Encyclopedia of Cybercrime

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Encyclopedia of Cybercrime

List of Entries and Authors

  • ACADEMIC MISCONDUCT : authored by Marianne Buehler
  • ONLINE ADDICTION : authored by Kelly Socia and Kevin J. McCarthy
  • ADULT ENTERTAINMENT AND PORNOGRAPHY : authored by Michael J. Kozak
  • ARPANET : authored by Eric Walter
  • ATTACK VECTORS : authored by Paul Lepkowski
  • BANKING ONLINE : authored by Daniel Cator
  • BOTNETS, ZOMBIES, AND REMOTE CONTROL ATTACKS : authored by James Lippard
  • CAREERS IN INVESTIGATING AND PREVENTING CYBERCRIME : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • CERTIFICATIONS : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III and Neel Sampat
  • CERTIFIED INFORMATION SYSTEMS SECURITY PROFESSIONAL STANDARD : authored by Neel Sampat
  • CHILD PORNOGRAPHY : authored by Michael J. Kozak
  • COMPUTER CRIME AND INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY SECTION : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • COMPUTER EMERGENCY RESPONSE TEAM : authored by Jim Moore
  • COMPUTER FORENSICS : authored by Joseph F. Hennekey
  • COMPUTERIZATION : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III and Neel Sampat
  • COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT : authored by Marianne Buehler
  • CORPORATE ESPIONAGE : authored by Joseph F. Hennekey
  • COUNCIL OF EUROPE CONVENTION ON CYBERCRIME : authored by Thomas Schiller
  • CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • CRYPTOGRAPHY AND ENCRYPTION : authored by Gary Scarborough
  • Types of Cyber Crimes: CYBER BULLYING, THREATS, HARASSMENT, AND STALKING : authored by James P. Colt
  • CYBERCRIME : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • CYBERCRIME ATTACKS : authored by Michael J. Kozak
  • CYBERCRIMINALS : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • FAMOUS CYBERCRIMINALS : authored by Gary Scarborough
  • INTERNET CULTURE : authored by Neel Sampat
  • CYBER SAFETY AND ETHICS INITIATIVES : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • CYBERSPACE : authored by Andrew Perry
  • CYBERSQUATTING : authored by Shaun M. Jamison
  • CYBERTERRORISM : authored by Sara E. Berg
  • CYBER WHIMSY : authored by Kevin J. McCarthy
  • DEDICATED CYBERCRIME INVESTIGATION AND PROSECUTION UNITS : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACKS : authored by Paul Lepkowski
  • DIGITAL YOUTH CULTURE AND SOCIAL NETWORKING : authored by Neel Sampat and Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • ELECTION AND VOTING FRAUD : authored by Eric Walter
  • ELECTRONIC FRONTIER FOUNDATION : authored by Eric Walter
  • ETHICAL USE OF COMPUTERS : authored by Andrew Perry
  • FRAUDULENT SCHEMES AND THEFT ONLINE : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • GAMING ONLINE : authored by Andrew Perry
  • GOVERNMENT INTELLIGENCE GATHERING : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III and Eric Walter
  • HACKING AND THE HACKER SUBCULTURE : authored by Nathan Fisk
  • IDENTITY THEFT : authored by Sara E. Berg
  • INFORMATION ASSURANCE : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • INFORMATION SYSTEMS SECURITY ASSOCIATION : authored by Allen Scalise
  • INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • INTERNATIONAL CYBERCRIME LAWS AND AGREEMENTS : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III and Thomas Schiller
  • INTERNET : authored by Paul R. Soto
  • INTERPOL : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • CHILDREN ONLINE Legislation : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III and Kevin J. McCarthy
  • ILLEGAL USES OF COMPUTERS AND IT DEVICES Legislation : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • INFORMATION SECURITY REQUIREMENTS Legislation : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • PRIVACY PROTECTIONS Legislation : authored by Kevin J. McCarthy and Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • LAWS THAT FACILITATE OR LIMIT CYBERCRIME INVESTIGATIONS : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • LEETSPEAK : authored by Neel Sampat
  • MALWARE : authored by Dave Pecora
  • MALWARE INCIDENTS : authored by Nathan Fisk
  • MEETING AND FALLING IN LOVE ONLINE-BE CAREFUL! : authored by Samuel C. McQuade III and Neel Sampat
  • MGM ET AL. v. Grokster Ltd. et al. : authored by Shaun M. Jamison
  • NAPSTER : authored by Neel Sampat
  • NATIONAL CENTER FOR MISSING AND EXPLOITED CHILDREN : authored by Neel Sampat and Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • NATIONAL WHITE COLLAR CRIME CENTER : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • NETWORK CENTRIC WARFARE : authored by Joseph F. Hennekey
  • ORGANIZED CYBERCRIME : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III and Michael J. Kozak
  • PHISHING : authored by Ben Woelk
  • PHREAKING : authored by Nathan Fisk
  • PIRACY : authored by Neel Sampat
  • PREVENTING CYBERCRIME : authored by Ben Woelk
  • PREVENTION EDUCATION : authored by Benjamin Wachs and Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • PRIVACY : authored by James P. Colt
  • REGULATORY AGENCIES WITH CYBERCRIME OVERSIGHT RESPONSIBILITIES : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • RESEARCH ON CYBERCRIME : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL MISCONDUCT : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • SECURITY MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES : authored by Rob Paisley
  • SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF CYBERCRIME : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • SOCIAL ENGINEERING : authored by Eric Walter
  • SPAM : authored by Kelly Socia
  • TECHNOLOGIES COMMONLY USED FOR CYBERCRIME : authored by Jim Moore
  • THEORIES OF CYBERCRIME : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • THEORY OF TECHNOLOGY-ENABLED CRIME, POLICING, AND SECURITY : authored by Samuel C. McQuade, III
  • UNITED STATES V. LAMACCHIA : authored by Jim Moore
  • VICTIMIZATION : authored by Sara E. Berg
  • WARDRIVING AND WARDIALING : authored by Paul Lepkowski
  • WAREZ GROUPS : authored by Nathan Fisk

Preface

There are today no more compelling sets of crime and security threats facing nations, communities, organizations, groups, families, and individuals than those encompassed by cybercrime. For over 50 years crime enabled by computing and telecommunications technologies has increasingly threatened societies as they have become reliant on information systems for sustaining modernized living. Cybercrime is not a new phenomenon, but rather an evolving one with respect to adoption of information technology (IT) for abusive and criminal purposes. Further, by virtue of the myriad ways in which IT is abused, it represents a technological shift in the nature of crime rather than a new form of criminal behavior. In other words, the nature of crime and its impacts on society are changing to the extent the Internet and other information systems, along with computers and other types of ITsuch as multipurpose cellular phones and PDAs, are used for illicit purposes. Understanding and preventing cybercrime in its many forms requires basic knowledge about ways in which traditional crimes are becoming increasingly high tech and complex. Fortunately, the Encyclopedia of Cybercrime provides nontechnical explanations about the most important cybercrime-related issues by using simple terms in straightforward ways. A person does not need any prior education in computer science, software engineering, or network administration to understand, enjoy, and use this reference work.

Indeed, the Encyclopedia has been speci?cally written with the information needs and interests of high school and undergraduate college students in mind. However, the book is written as an authoritative source of information inclusive of discussions about all major types of cybercrime offending victimization sure to be of interest to parents, teachers, security professionals, managers of organizations, and public policy of?cials. This work is the ?rst comprehensive encyclopedia to address cybercrime. Topical articles address all key areas of concern and speci?cally those having to do with terminology, de?nitions, and social constructs of crime; national infrastructure security vulnerabilities and capabilities; types of attacks to computers and information systems; computer abusers and cybercriminals; criminological, sociological, psychological, technological, and theoretical underpinnings of cybercrime; social and economic impacts of crime enabled with information technology inclusive of harms experienced by victims of cybercrimes and computer abuse; emerging and controversial issues such as online pornography, social networking, the computer hacking subculture, and potential negative effects of electronic gaming and so-called ‘‘computer addiction’’; bodies and speci?c examples of U.S. federal laws and regulations that help to prevent cybercrimes; examples and perspectives of law enforcement, regulatory and professional member associations concerned about cybercrime and its impacts; and computer forensics as well as general investigation/prosecution of high tech crimes and attendant challenges within the United States and throughout the world.

Boldface terms within entries are used for cross-referencing purposes. Many entries include examples of real cybercrime cases, including some that re?ect recent court rulings on major and controversial issues. Over 80 topical articles have been written by authors with many years of professional experience gained through graduate school research and employment while working in the public and private sectors. Their combined experience includes decades of managing all aspects of information systems design and security while employed for prominent corporations and government agencies. As a group they hold advanced degrees and many of the most recognized technical professional certi?cations currently available from leading credentialing institutions. As professionals they currently provide a full range of services pertaining to the understanding, prevention, and deterrence of information security threats and cybercrime. They exemplify real-world career paths and opportunities in constantly expanding and challenging areas of cybercrime.

Introduction by the Publisher

Abuse and misuse of computer systems has existed nearly since mainframe computers were ?rst invented during the 1940s and 1950s as a means to improve military munitions and then rocket guidance systems. As computers became more necessary for research and communications within academic institutions, military organizations, and ?nancial institutions, pranks and pranksters inevitably came onto the scene. Originally these pranksters were mainly university students who possessed tremendous curiosity about computers and the ways in which they could be used to solve problems. Eventually, during the 1960s, with the invention of ARPANETand then the Internet, and as computers located in colleges and universities throughout the United States interconnected with those located in government agencies and businesses, pranks and the abusive use of computers and computer networks became more common and harmful. By the mid-1970s researchers began studying ‘‘computer abuse’’ because in those days harmful activities committed with computers were not prohibited by computer crime laws. By the 1980s all this began to change. With more and more computers interconnected via the Internet, more abuses of computer systems drove state governments and the federal government to begin passing computer crime laws. Initially these laws focused on the growing phenomenon of computer hacking, but were soon expanded into other types of criminal behaviors. In effect, computerization made possible by inventions and innovations in computing and telecommunications technologies also made possible, if not inevitable, the concept of ‘‘computer crime.’’ This concept, however, became outdated as computer technologies became smaller, more powerful, more affordable, and capable of performing many tasks including uploading and downloading data ?les on the Internet. With the emergence of the World Wide Web in 1993, along with a myriad of software applications, online content, and the beginning of high-speed/broadband Internet connections, computer crime evolved into computer-related crime and then what we know today as cybercrime. Today computer networks are more accurately referred to as information systems. The largest information system in the world is the Internet, although there are many regions and parts to this giant network. Organizations often create and manage their own information systems and connect these to other systems and the Internet. Cybercrimes include illicit uses of information systems, computers, or other types of
information technology (IT) devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs) and cell phones. There are many forms of cybercrime that go well beyond hacking into computer systems, although that remains a problem. Modern societies must also confront identity theft, online fraud, phishing, spamming, malware, and many types of attacks launched against information systems such as denial of service attacks and those involving bot nets. All these and more forms of cybercrime are explained in the articles that follow, along with what organizations and individuals must do to protect their data and IT devices. As you read the Encyclopedia of Cybercrime, remember that cybercrime now threatens more than a billion users of computers and the Internet; it is a worldwide problem that is becoming more technologically complex and dif?cult to manage with each passing day; and it is costing consumers billions of dollars each year and is not going away anytime soon. If you wish to remain safe online, you must educate yourself about cybercrime and ways to prevent it. Finally, you must also chose to use information systems, computers, and other types of IT devices responsibly. Doing so is your duty as a citizen of our increasingly interconnected world. This encyclopedia can help. Enjoy these entries and use this reference work to your advantage.

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