • Lin, C. (2014). Public-private interactions in global food safety governance. Food & Drug Law Journal, 69, 143–160.
  • Loader, R., & Hobbs, J. E. (1999). Strategic responses to food safety legislation. Food Policy, 2, 685–706.
  • Lund, B. M., Baird-Parker, T. C., & Gould, G. W. (2000). The microbiological safety and quality of food. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.
  • Lytton, T. D., & McAllister, L. K. (2014). Oversight in private food safety auditing: Addressing auditor conflict of interest. Wisconsin Law Review, 2, 289–335.
  • MacMaoláin, C. (2015). Food law: European, domestic and international frameworks. Oxford: Bloomsbury.
  • Maertens, M., & Swinnen, J. (2012). Private standards, global food supply chains and the implications for developing countries. In A. Marx, M. Maertens, & J. F. Swinnen (Eds.). Private standards and global governance: Economic, legal, and political perspectives (pp. 153–171). Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar.
  • Marks, A. B. (2016). New governance recipe for food safety regulation. Loyola University Chicago Law Journal, 47, 907–968.
  • Martinez, M. G., Fearne, A., Caswell, J. A., & Henson, S. (2007). Co-regulation as a possible model for food safety governance: Opportunities for public–private partnerships. Food Policy, 32, 299–314.
  • May, P. J. (2007). Regulatory regimes and accountability. Regulation & Governance, 1(1), 8–26.
  • Millstone, E., & Van Zwanenberg, P. (2002). The evolution of food safety policy-making institutions in the UK, EU and Codex Alimentarius. Social Policy & Administration, 36, 593–609.
  • Muller, M., Tagtow, A., Roberts, S. L., & MacDougall, E. (2009). Aligning food systems policies to advance public health. Journal of Hunger & Environmental Nutrition, 4(3–4), 225–240.
  • Nestle, M. (2003). Safe food: Bacteria, biotechnology, and bioterrorism. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Newell, D., Koopmans, M., Verhoef, L., Duizer, E., Aidara-Kane, A., Sprong, H., . . . van der Giessen, J. (2010). Foodborne diseases: The challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 139(Suppl.), S3–S15.
  • Otsuki, T., Wilson, J. S., & Sewadeh, M. (2001). Saving two in a billion: Quantifying the trade effect of European food safety standards on African exports. Food Policy, 26, 495–514.
  • Phillips, P., & Wolfe, R. (Eds.). (2001). Governing food: Science, safety and trade. London: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
  • Rahn, W. M., Gollust, S. E., & Tang, X. (2016, March 31). Framing food policy: The case of raw milk. Policy Studies Journal. Advance online publication.
  • Redman, N. E. (2007). Food safety: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
  • Richards, T., Nganje, W., & Acharya, R. (2009). Public goods, hysteresis, and underinvestment in food safety. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 34, 464–482.
  • Robson, M. (2013). Food safety. Oxford Bibliographies Online.
  • Sabel, C. F., & Zeitlin, J. (Eds.). (2010). Experimentalist governance in the European Union: Towards a new architecture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Sager, F., Thomann, E., Zollinger, C., van der Heiden, N., & Mavrot, C. (2014). Street-level bureaucrats and new modes of governance: How conflicting roles affect the implementation of the Swiss ordinance on veterinary medicinal products. Public Management Review, 16, 481–502.
  • Scallan, E., Griffin, P. M., Angulo, F. J., Tauxe, R. V., &. Hoekstra, R. M. (2011). Foodborne illness acquired in the United States: Unspecified agents. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 17(1), 16–22.
  • Scharff, R. (2012). Economic burden from health losses due to foodborne illness in the United States. Journal of Food Protection, 75(1), 123–131.
  • Scharff, R., McDowell, J., & Medeiros, L. (2009). Evaluation of educational intervention using the enhanced food safety cost-of-illness model. Journal of Food Protection, 72, 137–141.
  • Schmidt, R. H., & Rodrick, G. E. (Eds.). (2003). Food Safety Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Interscience.
  • Skogstad, G. (2001). The WTO and food safety regulatory policy innovation in the European Union. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 39, 485–505.
  • Soon, J., Baines, R., & Seaman, P. (2012). Meta-analysis of food safety training on hand hygiene knowledge and attitudes among food handlers. Journal of Food Protection, 75, 793–804.
  • Stanton, G. H. (2012). Food safety-related private standards: The WTO perspective. In A. Marx, M. Maertens, & J. F. Swinnen (Eds.), Private standards and global governance: Economic, legal and political perspectives(pp. 235–254). Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar.
  • Starbird, S. A. (2005). Moral hazard, inspection policy, and food safety. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 87(1), 15–27.
  • Stewart, K., & Gostin, L. (2011). Food and drug administration regulation of food safety. JAMA, 306(1), 88–89.
  • Stranks, J. W. (2007). The a–z of food safety. London: Thorogood.
  • Termeer, C. J., Dewulf, A., Breeman, G., & Stiller, S. J. (2015). Governance capabilities for dealing wisely with wicked problems. Administration & Society, 47, 680–710.
  • Thomann, E. (2015a). Customizing Europe: Transposition as bottom-up implementation. Journal of European Public Policy, 22, 1368–1387.
  • Thomann, E. (2015b). Is output performance all about the resources? A fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis of street-level bureaucrats in Switzerland. Public Administration, 93(1), 177–194.
  • Thomann, E. (2017). The notions of regulation and self-regulation in political science. Journal of Self-Regulation and Regulation, 1(3), 54–75.
  • Thomann, E., Hupe, P., & Sager, F. (2017, June 6). Serving many masters: Public accountability in private policy implementation. Governance. Advance online publication.
  • Thomann, E., & Sager, F. (2017). Hybridity in action: Accountability dilemmas of public and for-profit food safety inspectors in Switzerland. In P. Verbruggen & T. Havinga (Eds.), Hybridization of food governance: Trends, types and results (pp. 100–120). Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar.
  • Tosun, J. (2013). How the EU handles uncertain risks: Understanding the role of the precautionary principle. Journal of European Public Policy, 20, 1517–1528.
  • Tosun, J. (2017, June 12). Party support for post-exceptionalism in agri-food politics and policy: Germany and the United Kingdom compared. Journal of European Public Policy. Advance online publication.
  • Tosun, J., & de Moraes Marcondes, M. (2016). Import restrictions and food‐safety regulations: Insight from Brazil. Latin American Policy, 7, 377–398.
  • Ugland, T., & Veggeland, F. (2006). Experiments in food safety policy integration in the European Union. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 44, 607–624.
  • Unnevehr, L., & Hirschhorn, N. (2000). Food safety issues in the developing world. Washington, DC: World Bank.
  • Unnevehr, L. J., & Jensen, H. H. (1999). The economic implications of using HACCP as a food safety regulatory standard. Food Policy, 24, 625–635.
  • van der Heijden, K. A., Younes, M., Fishbein, L., & Miller, S. (Eds.). (1999). International food safety handbook: Science, international regulation, and control. New York: Marcel Dekker.
  • van der Meulen, B. M. J. (2014). Food law: Development, crisis and transition. In B. M. J. van der Meulen (Ed.), EU food law handbook (pp. 199–220). Wageningen, The Netherlands: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
  • Verbruggen, P. (2013). Gorillas in the closet? Public and private actors in the enforcement of transnational private regulation. Regulation & Governance, 7, 512–532.
  • Verbruggen, P. (2016). Understanding the “new governance” of food safety: Regulatory enrolment as a response to change in public and private power. Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law, 5, 418–449.
  • Verbruggen, P., & Havinga, T. (Eds.). (2017). Hybridization of food governance: Trends, types and results. Cheltenham, U.K.: Edward Elgar.
  • Wallace, C., Sperber, W., & Mortimore, S. (2010). Food safety for the 21st century: Managing HACCP and food safety throughout the global supply chain. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Wengle, S. (2016). When experimentalist governance meets science‐based regulations: The case of food safety regulations. Regulation & Governance, 10, 262–283.
  • Yiannas, F. (2010). Food safety culture: Creating a behavior-based food safety management system. New York: Springer.
  • Zeitlin, J. (Ed.). (2015). Extending experimentalist governance? The European Union and transnational regulation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Zweigenbaum, J. (2011). United States and Japanese food regulations. Methods in Molecular Biology, 747, 53–63.

Hierarchical Display of Food safety

Social Questions > Health > Nutrition
Trade > Consumption > Consumer > Consumer protection
European Union > EU institutions and European civil service > EU office or agency > Food and Veterinary Office
Social Questions > Health > Health policy > Organisation of health care > Public health > Health risk
Production, Technology And Research > Research and intellectual property > Research > Research method > Qualitative analysis > Traceability
Social Questions > Health > Illness > Food-borne disease
European Union > EU institutions and European civil service > EU office or agency > European Food Safety Authority
Production, Technology And Research > Research and intellectual property > Research > Research method > Precautionary principle
Social Questions > Health > Health policy > Organisation of health care > Public health > Health control > EU reference laboratory

Food safety

Concept of Food safety

See the dictionary definition of Food safety.

Characteristics of Food safety

Resources

Translation of Food safety

Thesaurus of Food safety

Social Questions > Health > Nutrition > Food safety
Trade > Consumption > Consumer > Consumer protection > Food safety
European Union > EU institutions and European civil service > EU office or agency > Food and Veterinary Office > Food safety
Social Questions > Health > Health policy > Organisation of health care > Public health > Health risk > Food safety
Production, Technology And Research > Research and intellectual property > Research > Research method > Qualitative analysis > Traceability > Food safety
Social Questions > Health > Illness > Food-borne disease > Food safety
European Union > EU institutions and European civil service > EU office or agency > European Food Safety Authority > Food safety
Production, Technology And Research > Research and intellectual property > Research > Research method > Precautionary principle > Food safety
Social Questions > Health > Health policy > Organisation of health care > Public health > Health control > EU reference laboratory > Food safety

See also

  • Safety of food
  • Food quality safety
  • Food product safety

Leave a Comment