Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict

International Legal Research

Information about Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict in free legal resources:

Treaties & Agreements

International Organizations

Jurisprudence $ Commentary

European Union

IP Law

Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict

Contents by Subject Area

Anthropological Studies

Aggression and Altruism
Anthropology of Violence and Conflict, Overview
Clan and Tribal Conflict
Cultural Anthropology Studies of Conflict
Evolutionary Factors
Evolutionary Theory
Folklore
Peaceful Societies
Ritual and Symbolic Behavior
Warriors, Anthropology of

Biomedical Studies

Animal Behavior Studies, Nonprimates
Animal Behavior Studies, Primates
Animals, Violence toward
Biochemical Factors
Child Abuse
Drug Control Policies
Drugs and Violence
Effects of War and Political Violence on Health Services
Health Consequences of War and Political Violence
International Variation in Attitudes toward Violence
Long-Term Effects of War on Children
Mental Illness
Neuropsychology and Mythology of Motivation for Group Aggression
Public Health Models of Violence and Violence Prevention
Violence to Children, Definition and Prevention of

Communications

Children, Impact of Television on
Communication Studies, Overview
Language of War and Peace, The
Linguistic Constructions of Violence, Peace, and Conflict
Mass Media and Dissent
Mass Media, General View
Mediation and Negotiation Techniques
Peace and the Arts
Popular Music
Pornography
Television Programming and Violence, International
Television Programming and Violence, U.S.

Criminology

Crime and Punishment, Changing Attitudes toward
Criminal Behavior, Theories of
Criminology, Overview
Death Penalty
Hate Crimes
Homicide
Juvenile Crime
Law and Violence
Minorities as Perpetrators and Victims of Crime
Organized Crime
Police Brutality
Policing and Society
Punishment of Criminals
Serial and Mass Murderers
Sexual Assault
Suicide and Other Violence toward the Self
Torture (State)
Victimology
Violence to Children, Definition and Prevention of

Cultural Studies

Aged Population, Violence and Nonviolence Toward
Clan and Tribal Conflict
Class Conflict
Cultural Anthropology Studies of Conflict
Cultural Studies, Overview
Family Structure and Family Violence and
Nonviolence
Feminist and Peace Perspectives on Women
Folklore
Gangs
Gender Studies
Homosexuals, Violence toward
Indigenous Peoples’ Responses to Conquest
Military Culture
Minorities as Perpetrators and Victims of Crime
Peace Culture
Peaceful Societies
Sports
Structural Prevention and Conflict Management
Urban Violence, Youth
Violence as Solution, Culture of
Women and War
Women, Violence against

Economic Studies

Arms Production, Economics of
Arms Trade, Economics of
Economic Causes of War and Peace
Economic Conversion
Economic Costs and Consequences of War
Economics of War and Peace, Overview
Militarism and Development in Underdeveloped Societies
Military-Industrial Complex, Contemporary Significance
Military-Industrial Complex, Organization and History
Political Economy of Violence and Nonviolence
Technology, Violence, and Peace
Trade and the Environment
Trade, Conflict, and Cooperation among Nations
Trade Wars (Disputes)

Ethical Studies

Conscientious Objection, Ethics of
Critiques of Violence
Death Penalty
Ecoethics
Ethical and Religious Traditions, Eastern
Ethical and Religious Traditions, Western
Ethical Studies, Overview
Evil, Concept of
Evolutionary Theory
Genocide and Democide
Human Nature, Views of
Human Rights
Justifications for Violence
Just-War Criteria
Means and Ends
Moral Judgments and Values
Nonviolence Theory and Practice
Reason and Violence
Religion and Peace, Inner-Outer Dimensions of
Religious Traditions, Violence and Nonviolence
Spirituality and Peacemaking
Theories of Conflict

Historical Studies

Arms Control and Disarmament Treaties
Assassinations, Political
Civil Wars
Cold War
Colonialism and Imperialism
Correlates of War
Crime and Punishment, Changing Attitudes toward
Draft, Resistance and Evasion of
Genocide and Democide
Indigenous Peoples’ Responses to Conquest
Industrial vs. Preindustrial Forms of Violence
Interpersonal Conflict, History of
Military-Industrial Complex, Organization and History
Peace Agreements
Revolutions
Social Equality and Inequality
Trade Wars (Disputes)
War Crimes
Warfare, Modern
World War I
World War II

International Relations

Alliance Systems
Arms Control
Arms Control and Disarmament Treaties
Balance of Power Relationships
Collective Security Systems
Colonialism and Imperialism
Diplomacy
International Relations, Overview
Military Deterrence and Statecraft
Nuclear Weapons Policies
Nongovernmental Actors in International Politics
Peace Agreements
Peacekeeping
Security Studies
Territorial Disputes
Trade and the Environment
Trade, Conflict, and Cooperation among Nations
Transnational Organizations
World Government

Peace and Conflict Studies

Conflict Management and Resolution
Conflict Theory
Conflict Transformation
Decision Theory and Game Theory
Draft, Resistance and Evasion of
Language of War and Peace, The
Mediation and Negotiation Techniques
Nonviolence Theory and Practice
Nonviolent Action
Peace Agreements
Peace and Democracy
Peace Culture
Peace, Definitions and Concepts of
Peace Education: Colleges and Universities
Peace Education: Peace Museums
Peace Education: Youth
Peaceful Societies
Peacekeeping
Peacemaking and Peacebuilding
Peace Movements
Peace Organizations, Nongovernmental
Peace Prizes
Peace Studies, Overview
Religion and Peace, Inner-Outer Dimensions of
Spirituality and Peacemaking
Structural Prevention and Conflict Management
Technology, Violence, and Peace
Theories of Conflict

Political Studies

Assassinations, Political
Civil Society
Cold War
Colonialism and Imperialism
Environmental Issues and Politics
Ethnicity and Identity Politics
Militarism and Development in Underdeveloped
Societies
Military-Industrial Complex, Contemporary Significance
Nongovernmental Actors in International Politics
Peace and Democracy
Political Economy of Violence and Nonviolence
Political Systems and Conflict Management
Political Theories
Power, Alternative Theories of
Power, Social and Political Theories of
Professional versus Citizen Soldiery
Secession and Separatism
Territorial Disputes
Terrorism
Totalitarianism and Authoritarianism
Veterans in the Political Culture

Psychological Studies

Aggression, Psychology of
Animals, Violence Toward
Behavioral Psychology
Child Abuse
Collective Emotions in Warfare
Conformity and Obedience
Cooperation, Competition, and Conflict
Criminal Behavior, Theories of
Enemy, Concept and Identity of
Human Nature, Views of
International Variation in Attitudes toward Violence
Long-Term Effects of War on Children
Mass Conflict and the Participants, Attitudes toward
Mental Illness
Neuropsychology and Mythology of Motivation for Group Aggression
Psychoanalysis
Psychological Effects of Combat
Psychology, General View
Serial and Mass Murderers
Sexual Assault
Suicide and Other Violence toward the Self
Women and War

Public Policy Studies

Aged Population, Violence and Nonviolence toward
Death Penalty
Drug Control Policies
Environmental Issues and Politics
Homicide
Human Rights
Law and Violence
Legal Theories and Remedies
Nongovernmental Actors in International
Politics
Nuclear Weapons Policies
Police Brutality
Policing and Society
Public Health Models of Violence and Violence
Prevention
Trade and the Environment
Urban and Community Studies
Violence Prediction
Youth Violence

Sociological Studies

Aged Population, Violence and Nonviolence toward
Child Abuse
Childrearing, Violent and Nonviolent
Children, Impact of Television on
Class Conflict
Ethnic Conflicts and Cooperation
Ethnicity and Identity Politics
Gangs
Institutionalization of Nonviolence
Institutionalization of Violence
Peaceful Societies
Power and Deviance
Social Control and Violence
Social Equality and Inequality
Social Theorizing about War and Peace
Sociological Studies, Overview
Structural Violence
Total War, Social Impact of
Urban and Community Studies
Youth Violence

Warfare and Military Studies

Chemical and Biological Warfare
Civil Wars
Cold War
Collective Emotions in Warfare
Combat
Guerrilla Warfare
Just-War Criteria
Long-Term Effects of War on Children
Militarism
Militarism and Development in Underdeveloped
Societies
Military Culture
Military Deterrence and Statecraft
Military-Industrial Complex, Organization and
History
Nuclear Warfare
Peacekeeping
Professional versus Citizen Soldiery
Psychological Effects of Combat
Total War, Social Impact of
Veterans in the Political Culture
War Crimes
Warfare and Military Studies, Overview
Warfare, Modern
Warfare, Strategies and Tactics of
Warfare, Trends in
Warriors, Anthropology of
Weaponry, Evolution of
Women and War
World War I
World War II

Contributors, Foreword and Preface

Contributors to the Encyclopedia

  • Mimi Ajzenstadt: Women, Violence Against (Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel)
  • Peter Almquist: Economic Conversion (US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, Washington, DC, USA)
  • Randall Amster: Power and Deviance (Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona, USA)
  • Kristin L. Anderson: Child Abuse (Drew University, Madison, New Jersey, USA)

Kauko Aromaa
Victimology
National Research Institute of Legal Policy
Helsinki, Finland
Sidney Axinn
Moral Judgments and Values
Temple University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Kerri Lynn Bates
Urban and Community Studies
University of British Columbia
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Hugo Adam Bedau
Death Penalty
Tufts University
Medford, Massachusetts, USA
Nancy Bell
Power, Alternative Theories of
University of Texas
Austin, Texas, USA
Robert D. Benford
Peace Movements
University of Nebraska
Lincoln, Nebraska, USA
xix
Chawki Benkelfat
Biochemical Factors
McGill University
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Nachman Ben-Yehuda
Assassinations, Political
Hebrew University
Jerusalem, Israel
Jacob Bercovitch
Mediation and Negotiation Techniques
University of Canterbury
Christchurch, New Zealand
Leonard Berkowitz
Aggression, Psychology of
University of Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Irwin S. Bernstein
Animal Behavior Studies, Primates
University of Georgia
Athens, Georgia, USA
Mike Berry
Communication Studies, Overview
University of California, Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, California
Vincent Boudreau
Political Theories
City University of New York
New York, NY, USA
Elise Boulding
Peace Culture
Dartmouth College (emerita)
Hanover, New Hampshire, USA
Janet Welsh Brown
Environmental Issues and Politics
Nongovernmental Actors in International
Politics
Trade and the Environment
World Resources Institute
Washington, DC, USA

Lisa Brown
Ethnicity and Identity Politics
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida, USA
Arden Bucholz
Militarism
State University of New York
Brockport, New York, USA
James Burk
Military Culture
Texas A&M University
College Station, Texas, USA
Gabriella Cagliesi
Trade Wars (Disputes)
Rutgers University
Newark, New Jersey, USA
Deborah Cai
Interpersonal Conflict, History of
University of Maryland
College Park, Maryland, USA
James Calleja
Aged Population, Violence and Nonviolence
toward
International Institute on Aging
United Nations, Malta
Jesus Casquette
Draft, Resistance and Evasion of
Universidad del Pais Vasco
Leioa, Spain
Victor D. Cha
Collective Security Systems
Georgetown University
Washington, DC, USA
Paul Chevigny
Police Brutality
New York University Law School
New York, NY, USA
Stephen J. Cimbala
Nuclear Weapons Policies
Pennsylvania State University, Delaware County
Media, Pennsylvania, USA
Murray Code
Reason and Violence
University of Guelph
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Irwin Cohen
Torture (State)
Simon Fraser University
Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
Noe’ Cornago-Prieto
Diplomacy
University of the Basque Country
Bilbao, Spain
Raymond R. Corrado
Torture (State)
Simon Fraser University
Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada
Alex E. Crosby
Public Health Models of Violence and Violence Prevention
Centers for Disease Control
Atlanta, Georgia, USA
S. Cumner
Peacekeeping
Pearson Peacekeeping Centre
Clementsport, Nova Scotia, Canada
G. David Curry
Gangs
Law and Violence
University of Missouri, St. Louis
St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Thomas C. Daffern
Peacemaking and Peacebuilding
International Institute of Peace Studies
London, UK
Linda L. Dahlberg
Public Health Models of Violence and Violence Prevention
Centers for Disease Control
Atlanta, Georgia, USA
James C. Davies
Human Nature, Views of
University of Oregon (Emeritus)
Eugene, Oregon, USA
Angela Davis
Crime and Punishment, Changing Attitudes toward
University of California, Santa Cruz
Santa Cruz, California, USA
Scott H. Decker
Gangs
University of Missouri, St. Louis
St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Paul F. Diehl
Territorial Disputes
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois, USA
Edward Donnerstein
Mass Media, General View
University of California, Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, California, USA
William Donohue
Interpersonal Conflict, History of
Michigan State University
East Lansing, Michigan, USA
Steven Dubin
Peace and the Arts
State University of New York
Purchase, New York, USA
Antulio J. Echevarria
Warfare, Modern
U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command
Fort Monroe, Virginia, USA
Riane Eisler
Family Structure and Family Violence and
Nonviolence
Carmel, California, USA
Robert Elias
Violence as Solution, Culture of
University of San Francisco
San Francisco, California, USA
Leonard D. Eron
Television Programming and Violence, U.S.
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Paul Lawrence Farber
Evolutionary Theory
Oregon State University
Corvallis, Oregon, USA
David N. Farnsworth
International Relations, Overview
Wichita State University
Wichita, Kansas, USA
Gordon Fellman
Enemy, Concept and Identity of
Brandeis University
Waltham, Massachusetts, USA
Juanita M. Firestone
Warfare and Military Studies, Overview
University of Texas
San Antonio, Texas, USA
Dietrich Fischer
Economics of War and Peace, Overview
Pace University
Pleasantville, New York, USA
Virginia Floresca-Cawages
Institutionalization of Nonviolence
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Linda Rennie Forcey
Feminist and Peace Perspectives on Women
Binghamton University
Binghamton, New York, USA
Nicholas G. Fotion
Warfare, Trends in
Emory University
Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Karen Franklin
Homosexuals, Violence toward
University of Washington
Seattle, Washington, USA
Marvin D. Free
Minorities as Perpetrators and Victims
of Crime
University of Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin, USA
David Noel Freedman
Religious Traditions, Violence and Nonviolence
University of California, San Diego
San Diego, California, USA
William C. French
Ecoethics
Loyola University
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Gregory Fried
Critiques of Violence
Boston University
Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Robert Friedmann
Policing and Society
Georgia State University
Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Douglas P. Fry
Aggression and Altruism
Peaceful Societies
University of Abo
Helsinki, Finland
Theodore Gabriel
Ethical and Religious Traditions, Eastern
Cheltenham and Gloucester College
Gloucester, UK
James Garbarino
Long-Term Effects of War on Children
Cornell University
Ithaca, New York, USA
William Gay
Language of War and Peace, The
University of North Carolina
Charlotte, North Carolina, USA
George Gerbner
Mass Media and Dissent
Temple University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Douglas M. Gibler
Alliance Systems
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA
Howard Giles
Communication Studies, Overview
University of California, Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, California, USA
William Gissy
Political Economy of Violence and Nonviolence
Morehouse College
Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Nils-Petter Gleditsch
Peace and Democracy
International Peace Research Institute
Oslo, Norway
Mark Gold
Drugs and Violence
University of Florida College of Medicine
Gainesville, Florida, USA
Ralph M. Goldman
Political Systems and Conflict Management
San Francisco State University
San Francisco, California, USA
Janine Goldman-Pach
Sexual Assault
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona, USA
Jeff Goodwin
Revolutions
New York University
New York, NY, USA
Deborah Gorman-Smith
Urban Violence, Youth
University of Illinois
Chicago, Illinois, USA
F. Lincoln Grahlfs
Veterans in the Political Culture
National Association of Radiation Survivors
St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Adam Green
Revolutions
New York University
New York, NY, USA
Allen D. Grimshaw
Genocide and Democide
Indiana University
Bloomington, Indiana, USA
Linda Groff
Religion and Peace, Inner-Outer Dimensions of
California State University
Dominguez Hills, California, USA
David Grossman
Behavioral Psychology
Psychological Effects of Combat
Weaponry, Evolution of
Arkansas State University
Jonesboro, Arkansas, USA
Barrie Gunter
Television Programming and Violence, International
University of Sheffield
Sheffield, UK
Brien Hallett
Just-War Criteria
University of Hawaii
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
Fen Osler Hampson
Peace Agreements
Carleton University
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Michael Hanagan
Industrial vs. Preindustrial Forms of Violence
New School for Social Research
New York, NY, USA
Ian M. Harris
Peace Education: Colleges and Universities
University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
John Hartman
Psychoanalysis
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Akira Hattori
Economics of War and Peace, Overview
Fukuoka University
Fukuoka, Japan
Mark Haugaard
Power, Social and Political Theories of
University College, Galway
Galway City, Ireland
Ira Heilveil
Violence Prediction
Ojai, California
USA
Errol A. Henderson
Civil Wars
Ethnic Conflicts and Cooperation
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida, USA
Gregory Herek
Homosexuals, Violence toward
University of California, Davis
Davis, California, USA
Marjorie Hogan
Popular Music
Hennepin County Medical Center
Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
Gregory Hooks
Military-Industrial Complex, Organization and History
Washington State University
Pullman, Washington, USA
Brenda Horrigan
Security Studies
Vineyard Haven, Massachusetts, USA
Michael W. Hovey
Conscientious Objection, Ethics of
Iona College
New Rochelle, New York, USA
L. Rowell Huesmann
Television Programming and Violence, U.S.
Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Paul K. Huth
Military Deterrence and Statecraft
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Larry W. Isaac
Class Conflict
Florida State University
Tallahassee, Florida, USA
James M. Jasper
Animals, Violence toward
New York University
New York, NY, USA
Ho-Won Jeong
Conflict Management and Resolution
Theories of Conflict
George Mason University
Fairfax, Virginia, USA
Hans Joas
Social Theorizing about War and Peace
Free University of Berlin
Berlin, Germany
Anthony James Joes
Guerrilla Warfare
St. Joseph’s University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Hubert C. Johnson
Warfare, Strategies and Tactics of
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada
Theodore Karasik
Security Studies
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California, USA
Robert W. Kentridge
Behavioral Psychology
University of Durham
Durham, UK
James R. Kerin, Jr.
Combat
United States Military Academy
West Point, New York, USA
Wolfgang Kno¨bl
Social Control and Violence
Free University of Berlin
Berlin, Germany
Edward Kolodziej
Arms Control
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois, USA
Fiona M. Kay
Urban and Community Studies
University of British Columbia
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Mary Koss
Sexual Assault
Arizona Prevention Center
Tucson, Arizona, USA
Rajini Kothari
Institutionalization of Violence
Center for the Study of Developing Societies
Delhi, India
Louis Kriesberg
Conflict Transformation
Syracuse University
Syracuse, New York, USA
Mitsuru Kurosawa
Arms Control and Disarmament Treaties
Osaka School of International Public Policy
Osaka, Japan
John Kydd
Violence to Children, Definition and Prevention of
Helsell Fetterman Law Firm
Seattle, Washington, USA
Christos N. Kyrou
Cultural Anthropology Studies of Conflict
Syracuse, New York, USA
Syracuse University
Linda Lantieri
Peace Education: Youth
Educators for Social Responsibility
New York, NY, USA
Pat Lauderdale
Power and Deviance
Arizona State University
Tempe, Arizona, USA
Colin Wayne Leach
Ethnicity and Identity Politics
Swarthmore College
Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, USA
David LeMarquand
Biochemical Factors
McGill University
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
David Lester
Suicide and Other Violence toward the Self
Center for the Study of Suicide
Blackwood, New Jersey, USA
Amy Leventhal
Urban Violence, Youth
University of Illinois
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Howard S. Levie
Chemical and Biological Warfare
War Crimes
U.S. Naval War College
Newport, Rhode Island, USA
Jack Levin
Hate Crimes
Northeastern University
Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Sheldon G. Levy
Conformity and Obedience
Cooperation, Competition, and Conflict
Mass Conflict and the Participants, Attitudes toward
Wayne State University
Detroit, Michigan, USA
Elliott Leyton
Serial and Mass Murderers
Memorial University of Newfoundland
St. John’s, Newfoundland, Canada
Daniel G. Linz
Mass Media, General View
University of California
Santa Barbara, California, USA
David Loye
Evil, Concept of
Center for Partnership Studies
Carmel, California, USA
Derek F. Lynch
Balance of Power Relationships
University of Huddersfield
Queensgate, Yorkshire, UK
Graeme MacQueen
Spirituality and Peacemaking
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
Esther Madriz
Criminology, Overview
University of San Francisco
San Francisco, California, USA
Sanja Magdalenic
Folklore
Stockholm University
Stockholm, Sweden
Kevin Magill
Justifications for Violence
University of Wolverhampton
Dudley, UK
Neil Malamuth
Pornography
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California, USA
Brian Martin
Technology, Violence, and Peace
University of Wollongong
Wollongong, Australia
Peter B. Mayer
Militarism and Development in Underdeveloped
Societies
University of Adelaide
Adelaide, Australia
Alfred McAlister
International Variations in Attitudes toward Violence
University of Texas
Austin, Texas, USA
Laura Ann McCloskey
Family Structure and Family Violence and
Nonviolence
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona, USA
Michael J. McClymond
Religious Traditions, Violence and Nonviolence
University of California, San Diego
San Diego, California, USA
Jack McDevitt
Hate Crimes
Northeastern University
Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Gregory McLauchlan
Military-Industrial Complex, Contemporary Significance
University of Oregon
Eugene, Oregon, USA
Eduardo Mendieta
Ethical Studies, Overview
University of San Francisco
San Francisco, California, USA
James A. Mercy
Public Health Models of Violence and Violence Prevention
Centers for Disease Control
Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Thomas Mieczkowski
Drug Control Policies
University of South Florida
St. Petersburg, Florida, USA
Dinshaw Mistry
Arms Control
University of Illinois
Urbana, Illinois, USA
Alex Morrison
Peacekeeping
Pearson Peacekeeping Centre
Clementsport, Nova Scotia, Canada
C. David Mortensen
Linguistic Constructions of Violence, Peace, and Conflict
University of Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Kenneth R. Murray
Behavioral Psychology
Armiger Police Training Institute
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
Hanna Newcombe
World Government
Peace Research Institute
Dundas, Ontario, Canada
Roderick Ogley
Conflict Theory
University of Sussex
Brighton, UK
Tamayo Okamoto
Means and Ends
Hiroshima Prefectural College of Health
and Welfare
Hiroshima, Japan
Marie Olson
Arms Trade, Economics of
Center for Peace and Conflict Studies
Wayne State University
Detroit, Michigan, USA
Keith F. Otterbein
Clan and Tribal Conflict
State University of New York
Buffalo, New York, USA
Jan Pakulski
Social Equality and Inequality
University of Tasmania
Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Edward L. Palmer
Children, Impact of Television on
Davidson College
Davidson, North Carolina, USA
Martin Palous
Totalitarianism and Authoritarianism
Charles University
Prague, Czech Republic
Hanbin Park
Peacekeeping
Pearson Peacekeeping Centre
Clementsport, Nova Scotia, Canada
Janet Patti
Peace Education: Youth
Hunter College of the City of New York
New York, NY, USA
Frederic S. Pearson
Arms Trade, Economics of
Center for Peace and Conflict Studies, Wayne State
University
Detroit, Michigan, USA
Jordan Peterson
Neuropsychology of Motivation for Group Aggression
Harvard University
Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Robert O. Pihl
Biochemical Factors
McGill University
Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Solomon W. Polachek
Trade, Conflict, and Cooperation among Nations
State University of New York
Binghamton, New York, USA
Kenneth Powell
Public Health Models of Violence and Violence Prevention
Centers for Disease Control
Atlanta, Georgia, USA
Jason Pribilsky
Cultural Anthropology Studies of Conflict
Syracuse, New York, USA
Syracuse University
Anatol Rapoport
Decision Theory and Game Theory
Peace, Definitions and Concepts of
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
David C. Rapoport
Terrorism
University of California, Los Angeles
Los Angeles, California, USA
Alison Dundes Renteln
Human Rights
University of Southern California
Los Angeles, California, USA
Claire Renzetti
Criminal Behavior, Theories of
St. Joseph’s University
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
Patricia Richards
Effects of War and Political Violence on Health Services
Health Consequences of War and Political Violence
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
London, UK
Marc Riedel
Homicide
Southern Illinois University
Carbondale, Illinois, USA
John Robst
Trade, Conflict, and Cooperation among
Nations
State University of New York
Binghamton, New York, USA
Robert A. Rubinstein
Cultural Anthropology Studies of Conflict
Syracuse University
Syracuse, New York, USA
Gordon W. Russell
Sports
University of Lethbridge
Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada
Andrew Sanders
Warriors, Anthropology of
University of Ulster
Coleraine, Northern Ireland, UK
Joanna Santa Barbara
Childrearing, Violent and Nonviolent
McMaster University
Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
xxvi CONTRIBUTORS
Robert K. Schaeffer
Secession and Separatism
San Jose State University
San Jose, California, USA
Thomas J. Scheff
Collective Emotions in Warfare
University of California, Santa Barbara
Santa Barbara, California, USA
Christian Scherrer
Structural Prevention and Conflict Management
Copenhagen Peace Research Institute
Copenhagen, Denmark
Brigitte H. Schulz
Cold War
Trinity College
Hartford, Connecticut, USA
John Paul Scott
Animal Behavior Studies, Nonprimates
Bowling Green University
Bowling Green, Ohio, USA
Leslie Sebba
Punishment of Criminals
Hebrew Institute of Jerusalem
Jerusalem, Israel
Daniel M. Segesser
World War I
Universiy of Berne
Berne, Switzerland
Carlos Seiglie
Economic Costs and Consequences of War
Rutgers University
Newark, New Jersey, USA
Gene Sharp
Nonviolent Action
Albert Einstein Institution
Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA
Martin Shaw
Civil Society
University of Sussex
Brighton, UK
James F. Short, Jr.
Youth Violence
Washington State University
Pullman, Washington, USA
Bruce K. Siddle
Psychological Effects of Combat
Executive Director, PPCT Management
Millstadt, Illinois, USA
Thomas R. Simon
Public Health Models of Violence and Violence Prevention
Centers for Disease Control
Atlanta, Georgia, USA
J. David Singer
Correlates of War
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Simon I. Singer
Juvenile Crime
State University of New York
Buffalo, New York, USA
John Sislin
Arms Trade, Economics of
Center for International Studies, University of Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Elisabeth Skons
Arms Production, Economics of
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Stockholm, Sweden
Jackie Smith
Transnational Organizations
State University of New York at Stony Brook
Stony Brook, NY, USA
Philip Smith
Cultural Studies, Overview
Ritual and Symbolic Behavior
University of Queensland
Queensland, Australia
Paul Smoker
Religion and Peace, Inner-Outer Dimensions of
Antioch College
Yellow Springs, Ohio, USA
H. F. (Rika) Snyman
Organized Crime
Technikon SA
Florida, South Africa
Metta Spencer
Sociological Studies, Overview
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Carolyn M. Stephenson
Peace Studies, Overview
University of Hawaii at Manoa
Honolulu, Hawaii, USA
Pamela J. Stewart
Anthropology of Violence and Conflict, Overview
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Victor C. Strasburger
Popular Music
University of New Mexico School of Medicine
Albuquerque, New Mexico
Andrew Strathern
Anthropology of Violence and Conflict, Overview
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA
Mira Sucharov
Collective Security
Georgetown University
Washington, DC, USA
CONTRIBUTORS xxvii
Keith Suter
Peace Organizations, Nongovernmental
United Nations Association of Australia and Wesley
Mission
Sydney, Australia
Jukka-Pekka Takala
Evolutionary Factors
Victimology
National Research Institute of Legal Policy
Helsinki, Finland
Kenneth Tardiff
Mental Illness
Cornell University Medical School, New York Hospital
New York, NY, USA
Frank O. Taylor IV
Peace Movements
Dana College
Blair, Nebraska, USA
Bryan Teixeira
Nonviolence Theory and Practice
Camosun College
Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
Charles Thomas
World War II
U.S. Naval War College
Newport, Rhode Island, USA
David Tindall
Urban and Community Studies
University of British Columbia
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
Swee-Hin Toh
Institutionalization of Nonviolence
University of Alberta
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
Patrick Tolan
Urban Violence, Youth
University of Illinois
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Jennifer Turpin
Women and War
University of San Francisco
San Francisco, California, USA
Bernard Udis
Economic Conversion
University of Colorado
Boulder, Colorado, USA
Antonio Ugalde
Effects of War and Political Violence on Health Services
Health Consequences of War and Political Violence
University of Texas
Austin, Texas, USA
Debra Umberson
Child Abuse
University of Texas
Austin, Texas, USA
Sheldon Ungar
Total War, Social Impact of
University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Alonzo Valentine
Ethical and Religious Traditions, Western
Earlham College and School of Religion
Richmond, Indiana, USA
Peter van den Dungen
Peace Education: Peace Museums
Peace Prizes
University of Bradford
West Yorkshire, UK
Paul Viotti
Professional versus Citizen Soldiery
University of Denver
Denver, Colorado, USA
Joseph Vorrasi
Long-Term Effects of War on Children
Cornell University
Ithaca, New York, USA
Dierk Walter
Colonialism and Imperialism
University of Berne
Berne, Switzerland
Kathleen Maas Weigert
Structural Violence
University of Notre Dame
Notre Dame, Indiana, USA
Reinhilde Weidacher
Arms Production, Economics of
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute
Stockholm, Sweden
Peter Weiss
Legal Theories and Remedies
Center for Constitutional Rights
New York, NY, USA
Michael G. Wessells
Psychology, General View
Randolph-Macon College
Ashland, Virginia, USA
Dean A. Wilkening
Nuclear Warfare
Center for International Security and Cooperation
Stanford University
Stanford, California, USA
Angie Williams
Communication Studies, Overview
Cardiff University
Cardiff, Wales, UK
Franke Wilmer
Indigenous Peoples’ Responses to Conquest
Montana State University
Bozeman, Montana, USA

Jon D. Wisman
Economic Causes of War and Peace
American University
Washington, DC, USA
Lynne Woehrle
Gender Studies
Wilson College
Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, USA
Gordon C. Zahn
Conscientious Objection, Ethics of
University of Wisconsin
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
Kristeva A. Zoe¨
Peacekeeping
Pearson Peacekeeping Centre
Clementsport, Nova Scotia, Canada
Anthony Zwi
Effects of War and Political Violence on Health
Services
Health Consequences of War and Political Violence
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
London, UK

Guide to the Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict

The Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict is a complete source of information within the covers of a single unified work. It is the first reference book to address a full range of topics in the field of violence, peace, and conflict studies, with coverage of issues as disparate as peace education, trends in warfare, mental illness, and violence toward animals. It also includes many topics of concern to contemporary society, such as ethnic conflict, hate crimes, drug control policies,and child abuse.

The Encyclopedia consists of three volumes and includes 196 separate full-length articles, all prepared especially for this publication. It includes not only entries on the leading theories and concepts of violence, peace, and conflict, but also a vast selection of entries on applied topics in areas such as criminology, politics, economics, communications, and biomedicine. Each
article provides a detailed overview of the selected topic to inform a broad spectrum of readers, from research professionals to students to the interested general public.

In order that you, the reader, will derive maximum benefit from your use of the Encyclopedia, we have provided this Guide. It explains how the work is organized and how the information within it can be located.

Organization of the Encyclopedia

The Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict is organized to provide the maximum ease of use for its readers.
All of the articles are arranged in a single alphabetical sequence by title. So that they can be easily located, article titles generally begin with the key word or phrase indicating the topic, with any descriptive terms following.
For example, ‘‘Criminal Behavior, Theories of ’’ is the article title rather than ‘‘Theories of Criminal Behavior’’ because the specific phrase criminal behavior is the
key term rather than the more general term theories.

Similarly, ‘‘Criminology, Overview’’ is the article title rather than ‘‘Overview of Criminology’’ and ‘‘Warfare, Trends in’’ is the title rather than ‘‘Trends in Warfare.’’

Table of Contents

A complete alphabetical table of contents for the Encyclopedia appears at the front of each volume of the set, beginning on page v of the Introduction. This list includes not only the articles that appear in that particular volume but also those in the other two volumes.
The list of article titles represents topics that have been carefully selected by the Editor-in-Chief, Prof. Lester Kurtz of the University of Texas, Austin, in collaboration with the members of the Editorial Board.
In addition to the alphabetical table of contents, the Encyclopedia also provides a second table of contents at the front of each volume, listing all the articles according to their subject area. The Encyclopedia provides coverage of 15 specific subject areas within the overall
field of violence, peace, and conflict, as indicated below:
• Anthropological Studies
• Biomedical Studies
• Communications
• Criminology
• Cultural Studies
• Economic Studies
• Ethical Studies
• Historical Studies
• International Relations
• Peace and Conflict Studies
• Political Studies
• Psychological Studies
• Public Policy Studies
• Sociological Studies
• Warfare and Military Studies

Outline

Each article in the Encyclopedia begins with an Outline that indicates the general content of the article. This outline serves two functions. First, it provides a brief preview of the article, so that the reader can get a sense of what is contained there without having to leaf through the pages. Second, it highlights important subtopics that are discussed within the article. For example,
the article ‘‘Youth Violence’’ includes among its subtopics ‘‘The Age/Crime Connection’’ and ‘‘Understanding and Controlling Youth Violence.’’

The Outline is intended as an overview and thus it lists only the major headings of the article. In addition, extensive second-level and third-level headings will be found within the article.

Glossary

The Glossary contains terms that are important to an understanding of the article and that may be unfamiliar to the reader, or that may need clarification as to their specific use in the article. Each term is defined in the context of the particular article in which it is used.

Thus the same term may appear as a Glossary entry in two or more articles, with the details of the definition varying slightly from one article to another. The Encyclopedia includes more than 1,000 glossary entries.

The following example is a glossary entry that appears with the article ‘‘Aged Population.’’:
“Dementia An acquired, ongoing impairment of general intellectual abilities to such a degree as
to seriously interfere with social and occupational functioning, including memory loss and failures of abstract thinking and judgment, as well as personality changes; an age-related condition and especially associated with Alzheimer’s disease.”

Defining Statement

The text of each article in the Encyclopedia begins with a single introductory paragraph that defines the topic under discussion and summarizes the content of the article. For example, the article ‘‘Ecoethics’’ begins with the following statement:

“ECOETHICS is an emerging discipline that in recent decades has been prompted by alarm about increasing environmental degradation and its impact on human and nonhuman life.”

Cross-References

Virtually all of the articles in the Encyclopedia have cross-references to other articles. These cross-references appear at the end of the article, following the conclusion of the text. They indicate related articles that can be consulted for further information on the same topic, or for other information on a related topic.
For example, the article ‘‘Guerrilla Warfare’’ contains cross references to the articles ‘‘Civil Wars,’’ ‘‘Colonialism and Imperialism,’’ ‘‘Revolutions,’’ ‘‘Terrorism,’’ ‘‘Warfare, Modern,’’ and ‘‘Warfare, Strategies and Tacticsof.’’ The Encyclopedia contains about 1,150 cross-references in all.

Bibliography

The Bibliography appears as the last element in an article. It lists recent secondary sources to aid the reader in locating more detailed or technical information. Review articles and research papers that are important to an understanding of the topic are also listed.

The bibliographies in this Encyclopedia are for the benefit of the reader, to provide references for further reading or research on the given topic. Thus they typically consist of a limited number of entries. They are not intended to represent a complete listing of all the materials
consulted by the author in preparing the article.

Index

The Subject Index in Volume 3 contains more than 10,000 entries. The entries indicate the volume and page number where information on this topic will be found. The Index serves, along with the alphabetical Table of Contents, as the starting point for information
on a subject of interest.

Internet Resources

The Encyclopedia of Violence, Peace, and Conflict maintain(ed) its own editorial Web Page on the Internet at: https://www.apnet.com/violence/

This site gives information about the Encyclopedia project. It also features a link to the Academic Press Reference Works home page, which has information about related titles, such as the Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics and the Encyclopedia of Human Behavior. (Note: the site is not working in the year 2014)

Preface

The problem of violence poses such a monumental
challenge at the end of the 20th century that it is surprising
we have addressed it so inadequately. We have not
made much progress in learning how to cooperate with
one another more effectively or how to conduct our
conflicts more peacefully. Instead, we have increased
the lethality of our combat through revolutions in weapons
technology and military training. The Encyclopedia
of Violence, Peace, and Conflict is designed to help us
to take stock of our knowledge concerning these crucial
phenomena.

Most people have a profound ambivalence about violence,
a simultaneous abhorrence of and reliance upon
it; consequently we engage what policy makers use to
guide their discourse and decisions. The relationship
between knowledge and practice is complex, of course;
many Moderns seem to have something like an addiction
to violent solutions that is much like any dependency
and escapes rational analysis. Knowledge of dire
consequences does not automatically promote constructive
action or deter destructive behavior; like the
smoker who wants to quit but cannot, we sometimes
move ahead consciously along a destructive path. Many
of the articles in this encyclopedia, while remaining
rooted in academic research, attempt to explore the
policy implications of those investigations.

The study of violence-especially war-is as ancient
as our religious texts, from the reflective insights of the
Mahabharata and Sun Tzu in the East to the Torah
and Thucydides in the West, and has an overwhelming
advantage over the study of peace when it comes to
research funding. The conduct of war is so significant
to those in power that its study has a privileged place
in the production of knowledge. A large proportion of
public expenditures on all research in both the natural
and social sciences is, in fact, controlled by military
establishments. In the United States, for example, the
Army Research Bureau’s annual budget exceeds the total
combined funding for every other federally funded soxxxi
cial science research program including such agencies
as the National Science Foundation, the National Institutes
of Health, and the National Institute for Mental
Health.
As a consequence of massive data-gathering we have,
in recent decades, learned a great deal about a wide
range of violent behaviors from war to patterns of crime.
In these volumes readers can find summaries of those
findings; e.g., David Singer’s ‘‘Correlates of War’’ project,
criminological investigations and cross-cultural anthropological
studies of violence, psychological studies
of combat and aggressive behavior, case studies of urban
and youth violence, UN investigations of the causes of
war, and so forth. We have gained a great deal of insight
into specific types of violence and have some reasonable
theories about what causes people to engage in them.
We are still uncertain, however, about how to construct
social institutions that provide secure neighborhoods
and nations or how to nurture peaceful cultures.
The academic study of peace-a poor cousin to the
science of war-is a relatively recent development. This
encyclopedia encompasses both enterprises, along with
an array of academic disciplines in neither camp that
can deepen our understanding of violence. Most of the
Enlightenment philosophers-in the same intellectual
movement that gave birth to the modern encyclopedia-
incorrectly speculated that war would gradually
disappear as human society became more rational and
civilized. It was not until the 20th century-in response
to the horrors of modern warfare-that empirical research
and systematic study oriented toward the construction
of peace became a part of the academy. Indeed,
the field called ‘‘peace studies’’ remains marginal to the
academy despite its remarkable growth worldwide since
the 1960s with formal programs in hundreds of universities
and professional associations such as the International
Peace Research Association, the Peace Studies
Association, and the Consortium on Peace Research,
Education, and Development (COPRED), as well as
organized groups of conflict resolution professionals
and sections devoted to peace studies in disciplinary societies.
The purpose of this encyclopedia is to bring together
in one place a broad range of information and perspectives
on violence, peace, and conflict in order to enhance
our understanding of these crucial phenomena and to
stimulate new research, insights, and better public policies.
The encyclopedia’s most significant contribution
is its addressing the problem of intellectual compartmentalization
by including scholarship from diverse
disciplines from around the world, from military and
peace sciences, to the social and biological sciences, as
well as the humanities.

What Do We Know?

It is impossible to summarize briefly the information
contained in these three volumes; I would, however,
like to highlight some of the themes that emerge. First
of all, it is salient that we do not even have a consensus
on how to define these three concepts. Rather than
impose one on the authors, we include a variety of
approaches and a discussion of the debates. Some perceive
conflict as a broader phenomenon that encompasses
the other two: one can engage in either violent
or peaceful conflict. Others perceive peace as something
that reflects the absence of conflict. These conflicting
definitions reflect salient domain assumptions and produce
different theories and policies regarding how to
manage the conflicts that seem to be an inevitable part
of social life.
Similarly, violence is defined in several markedly
different ways. Whereas some contend that the term
should refer only to the deliberate infliction of physical
harm, others insist that psychological harm must be
included as well. Still others claim that we must include
the injury caused by inequality (what Johan Galtung
calls ‘‘structural violence’’) if the definition is to be
sufficiently inclusive. Indeed, the holocaust-like deaths
caused by contemporary malnutrition can scarcely be
seen as anything but violent, especially by its victims,
although usually not inflicted deliberately. UNICEF estimates
that six million children under the age of five
die annually from malnutrition-as many each year as
were murdered in all the German death camps. How
violence is defined is an issue with profound policy
implications, as demonstrated in the elaborate taxonomy
provided in the article ‘‘Violence to Children,
Definition and Prevention of.’’
An adequate definition of peace seems almost as
elusive as peace itself. The most basic concept, of
course, is the absence of war, or more broadly the
mitigation of violence. Some would insist, however,
that one cannot have peace without justice. Whereas
some, following Thomas Hobbes, view peace as something
that must be imposed from the top, others claim
that it will result only from the grassroots mobilization
of common people demanding policy changes from the
elites. Some contend that it is something that one must
first find within oneself; for others, inner peace comes
from living within a peaceful culture. As Linda Groff
and Paul Smoker note, peace has many dimensions
and understandings of it vary over time and across cultures.
Differing perceptions of peace within the academy
reflect the participation of different groups involved in
its study. Whereas scholars in the military sciences
tend to see peace as primarily the absence of war, for
example, many Third World students of peace will emphasize
justice as a crucial component of peace; those
in religious and cultural studies, as well as many psychologists,
may include inner peace as a necessary condition
for peace. We have included a range of these
positions in this collection.
A second central theme that emerges in these volumes
is that conflict has always been part of the human
experience, but that the way in which it is carried out
varies substantially across time and space, in different
eras and cultures. Radical changes in our technologies
and strategies of conflict in the 20th century, moreover,
distinguish our conflicts from those of past eras. Because
they are more destructive in their scale and scope, some
age-old wisdom may become inappropriate, whereas
other elements of our shared ethical and cultural heritage
may be revived.
Conflict can be carried out in a variety of ways from
war and violence on one end of the spectrum to nonviolent
struggle on the other. In recent decades the means
of violent conflict have changed so radically as to transform
the very character of violence; dual revolutions
in weapons technology and military training have made
violence increasingly deadly in both interpersonal and
large-scale conflicts. Warfare has been relatively limited
until quite recently in scale and scope. Despite widespread
destruction bordering on genocide reported in
ancient scriptures, premodern combat was relatively
inefficient compared to contemporary warfare, and it
occurred infrequently. David Grossman observes that
a significant majority of soldiers in World War II combat
were reportedly not firing directly at the enemy. Modern
training thus incorporates operant conditioning to help
recruits to the military and police overcome what appears
to be a natural resistance to killing.

A growing body of evidence suggests that violent
television programs, movies, and interactive video
games are providing the sort of psychological conditioning
for violence previously reserved for the military and
police, whose behavior is usually bounded by strict
rules of discipline that are missing from the lay version
of the process. Consequently, although it is too early
to tell what the larger impact of video games might be
on various cultures, the evidence suggests strongly that
homicide rates and aggressive behavior-at least among
males-increase with the introduction of violent entertainment
media into a culture. What is less clear is the
nature of human nature with regard to propensities
to violence.
A final theme of this compilation is that our understanding
of peace and of nonviolent conflict has undergone
a revolution that (not accidentally) parallels the
transformation of violent conflict in the 20th century.
Whereas the change in combat is symbolized by the
atomic bomb, the revolution in nonviolence is symbolized
by Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King, Jr., and
the mobilization of nonviolent social movements. As
with warfare, the basic strategies and tactics of nonviolent
struggle have been used throughout human history
but were transformed in scale and scope in the 20th
century. People in many cultures have employed methods
of nonviolent direct action and conflict resolution
over the millennia, but their development and elaboration
in recent decades is unprecedented. Nonviolent
struggles are not always successful (nor are violent
ones) but they have been remarkably effective in country
after country, especially in toppling unpopular dictatorships
through mass mobilization and nonviolent tactics
of resistance from the people-power movements
that toppled U.S.-backed dictatorships in the Philippines
and Chile to the Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia
and the Solidarity movement in Poland that overthrew
Soviet-backed regimes.
Scholarly studies of both nonviolence and military
combat converge in a surprising possibility, something
perhaps never fully verifiable empirically but certainly
suggested by the evidence: that human beings-like
other species-have not only a capacity for aggression
but also a natural resistance to killing their own kind.
They may also inherit an inclination toward nonviolent
behaviors such as cooperation, affection, and so forth.
How else could one explain the remarkable successes
of nonviolent social movements in recent decades and
the resistance to killing in combat addressed by modern
military training? Human genetics seem to provide relatively
broad parameters for potential behavioral choices,
allowing for a strong influence by culture. The question
of the inherent aggressiveness or tendency toward violence
in human nature remains a key unanswered question
at the turn of the century, one that has profound
policy implications and poses complicated methodological
dilemmas for students of violence.

Nature versus Nurture

Are humans inherently violent and condemned to periodic
and increasingly destructive warfare? A review of
our knowledge may produce more questions than answers.
We do know that violent behavior is not universal
among animal species (see J. P. Scott’s article ‘‘Animal
Behavior Studies, Nonprimates’’). We also know
that humans exhibit a wide range of behaviors and
that their language and tool-making abilities set them
somewhat apart from other species in their use of violence
and the extent to which their lives are limited by
biological parameters. Certainly some individuals and
cultures engage in more violence than others; is that
because of biological or cultural differences, or is the
variation a result of some complex interaction between
the two? Most of the violence caused by humans is
carried out by the males of the species; is that a direct
result of genetic differences or does it come from gender
socialization that promotes the use of force by males
in solving problems while females are taught to create
less violent solutions?
Is war inevitable, given our biological makeup? This
question was addressed recently at a conference organized
by the Spanish office of the United Nations Educational,
Social, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
An interdisciplinary group of scientists participating
from around the world endorsed ‘‘The Seville Statement
of Violence’’ that calls into question much popular wisdom
about the inherently violent nature of humanity.
In their evaluation of the available scientific literature
on violence they concluded that it is scientifically incorrect
to say that:
• we have inherited a tendency to make war from
our animal ancestors;
• war or any other violent behavior is genetically programmed
into our human nature;
• in the course of human evolution there has been selection
for aggressive behavior more than for other
kinds of behavior;
• humans have a ‘‘violent brain’’;
• war is caused by ‘‘instinct’’ or any single motivation.
They conclude that ‘‘biology does not condemn humanity
to war, and that humanity can be freed from
the bondage of biological pessimism’’ that prevents it
from seeking peace. ‘‘The same species that invented
war,’’ they contend, ‘‘is capable of inventing peace.’’
Although the nature-nurture debate will probably
not be solved, at least in the near future, one interesting
development is recent attention-especially by
UNESCO-to cultures of peace in human social organization.
Cultures vary dramatically in the extent to which
they promote violent behavior; indeed, many societies
can be characterized as having cultures of peace. An
ongoing UNESCO project initiated in 1995 analyzes
the elements of peaceful cultures in hopes that they
might be incorporated elsewhere, such as in war-torn
societies attempting to rebuild their civil societies. A
pioneer in this field of peace culture, Elise Boulding,
outlines some of those characteristics in her article
‘‘Peace Culture,’’ noting that humans have a natural
tendency to respond to other humans. They are capable
of conducting their conflicts peacefully and developing
cultures that nurture cooperation, democratic decision
making, and nonviolent conflict. Comparative studies
of conflict resolution demonstrate that human cultures
can organize social life on a peaceful basis. In many
communities, children are socialized to conduct their
conflicts nonviolently, to cooperate with and respect
others, and to create social environments that are not
free of conflict but have relatively little coercion or violence.
If humans may not be genetically programmed for
violence and war, but are capable of developing cultures
of peace, why then is there so much carnage in human
life? Although the evidence is far from conclusive, and
there is clearly a biological component-especially in
extreme sociopathic cases-current studies of violence
seem to suggest that it is a consequence primarily of
the way in which we instruct our youth, construct our
values and beliefs about violence, and structure our
options for carrying out conflict. In short, levels of
violence probably have more to do with cultural values
and social institutions than with the biological parameters
within which we operate.

Violence, Culture, and Society

Many of the articles in this encyclopedia outline aspects
of the way in which societies are organized within what
Robert Elias calls a ‘‘culture of violent solutions.’’ The
underlying assumption in such a culture is that violence
must be used to solve serious problems, including the
problem of violence itself. Consequently, we often declare
war upon those who commit acts of violence,
using ‘‘legitimate’’ violence to put an end to their ‘‘illegitimate’’
use of force. A great deal of time, energy, and
money in modern societies and governments is invested
in a sort of war over impression management, a struggle
to gain the upper hand in how one’s use of violence is
defined so that ours is viewed as legitimate and necessary,
whereas our adversary’s is illegitimate and despicable.
This framing process often involves an effort to obtain
hegemony in public discourse about violence, as
states, social movements, and various interest groups
all struggle to have the situation defined in their favor.
The ruling ideas about violence in any given social
context are, of course, profoundly influenced by the
ideas of those who have the most power in that context.
In cultures that emphasize the use of violence in their
conflicts, the narratives used to differentiate between
legitimate and illegitimate violence usually reflect the
social structure: violence by the state and elites is considered
legitimate. The poor and marginalized are
scapegoated and blamed for the violence in their society
even if they actually perpetrate a small proportion
of it.

Even in societies where there is relatively free public
discourse, a limited range of options for defining violence
and its use are enforced, setting up boundaries
around what is considered viable. This aspect of framing
varies dramatically from culture to culture. In some
societies the use of violence is so soundly condemned
that it is seldom considered as a serious option for
conflict management. In other contexts, the failure to
use violence is condemned as weak and ineffective.
Control over the narrative process defining these norms
thus becomes crucial in determining whose violence is
accepted and whose is rejected, which modes of conflict
are considered useful and which ineffective. St. Augustine
understood this when he laid the groundwork
for Just War theory in the fourth century, just as did
Clausewitz when he founded modern military science
centuries later. The nature of those narratives and who
controls them has varied widely over time and across
cultures.
In most preagricultural and even preindustiral societies,
religious elites and institutions tend to control
the defining narratives. The legends and stories of oral
traditions and sacred scriptures provide the standards
by which particular acts of violence or modes of conflict
are evaluated. From the Hebrew Torah to the Bhagavad
Gita and the Qur’an, stories told around the campfire
by village storytellers and recited in places of worship,
people learn which styles of conflict are considered
ethical with regard to the use of force. The violence of
nature, as well as that of foreign peoples, is often explained
as an ‘‘act of God,’’ and remedies that can be
applied to problematic situations are provided in the
narratives.
In modern cultures, authoritative storytelling-like
many other social functions-is wrested from religious
institutions and given to the state in an effort to democratize
political authority. Giving the state authority does
offer some remedies to earlier abuses, but modern political
elites claim a monopoly of violence for the state
and use force so widely to back up their claims that
state violence has caused an unprecedented number of
deaths by war, genocide, and democide in the 20th
century, as Alan Grimshaw observes.
Now a new force is moving to center stage, the commercialization
of storytelling, so that the narratives that
have the most impact on popular culture are written by
professionals, told in the media of the age-television,
movies, and interactive video games, etc.-and sponsored
by multinational corporations.
These new myths and legends regarding the appropriate
use of force continue to reflect the interests of
those in power and have three major themes. First, we
find the age-old maxim that force is often necessary for
serious problem solving. This idea is presented repeatedly
in narrative form in the popular media and recounted
by people who discuss the latest television
shows and movies: a crime is committed and the police
track down the criminals and drag them off to jail. They
are brought to trial, convicted, and justice prevails.
In the international arena parallel narratives unfold as
criminal heads of state and marginal groups lacking
states are apprehended and brought to justice. Terrorists
operating on behalf of a dictator or religious fanatic
are hunted down and punished, and so on. We all
know the stories and their various reincarnations-how
security is threatened by criminals and then reestablished
by proper authorities using necessary force
within a framework of laws.
Embedded within these entertaining narratives are
lessons to be drawn about how people are to solve their
problems and to recognize the necessity for legitimate
authorities to use violence, thus raising the second
theme, i.e., that some violence is legitimate and other
force is not. As with the first theme, a social problem
emerges, a struggle ensues, and sooner or later the
problem is solved by force. Erich Fromm once observed
that when individuals behave like nations do, we put
them in an institution, either a prison or a mental hospital.
When states kill, maim, or appropriate property,
we hear stories about the honor of such acts. When the
same acts are committed by individuals or groups not
sanctioned by the state, or by enemy states, they are
condemned as horrific.
The difference between the two kinds of violence is
determined, of course, by the power of those who use
it. The mechanism by which the violence employed by
those in power is defined as legitimate is the cultural
process embedded in the narratives of the culture. The
monopoly of legitimacy still lies with the state even in
postmodern culture, but it is not taken for granted;
even well-established and popular regimes must now
hire professional storytellers to frame their use of violence
as legitimate and to counter the critics of their
war-fighting, crime-fighting policies.
These for-profit stories about the necessity of fighting
bad violence with good are not the only frame provided
by modern culture. The major alternative to the goodversus-
bad-violence frame is the innovative idea of the
industrial age that consumerism can be used to solve
problems as well, as told explicitly in advertisements
and more subtly in the story lines of other genres.
The paradigm here appears in fast food advertisements:
within a 60-second story an entire drama unfolds. A
problem disrupts the routine of social life but is quickly
and efficiently solved by having everyone buy fast food.
Everyone sits around smiling and eating; conflicts are
resolved and order is restored.
This example seems to have taken us far afield from
the initial problem of violence. It is, however, extremely
salient: the consumer alternative to brute force seems
less violent, certainly, than the use of guns, and many
claim that a peaceful future will result from world trade,
the free market, and the creation of an affluent lifestyle
for everyone. This vision, others argue, is only superficially
benign. Hidden behind the smiling consumer
faces, they claim, is a very elaborate story of structural
violence and destruction. The apparently positive
search for happiness through material consumption is
globally seductive, the critics argue. It promises more
than it delivers because the satisfaction it brings is elusive
and temporary, and the process creates a global
social system with the hidden violence of mass poverty
held in place by a system of overt violence in the form
of a military-industrial complex that protects the interests
of the rich and powerful. This sort of violence is
the object of more recent research, and we know little
about its mechansims because it is subtle, complex, and
global, and its investigation often marginalized or politicized.
A final set of narratives in the postmodern era is
also examined in this encyclopedia: those of nonviolent
resistance from Gandhi and the Indian Freedom Movement
to Martin Luther King, Jr. and the U.S. civil rights
movement, as well as the prodemocracy and other nonviolent
movements for social change that they inspired.
These stories challenge much conventional wisdom but
have their roots in ancient cultures and have taken their
place in the dominant culture of the late 20th century,
legitimating what Czech president Vaclav Havel calls
the power of the powerless. From this perspective, violence
accentuates and forces hierarchy and embellishes
inequality, whereas nonviolence facilitates equality and
empowers democratic movements.
We know much less about how to mobilize Gandhistyle
nonviolent struggles than we do about training
and employing military forces. After all, we have not
been doing it very long. The strategies and tactics of
nonviolent action have been examined historically and
explicitly only in the 20th century and are summarized
here by the most prominent student of modern nonviolent
action, Gene Sharp, as well as in Bryan Teixeira’s
broader discussion of nonviolence in theory and practice.
We know even less about how individuals, families,
and nations might be organized nonviolently, but that
too is a subject of analysis that will persist into the next
century. The future of nonviolence remains problematic,
of course, especially given the domain assumptions of
prevailing realpolitik theories of conflict and current
structures for militarizing international conflict, but
some remarkable changes have occurred in recent decades
that are explored in this encyclopedia. These volumes
attempt to bring into clearer focus the options before
us and the consequences of our collective choices,
as we evaluate these debates and study our policies.
Our hope is that this work will provide us with
a more comprehensive picture of our current state of
knowledge about violence, peace, and conflict. This collection
is broader in its coverage than any other currently
available resource, but we cannot claim to raise
all of the right questions, let alone provide the necessary
answers to them. It is not as comprehensive as one
might hope, however, and some caveats are in order.
First, despite our best efforts to broaden the authorship
of the encyclopedia, the majority of the contributors
are Western, notably North American. Although
this does in some sense reflect the current state of
scholarship (because of Western dominance and resources),
it does not necessarily reveal our best
knowledge.
Second, the very genre of the Encyclopedia-with
its nonadversarial standpoint and objective tone-may
ironically exclude some of our best insights into the
subject matter. Indeed, articles by two people, each
knowing more about violence and peace (in my opinion)
than some entire university faculties put together,
were not included because their articles were inappropriate
for the genre because they were too argumentative.
Another piece was edited substantially but in the
end was deemed too pejorative in tone. One prominent
Latin American scholar declined our invitation up front,
suggesting that if we wanted an objective article on the
topic we had asked the wrong person.
Finally, the publication of this sort of resource-
which we hope will be relevant for some time-can
give the misleading notion that knowledge about a topic
is fixed and definitive. On the contrary, the truth about
any topic-and especially our understanding of the
truth-changes dramatically over time so that it can
be misleading to interpret the contents of these volumes
in a reified manner. Although this work reviews our
current state of knowledge about violence, peace, and
conflict, it is a snapshot of a rapidly changing area of
inquiry into a constantly shifting set of phenomena.
Thank you for joining us in this ongoing investigation.
I would be happy to hear from you if you have
comments, criticisms, or information about ongoing
research or perspectives that are not adequately represented
here.
Lester R. Kurtz

Readings in Conflict

Compiled by Sally Schramm

BIERSCHENK, Thomas and OLIVIER DE SARDAN, Jean-Pierre.
“ECRIS: rapid collective inquiry for the identification of conflicts and strategic groups”.
Human Organisation 56: 238-244, 1997.
ECRIS is the acronym for Enquêt Collective Rapide d’Identification des Conflits et des Groups Stratégiques. This six-phase model attempts to identify common empirical indicators of conflict. Has been field tested in five African countries, specifically in local development projects. The authors conclude that conflict is one of the best ‘vital leads’ for penetrating a society and revealing norms and codes as well as structure.

FRY, Dougal P. and BJORKVIST, Kaj (eds.)
Cultural variation in conflict resolution: alternatives to violence.
Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996.
An interdisciplinary examination of how conflicts are perceived and handled in a variety of cultural settings. Emphasises cross-cultural patterns rather than cultural specificity in an attempt to enhance general conflict principles. Reiterates that alternatives to violence do exist.

GULLIVER, Philip H.
“Anthropological contributions to the study of negotiations”.
Negotiation Journal 4(3);247-255, 1988.
Anthropological case studies of small-scale local level groups, especially longitudinal studies of ongoing negotiations as part of social change, can aid in developing a methodology for the study of negotiations. The methodology can, through comparison and extrapolation, be appropriate to all levels of society. Proposes a negotiation model in a social-cultural context of eight partly overlapping phases of interaction leading towards an outcome.

HARRISON, Simon.
“Four types of symbolic conflict”.
Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 1(2): 255-272, 1995.
Examples of symbols conveying meaning in conflict are: valuation contests, proprietary contests, innovation, expansionary symbols. Defines these as: value, worth, rank; proprietary rights not to be copied; ‘invention of traditions’ with their associated symbols; group attempts to displace competition symbols with symbols of identity of their own.

JABRI, Vivienne.
“Agency, structure and the question of power in conflict resolution”.
Paradigms: the Kent Journal of International Relations 9(2) posted at https://snipe.ukc.ac.uk/international/padigms.dir/jabri.hmtl, 1995.
Conflict resolution can be seen as a social phenomenon, incorporating within its conceptual framework discursive practices as well as the patterned social institutions and norms which frame human agency and action. Argues that power is a central component of all social systems and actions and can, by enabling or constraining, reproduce or transform social relations through conflict resolution.

KROHN-HANSEN, Christian.
“The anthropology and ethnography of political violence”.
Journal of Peace Research 34(2): 233-240, 1997.
Review of three books examining political violence as being not an aberration, but rather part of the conflict of norms and manipulation of rules ordering social, cultural and political processes in a wide variety of settings. Concludes that with the emphasis of anthropology on ritual and cosmology in social conflict, the study of political violence is entirely appropriate to the discipline.

KURTZ, Lester (ed.)
Encyclopedia of violence, peace and conflict. [1999]. 3 v. Academic Press. [Forthcoming. For information: https://www.apnet.com/violence].
An interdisciplinary study of the manifestations of violence in all segments of society. While in-depth studies of war, peace and aggression exist, the specialised knowledge often required to access them keep scholars from learning about related fields. Proposed anthropological studies include aggression and altruism; clan and tribal conflict; kinship; ritual and symbolic behaviour; warriors; peaceful societies; folklore.

NAGENGAST, Carole.
“Violence, terror and the crisis of the state”.
Annual Review of Anthropology 23: 109-136, 1994.
Until relatively recently, few anthropologists examined violence and conflict between groups and states, especially violence rooted in ethnicity, nationalism, bids for autonomy and self-determination and political demands for fundamental change. Lists several authors within an emerging trend in anthropology rethinking violence and social theory at the level of the state.

NORDSTROM, Carolyn and MARTIN, Joann.
The paths to terror: domination, resistance and communal violence.
Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
These essays examine violence and the perpetuation of violence as part of the complex interplay of factors in everyday life, whether among local, national or international actors. The essays are organised along a continuum from domination, through the emergence of resistance, to the development of cultures of conflict and terror underlining the value of understanding the growth and resolution of violence as cultural dynamics.

SCHRONK-SCHENK, Carolyn (ed.).
“The transforming power of ritual and symbol”.
Conciliation Quarterly 17 (3), 1998.
Rituals and symbols give meaning, structure and continuity to every area of our lives. Two authors deal specifically with conflict transformation. The remaining authors describe specific rituals and their associated meaning within their own contexts and experiences of conflict. Includes reviews of three books on ritual, power and social change.

SPRADLEY, James P. and McCURDY, David W.
Conformity and conflict: readings in cultural anthropology.
9th ed. New York: Longman, 1997.
Topics include the Militia Movement, crack dealers, gangs and environmental destruction amongst the 36 articles illustrating the worth of anthropology as an incisive tool in the study of human behaviour and events. Designed to complement standard anthropology texts. Accompanied by an instructor’s manual.

THORNTON, Robert.
“The human process”.
South African Outlook 121(8): 120,123-125, 1991.
Explains violence from various perspectives, arguing that time is the crucial fact of violence, which is not a static fact but a process in the context of daily life. Examines the relationship power has to other kinds of human relationships. Anthropologists study ‘the nature of violence in the activity of being human’ and the meaning it has for those people experiencing violence within a temporal social and political narrative.

Leave a Comment