Environmental Law

International Legal Research

Information about Environmental Law in free legal resources:

Treaties & Agreements

International Organizations

Jurisprudence $ Commentary

European Union

IP Law

Contents

Environmental Law

The Legal History of Environmental Law

This section provides an overview of Environmental Law

Environmental Law

Contents of Environmental Law

Contents of this subject matter include:

The Nature of Environmental Law

What is environmental law?

Growth of environmental law
The social and legal context

the Development of Environmental Law

Environmental protection and common law

International environmental law

Environmental Ethics

Ethics and values in environmental law

Sustainable Development

Ecologically sustainable development

Precautionary principle
Protection of biodiversity
Intergenerational equity
Economic instruments/polluter pays

The Purpose of Environmental Law

Legislation, structure and content

Federal Governance and the Environment Protection of Biodiversity Conservation Act

Federal governance

Commonwealth v Tasmania
Environment Protection of Biodiversity Conservation Act

Strategic Environmental Planning and Impact Assessment

Environmental planning

Environmental impact assessment

Protection of Biodiversity

Protected areas

Native vegetation
Native wildlife and threatened species

Pollution Control

Pollution, waste and contaminated sites

Climate Change

International obligations

National responses

Environmental decision-making and the courts

Standing

Enforcement of environment regulation

Related Fields

Related topics include:

International Environmental Law

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Environmental Law Violations

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Pollution

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Environmental Dumping

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Environmental Policy

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Climate

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International Environmental Law

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Environmental Law Violations

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Environmental Crime

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Environmental Policy

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Disaster

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International Environmental Law

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Clean Air

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Environmental Law

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Environmental Safety

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Environmental Protection

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Pollution

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Environmental Ethics

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Environmental Sustainability

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Land and Air Pollution and Related Issues

In relation to the international law practice and land and air pollution and related issues in this world legal Encyclopedia, please see the following section:

Environment and Other Transnational Scientific Issues

About this subject:

Ozone Depletion

Note: there is detailed information and resources under these topics during the year 2013, covered by this entry on land and air pollution and related issues in this law Encyclopedia.

Introduction

Environmental Law

This entry provides an overview of the legal framework of environmental law, with a description of the most significant features of environmental law at international level.

Related Work and Conclusions

Resources

See Also

  • Environment
  • Transnational Scientific Issues

References (Papers)

  • When Does Legal Flexibility Work In Environmental Law, Eric Biber, Josh Eagle, Nov 2105
  • Polar Opposites: Assessing The State Of Environmental Law In The World’S Polar Regions, Mark P. Nevitt, Robert V. Percival, Dec 2017
  • Pain In The Ash? Epa’s Proposed Regulation Of Fly Ash And The Impending Economic Threat To Sustainable Concrete, Briana Novian, Sep 2017
  • Deep Seeded Problems: A Look At Seed Bank Regulations, Jasmine Patel, Aug 2017
  • Hanford Nuclear Site: Remediating To A Standard Safe For All Or Some?, Dylane Jacobs, Aug 2017
  • Indoor Aquaponics In Abandoned Buildings: A Potential Solution To Food Deserts, Lisa Tomlinson, Aug 2017

Further Reading

  • Environmental Law in the Oxford International Encyclopedia of Legal History (Oxford University Press)
  • Agrawala, S.K. (ed.) (1972) Essays on the Law of Treaties. New Delhi: Orient Longman.
  • Arend, T.E. (1990) Ivory, Elephants, or Both: Negotiating the Transfer of the African Elephant to an Appendix II Within CITES. In L.E. Susskind et al. (eds.) International Environmental Treaty-Making. Program on Negotiation. Cambridge: Harvard Law School.
  • Balistrieri, C.A. (1996) CITES: The ESA and International Trade. In R.N. Wells, Jr. (ed.) Law, Values, and the Environment: A Reader and Selective Bibliography. Lanham: Scarecrow Press.
  • Barrett, S. (1992) Convention on Climate Change: Economic Aspects of Negotiations. Paris: OECD. Quoted from H. Folmer, N. Hanley, and F. Mibfeldt (1998) Game-Theoretic Modeling of Environmental and Resource Problems: An Introduction. In N. Hanley and H. Folmer (eds.) Game Theory and the Environment. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
  • Benedick, R.E. (1991) Ozone Diplomacy: New Directions in Safeguarding the Planet. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • Bjorkbom, L. (1988) Resolution of Environmental Problems: The Use of Diplomacy. In J.E. Carroll (ed.) International Environmental Diplomacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bodansky, D. (1994) Prologue to the Climate Change Convention. In I.M. Mintzer and J.A. Leonard (eds.) Negotiating Climate Change: The Inside Story of the Rio Convention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bodansky, D., Brunnee, J., and Hey, E. (eds.) (2007) The Oxford Handbook of International Environmental Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Borione, D., and Ripert, J. (1994) Exercising Common but Differentiated Responsibility. In I.M. Mintzer and J.A. Leonard (eds.) Negotiating Climate Change: The Inside Story of the Rio Convention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Bretschger, L., and Egli, H. (2001) Sustainable Growth in Open Economies. In G.G. Schulze and H.W. Ursprung (eds.) International Environmental Economics: A Survey of the Issues. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 183–208.
  • Bull, H. (1997) The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
  • Carr, C.L., and Scott, G.L. (1999) Multilateral Treaties and the Environment: A Case Study in the Formation of Customary International Law. Denver Journal of International Law and Policy 27, 313–35.
  • Carraro, C. (ed.) (1999a) International Environmental Agreements on Climate Change. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Carraro, C., Marchiori, C., and Oreffice, S. (2003) Endogenous Minimum Participation in International Environmental Treaties. Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei Working Paper Series. Coalition Theory Network. Nota di la Voro 113.
  • Chayes, A., and Chayes, A.H. (1993) On Compliance. International Organization 47, 175–205.
  • Chayes, A., Chayes, A.H., and Mitchell, R.B. (1998) Managing Compliance: A Comparative Perspective. In E.B. Weiss and H.K. Jacobson (eds.) Engaging Countries: Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Citron, K. (1989) Experience of a Negotiator at the Stockholm Conference. In F. Mautner-Markhof (ed.) Processes of International Negotiations. San Francisco: Westview Press.
  • Congleton, R.D. (1992) Political Regimes and Pollution Control. Review of Economics and Statistics 74, 412–21.
  • Corrales, M., and Dreyfus, T. (1990) Negotiations over Auto Emissions Standards in the European Economic Community, 1983–1989. In L.E. Susskind, E. Siskind, and J.W. Breslin (eds.) Nine Case Studies in International Environmental Negotiation. Cambridge: The MIT-Harvard Public Disputes Program.
  • Dasgupta, P., and Maler, K.G. (1995) Poverty, Institutions, and the Environmental Resource Base. In Behrman J.R. and Srinivasan T.N. (eds.) Handbook of Development Economics. Vol. 3. Part I. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  • Diehl, P.F. (ed.) (1997) The Politics of Global Governance. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.
  • Dolsak, N. (2001) Mitigating Global Climate Change: Why Are Some Countries More Committed Than Others? Policy Studies Journal 29, 414–36.
  • Doos, B.R. (1991) Environmental Issues Requiring International Action. In W. Lang et al. (eds.) Environmental Protection and International Law. Boston: Graham and Trotman.
  • Downs, G.W., and Rocke, D.M. (1995) Optimal Imperfection? Domestic Uncertainty and Institutions in International Relations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Dupuy, P.-M. (1999) The Danger of Fragmentation or Unification of the International Legal System and the International Court of Justice. New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 31, 791–807.
  • Feld, W.J., Jordan, R.S., and Hurwitz, L. (eds.) (1994) International Organizations: A Comparative Approach. Westport: Praeger.
  • Finus, M. (2001) Game Theory and International Environmental Cooperation. Cheltenham and Northampton: Edward Elgar.
  • Frank, D.J. (1999) The Social Bases of Environmental Treaty Ratification, 1900–1990. Sociological Inquiry 69, 523–50.
  • Gamble Jr., J.K. (1998) The Treaty/Custom Dichotomy. In K. Charlotte and P.F. Diehl (eds.) International Law: Classic and Contemporary Readings. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
  • Granda, C. (1990) The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. In L.E. Susskind, E. Siskind, and J.W. Breslin (eds.) Nine Case Studies in International Environmental Negotiations. Cambridge: The MIT-Harvard Public Disputes Program.
  • Greene, O. (1996) Environmental Regimes: Effectiveness and Implementation Review. In J. Vogler and M.F. Imber (eds.) The Environment and International Relations. New York: Routledge.
  • Grunert, H. (1989) Negotiations in Our Time. In F. Mautner-Markhof (ed.) Processes of International Negotiations. San Francisco: Westview Press.
  • Haas, P.M. (1989) Do Regimes Matter? Epistemic Communities and Mediterranean Pollution Control. International Organization 43, 377–403.
  • Haas, P.M. (1992) Banning Chlorofluorocarbons: Epistemic Community Efforts to Protect Stratospheric Ozone. International Organization 46, 187–224.
  • Haas, P.M., Keohane, R.O., and Levy, M.A. (eds.) (1993) Institutions for the Earth: Sources of Effective International Environmental Protection. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Harris, P.G. (ed.) (2001) The Environment, International Relations, and US Foreign Policy. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.
  • Helm, C., and Sprinz, D. (2000) Measuring the Effectiveness of International Environmental Regimes. Journal of Conflict Resolution 44, 630–52.
  • Hertel, S. (1994) Promises to Keep: Securing Human Rights in a Changing World. New York: United Nations Association of the United States of America.
  • Hurrell, A., and Kingsbury, B. (eds.) (1992) The International Politics of the Environment. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • ILC (2006) Fragmentation of International Law: Difficulties Arising from the Diversification and Expansion of International Law. Report of the Study Group of the International Law Commission. UN Doc. A/CN.4/L.682. Geneva.
  • Jacobson, H.K., and Weiss, E.B. (1998) A Framework for Analysis. In E.B. Weiss and H.K. Jacobson (eds.) Engaging Countries: Strengthening Compliance with International Environmental Accords. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Kaniaru, D. (2007) Environmental Tribunals as a Mechanism for Settling Disputes. Environmental Policy and Law 37, 459–63.
  • Keohane, R.O. (1989) International Institutions and State Power. Boulder: Westview Press. Quoted from N.J. Rengger (2000) International Relations, Political Theory and the Problem of Order. Beyond International Relations Theory? New York: Routledge.
  • Kiss, A., and Shelton, D. (1986) Systems Analysis of International Law: A Methodological Inquiry. NYIL, 17, 45–74.
  • Kolk, A. (1996) Forests in International Environmental Politics: International Organisations, NGOs and the Brazilian Amazon. Utrecht: International Books.
  • Kutting, G. (2000) Environment, Society and International Relations: Towards More Effective International Environmental Agreements. New York: Routledge.
  • Lang, W. (1999) UN-Principles and International Environmental Law. In A. Bogdandy and R. Wolfrum (eds.) Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law, Volume 3. Heidelberg: Max Planck Institute.
  • Levy, M.A. (1993) Political Science and the Question of Effectiveness of International Environmental Institutions. International Challenges 13 (2), 17–35.
  • Lindborg, N. (1992) Nongovernmental Organizations: Their Past, Present, and Future Role in International Environmental Negotiations. In L.E. Susskind et al. (eds.) International Environmental Treaty Making. Cambridge: Harvard Law School.
  • Maffei, M.C., Pineschi, L., Scovazzi, T., and Treves, T. (eds.) (1996) Participation in World Treaties on the Protection of the Environment: A Collection of Data. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  • Manwaring, M.G. (ed.) (2002) Environmental Security and Global Stability: Problems and Responses. Oxford: Lexington Books.
  • McDorman, T.L. (2004) Access to Information under Article 9 of the OSPAR Convention (Ireland v. United Kingdom). The American Journal of International Law 98, 330–9.
  • Mitchell, R.B. (1994) Intentional Oil Pollution at Sea: Environmental Policy and Treaty Compliance. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Najam, A. (1993) International Environmental Negotiation: A Strategy for the South. In L.E. Susskind, W.R. Moomaw, and A. Najam (eds.) Papers on International Environmental Negotiation, Volume III. Cambridge: Harvard Law School.
  • Neumayer, E. (2002a) Do Democracies Exhibit Stronger International Environmental Commitment? A Cross-country Analysis. Journal of Peace Research 39, 139–64.
  • Nitze, W.A. (1994) A Failure of Presidential Leadership. In I.M. Mintzer and J.A. Leonard (eds.) Negotiating Climate Change: The Inside Story of the Rio Convention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Petersmann, E.-U. (1999) Constitutionalism and International Adjudication: How to Constitutionalize the UN Dispute Settlement System? New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 31, 753–90.
  • Porter, G., and Brown, J.W. (1991) Global Environmental Politics. Boulder: Westview Press.
  • Rest, A. (1999) Enhanced Implementation of the Biological Diversity Convention by Judicial Control. Environmental Policy and Law 29, 32–42.
  • Roberts, J.T., Parks, B.C., and Vasquez, A.A. (2004) Who Ratifies Environmental Treaties and Why? Institutionalism, Structuralism and Participation by 192 Nations in 22 Treaties. Global Environmental Politics 4, 22–64.
  • Romano, C.P.R. (1999) The Proliferation of International Judicial Bodies: The Pieces of the Puzzle. New York University Journal of International Law and Politics 31, 709–51.
  • Sand, P.H. (1992b) Lessons Learned in Global Governance. In W. Lang, H. Neuhold, and K. Zemanek (eds.) Environmental Protection and International Law. Boston: Graham andTrotman.
  • Sands, P. (1996) The European Court of Justice: An Environmental Tribunal? In H. Somsen (ed.) Protecting the European Environment: Enforcing EC Environmental Law. London: Blackstone Press.
  • Sands, P. (1999b) International Environmental Litigation and its Future. University of Richmond Law Review 32, 1619–41.
  • Schmidt, C. (2000) Designing International Environmental Agreements: Incentive Compatible Strategies for Cost-effective Cooperation. Northampton: Edward Elgar.
  • Seelarbokus, C. (2005a) Effectiveness of Environmental Treaties: Trend Analysis of Treaty-Based Environmental Indicators. Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management 7 (3), 493–501.
  • Skjaerseth, J.B., Stokke, O.S., and Wettestad, J. (2006) Soft Law, Hard Law, and Effective Implementation of International Environmental Norms. Global Environmental Politics 6, 104–20.
  • Sprinz, D., and Vaahtoranta, T. (1994) The Interest-Based Explanation of International Environmental Policy. International Organization 48, 77–105.
  • Susskind, L.E., and Ozawa, C. (1992) Negotiating More Effective International Environmental Agreements. In A. Hurrell and B. Kingsbury (eds.) The International Politics of the Environment. Oxford: Clarendon.
  • Tienhaara, K. (2007) Third Party Participation in Investment–Environment Disputes: Recent Developments. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law 16, 230–42.
  • Tussie, D. (ed.) (2000) The Environment and International Trade Negotiations: Developing Country Stakes. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
  • UNEP (2001) Compendium of Judicial Decisions on Matters Related to Environment: National Decisions 3. Nairobi: UNEP.
  • UNEP (2006) Training Manual on International Environmental Law. Nairobi: UNEP.
  • Vespa, M. (2003) An Alternative to an International Environmental Court? The PCA’s Optional Arbitration Rules for Natural Resources and/or the Environment. The Law Practice of International Courts and Tribunals 2, 295–331.
  • Victor, D.G., Raustiala, K., and Skolnikoff, E.B. (eds.) (1998) The Implementation and Effectiveness of International Environmental Commitments: Theory and Practice. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • Villiger, M.E. (1985) Customary International Law and Treaties. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
  • Von Moltke, K. (1988) International Commissions and Implementation of International Environmental Law. In J.E. Carroll (ed.) International Environmental Diplomacy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Weiss, E.B. (1999) Opening the Door to the Environment and to Future Generations. In L. Boisson de Chazournes and P. Sands (eds.) International Law, the International Court of Justice and Nuclear Weapons. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Wettestad, J. (2001) Designing Effective Environmental Regimes: The Conditional Keys. Global Governance 7, 317–41.
  • WRI (1998) GBF 12-Dakar. Linking the Biodiversity and Desertification Agendas 4–6 December 1998. Dakar, Senegal.
  • Young, O.R. (1992) The Effectiveness of International Institutions: Hard Cases and Critical Variables. In J.N. Rosenau and C. Ernst-Otto (eds.) Governance Without Government: Order and Change in World Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Young, O.R. (1997) Rights, Rules, and Resources in World Affairs. In O.R. Young (ed.) Global Governance: Drawing Insights from the Environmental Experience. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
  • Environmental Law in the Dictionary of Concepts in History, by Harry Ritter

Hierarchical Display of Environmental law

Environment > Environmental policy > Environmental policy
Industry > Chemistry > Chemical industry > Chemicals legislation

Environmental law

Concept of Environmental law

See the dictionary definition of Environmental law.

Characteristics of Environmental law

Resources

Translation of Environmental law

Thesaurus of Environmental law

Environment > Environmental policy > Environmental policy > Environmental law
Industry > Chemistry > Chemical industry > Chemicals legislation > Environmental law

See also

  • Environmental legislation
  • Environmental regulations
  • IMPEL network
  • Implementation and Enforcement of Environmental Law
  • IMPEL

1 thought on “Environmental Law”

  1. Research into the field needs to go one step further: there needs to be a critical assessment of the overall interpretation and application of the norms and principles to determine how the law has developed, evolved, and crystallized. And to be able to achieve this, both national and international court decisions will have to be studied in detail to parse out the following: a full listing of the IEL principles that were cited/invoked by the judicial bodies, and the status that was accorded to them; the number of times that each principle has been invoked by the various courts/tribunals; an analysis of the temporal variation in judicial invocation and interpretation/application of the principles and norms, inter alia.

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